Vocab and Main Ideas for Chapter 1


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Vocab and Main Ideas for Chapter 1

  1. 1. Vocabulary from chapter 1<br />World History<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br />Historian – people who study and write about humans of the past<br />Archaeologists – people who hunt for evidence such as artifacts and fossils buried in the ground<br />Artifacts – weapons, tools, and other things made by humans<br />
  3. 3. Vocabulary<br />Fossils – traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock<br />Anthropologists – people who study how humans developed and related to each other<br />Nomads – people who wandered from place to place to hunt and search for food<br />Technology – tools and methods to help humans perform tasks<br />
  4. 4. Vocabulary<br />Domesticate – tame animals<br />Specialization – the development of different kinds of jobs<br />Civilization – complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system<br />Irrigation – watering crops<br />
  5. 5. Vocabulary<br />City-state – cities that were also nations<br />Artisans – skilled workers<br />Cuneiform – writing system developed by the Sumerians<br />Scribes – people who learned to write<br />Empire – group of many different lands under one ruler<br />
  6. 6. Vocabulary<br />Province – political districts<br />Caravan – a group of people traveling together<br />Astronomer – people who study the heavenly bodies<br />
  7. 7. Main Ideas<br />Paleolithic – “Old Stone” Age<br />Neolithic – “New Stone” Age<br />Paleolithic people were hunters and gathers<br />Neolithic people developed farming<br />Ice Ages were long periods of extreme cold in which thick sheets of ice covered the northern parts of Europe, North America, and Asia.<br />
  8. 8. Main Ideas<br />Two of the oldest villages from the Neolithic Age were Jericho and ÇatalHüyük.<br />Extra food meant more people which led to villages.<br />Neolithic people began working with metal, tin, copper, and bronze.<br />Bronze is a combination of tin and copper.<br />
  9. 9. Main Ideas<br />Rivers were important because of a ready food supply, water for irrigation, and trade and travel.<br />Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.<br />Sumerian cities were city-states.<br />These city-states had ziggurats, large temples.<br />
  10. 10. Main Ideas<br />Sumerians had three classes:<br />High Class – kings, priests, and government officials<br />Middle Class – artisans, merchants, fishers, farmers<br />Low Class – slaves<br />Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization.<br />
  11. 11. Main Ideas<br />Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest known written story (written in cuneiform).<br />Sumerians invented the wagon wheel, the plow, the sailboat, geometry, and the 12-month calendar.<br />Sargon was king of the Akkadians and he conquered Mesopotamia.<br />
  12. 12. Main Ideas<br />After Sargon came the Babylonian king Hammurabi.<br />Hammurabi developed a code (Code of Hammurabi) that gave laws concerning farming, crime, family and marriage, and business activities.<br />The code had cruel punishments but was important in the creation of a justice system.<br />
  13. 13. Main Ideas<br />Assyrians came about 1000 years after Hammurabi.<br />The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons.<br />Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire.<br />The Chaldeans, who were descendents of the Babylonians, came to power next.<br />
  14. 14. Main Ideas<br />The Chaldean king was Nebuchadnezzar.<br />He rebuilt Babylon as the center of the Chaldean empire.<br />Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife (a Mede).<br />Babylon was a rich city because it was on a major trade route and had sites such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate.<br />