Vocabulary Historian – people who study and write about humans of the past Archaeologists – people who hunt for evidence such as artifacts and fossils buried in the ground Artifacts – weapons, tools, and other things made by humans
Vocabulary Fossils – traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock Anthropologists – people who study how humans developed and related to each other Nomads – people who wandered from place to place to hunt and search for food Technology – tools and methods to help humans perform tasks
Vocabulary Domesticate – tame animals Specialization – the development of different kinds of jobs Civilization – complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system Irrigation – watering crops
Vocabulary City-state – cities that were also nations Artisans – skilled workers Cuneiform – writing system developed by the Sumerians Scribes – people who learned to write Empire – group of many different lands under one ruler
Vocabulary Province – political districts Caravan – a group of people traveling together Astronomer – people who study the heavenly bodies
Main Ideas Paleolithic – “Old Stone” Age Neolithic – “New Stone” Age Paleolithic people were hunters and gathers Neolithic people developed farming Ice Ages were long periods of extreme cold in which thick sheets of ice covered the northern parts of Europe, North America, and Asia.
Main Ideas Two of the oldest villages from the Neolithic Age were Jericho and ÇatalHüyük. Extra food meant more people which led to villages. Neolithic people began working with metal, tin, copper, and bronze. Bronze is a combination of tin and copper.
Main Ideas Rivers were important because of a ready food supply, water for irrigation, and trade and travel. Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian cities were city-states. These city-states had ziggurats, large temples.
Main Ideas Sumerians had three classes: High Class – kings, priests, and government officials Middle Class – artisans, merchants, fishers, farmers Low Class – slaves Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization.
Main Ideas Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest known written story (written in cuneiform). Sumerians invented the wagon wheel, the plow, the sailboat, geometry, and the 12-month calendar. Sargon was king of the Akkadians and he conquered Mesopotamia.
Main Ideas After Sargon came the Babylonian king Hammurabi. Hammurabi developed a code (Code of Hammurabi) that gave laws concerning farming, crime, family and marriage, and business activities. The code had cruel punishments but was important in the creation of a justice system.
Main Ideas Assyrians came about 1000 years after Hammurabi. The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons. Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire. The Chaldeans, who were descendents of the Babylonians, came to power next.
Main Ideas The Chaldean king was Nebuchadnezzar. He rebuilt Babylon as the center of the Chaldean empire. Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife (a Mede). Babylon was a rich city because it was on a major trade route and had sites such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate.