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  • Most people do not know how to respond to an emergency whether it is medical or traumatic in nature.

Transcript

  • 1. FIRST AID AND CPR Presenter: John W. McBryde, NREMT-P Director EMT Training East Mississippi Community College
  • 2. What do you do when faced with a Medical or Traumatic Emergency?
  • 3. How would you respond to a Medical or Traumatic Emergency? I’ve fallen and can’t get up!
  • 4. Would you Respond Like this?
  • 5. Do you become hysterical ?
  • 6. OR, Do You Remain Calm During Emergencies?
  • 7. This Presentation is to help you remain in Control during an Emergency!
  • 8. BLEEDING
    • How would you stop bleeding?
  • 9. BLEEDING
    • DIRECT PRESSURE
  • 10. BLEEDING
    • After Direct Pressure for an extremity ---
    • ELEVATE
  • 11. SHOCK
    • WHAT IS SHOCK?
    • Occurs when the circulation of blood in the body becomes inadequate, and the oxygen and nutrient needs of the cells cannot be met.
  • 12. How do You Head Off Shock?
    • Head Down
    • Feet Up (approximately 12”
    • Cover the Victim to keep warm
    • Do not give anything by mouth
    • Call for Help
  • 13. PASSING OUT
    • How would you take care of someone who passes out?
  • 14. Passing out(Syncope)
    • What causes these spells?
    • Several reasons:
    • 1. Emotional
    • 2. Organic
    • The Vessels of the Circulatory system for some reason dilate causing blood to pool which robs brain of oxygenated blood
  • 15. PASSING OUT
    • Attempt to wake them using “shake and shout”
    • Check Radial Pulse. (Where is the Radial Pulse?)
    • Give them a little time to respond
    • Once they come to, sit them up. Make sure they can sit up without head spinning.
    • Give them time to recover
  • 16. SEIZURES
    • WHAT CAUSES THIS TO OCCUR?
    • Simply put-- a short circuit in the nervous system
  • 17. SEIZURES
    • How are seizures treated?
    • Make sure individual is not where they can hurt themselves
    • Move all items away from person to keep them from hurting themselves
    • Allow them to go through the seizure
    • DO NOT PUT ANYTHING INTO THEIR MOUTH!
  • 18. SEIZURES
    • VICTIMS WILL NOT SWALLOW THEIR TONGUE
    • IF THEY BITE THEIR TONGUE OR MOUTH , IT WILL HEAL!
  • 19. SEIZURES
    • If a person has a seizure and continues to have one seizure after another then this is an emergency requiring an Ambulance!
    • If they go through seizure and quit, they will be lethargic for a while and maybe even sleep-allow them to do this.
    • Afterwards they will be all right but need to go see their Physician
  • 20. FALLS
    • If person falls from an object twice their height there will be chance they will GET hurt
    • Keep them still. Only move them if they are in imminent danger; otherwise do not move them.
    • Keep the head and neck perfectly still. Do not allow them to move head.
    • Call Ambulance
  • 21. MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION ( Heart Attack )
    • What is a Heart Attack or MI?
    • How does it present?
    • What can we do?
  • 22. What is A Heart Attack (MI)?
  • 23. Heart Attack Description
    • Occurs when a blood-clot prevents blood flow to an area of the heart muscle. If left untreated, death of heart tissue can result
  • 24. How Does It Present? Page 1 of 2
    • Sudden onset of weakness, nausea and sweating without an obvious cause
    • Chest pain, discomfort, or pressure that is often crushing or squeezing and does not change with each breath
    • Pain, discomfort, or pressure in the lower jaw, arms, back, abdomen or neck
  • 25. How Does It Present? Page 2 of 2
    • Irregular heartbeat and syncope (fainting)
    • Shortness of breath, or dyspnea
    • Pink, frothy sputum (indicating possible pulmonary edema—fluid in lungs)
    • Sudden Death!
  • 26. What Can We Do?
    • Call for Ambulance!
    • Loosen clothing around neck
    • If Victim takes Nitro Tablet assist with taking a Nitro
    • If Aspirin is available assist them with 324mg Aspirin
    • Give them plenty of air (move people back)
    • Offer Assurance
    • Allow them to assume position of comfort
    • Remain Calm
    • Be Prepared to Do CPR (AED close by)
  • 27. Asthma
  • 28. ASTHMA
    • An acute spasm of the smaller air passages called bronchioles, associated with excessive mucus production and swelling of the mucus lining of the respiratory passage
    • Usually will wheeze on exhalation
    • .
  • 29. Asthma Attack
    • An acute asthma attack could be caused by a reaction to allergens such as pollen, mold, foods, food additives and dog and cat dander, environmental irritants such as cigarette smoke, perfumes, paint fumes, dust and aerosol sprays, extreme weather factors, exercise, emotional stress and respiratory and sinus infections.
  • 30. Asthma Attack Treatment
    • Most patients familiar with symptoms
    • Know when attack is imminent
    • Usually they will have appropriate medication usually in a Metered Dose Inhaler.
    • Assist individual with administration of med
    • If it does not alleviate problem call Ambulance
  • 31. Hyperventilation Syndrome (Anxiety)
  • 32. Hyperventilation Syndrome
    • Have patient sit down
    • Encourage them to take slow deep breaths.
    • Inhale through their nose
    • Exhale through their mouth
    • Make sure they do this slowly
    • Move everyone out of way that can further excite patient.
    • Make sure they can get plenty of air
  • 33. CARDIAC ARREST
    • If unsure whether patient has a pulse, use first two fingers place on neck and feel for pulse.
    • If no pulse found begin compressions to chest.
    • Do two (2) minutes of compression then check pulse. If no pulse continue Compressions until Ambulance arrives
    • If AED available place pads on patient
  • 34. AED
    • Use pictures on pads as guide on where to place pads
    • Turn on machine
    • Without touching patient push analyze button
    • Machine will advise whether to shock or do CPR
    • If shock advised, do not touch patient—push shock button. Follow prompt of AED
  • 35. AED
  • 36. AED
    • Alternate CPR with Shocks following the monitor’s direction until Paramedics arrive on scene to take over.
  • 37. Diabetic Emergency
    • Two types of Diabetic Emergencies
    • Hyperglycemia (High sugar)*
    • Hypoglycemia (Low sugar)*
    • *amount of sugar in the blood
  • 38. Diabetic Emergency
    • Hypoglycemia—one emergency we will see more of and can do something for the person under certain circumstances. We will focus on:
    • How they present?
    • How do we treat them?
  • 39. How They Present?
    • Do they appear anxious, restless or listless?
    • Is the person apathetic or irritable?
    • Are they unresponsive?
    • Do they have moist and pale skin?
    • Do they have a weak, rapid pulse?
    • Do they have history of Diabetes? If so, consider giving sugar.
  • 40. How do we Treat Diabetic-low sugar?
    • Need sugar immediately
    • Give candy or soft drink loaded in sugar.
    • May give Apple or Orange juice loaded with sugar
    • Set person up so they will not choke
    • Give the above items only if person is conscious and can swallow.
    • Call Ambulance
  • 41. QUESTIONS?
  • 42. THE END