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Vocab and Main Ideas for Chapter 1
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Vocab and Main Ideas for Chapter 1


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  • 1. Vocabulary from chapter 1
    World History
  • 2. Vocabulary
    Historian – people who study and write about humans of the past
    Archaeologists – people who hunt for evidence such as artifacts and fossils buried in the ground
    Artifacts – weapons, tools, and other things made by humans
  • 3. Vocabulary
    Fossils – traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock
    Anthropologists – people who study how humans developed and related to each other
    Nomads – people who wandered from place to place to hunt and search for food
    Technology – tools and methods to help humans perform tasks
  • 4. Vocabulary
    Domesticate – tame animals
    Specialization – the development of different kinds of jobs
    Civilization – complex societies with cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system
    Irrigation – watering crops
  • 5. Vocabulary
    City-state – cities that were also nations
    Artisans – skilled workers
    Cuneiform – writing system developed by the Sumerians
    Scribes – people who learned to write
    Empire – group of many different lands under one ruler
  • 6. Vocabulary
    Province – political districts
    Caravan – a group of people traveling together
    Astronomer – people who study the heavenly bodies
  • 7. Main Ideas
    Paleolithic – “Old Stone” Age
    Neolithic – “New Stone” Age
    Paleolithic people were hunters and gathers
    Neolithic people developed farming
    Ice Ages were long periods of extreme cold in which thick sheets of ice covered the northern parts of Europe, North America, and Asia.
  • 8. Main Ideas
    Two of the oldest villages from the Neolithic Age were Jericho and ÇatalHüyük.
    Extra food meant more people which led to villages.
    Neolithic people began working with metal, tin, copper, and bronze.
    Bronze is a combination of tin and copper.
  • 9. Main Ideas
    Rivers were important because of a ready food supply, water for irrigation, and trade and travel.
    Mesopotamia is a flat plain bounded by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
    Sumerian cities were city-states.
    These city-states had ziggurats, large temples.
  • 10. Main Ideas
    Sumerians had three classes:
    High Class – kings, priests, and government officials
    Middle Class – artisans, merchants, fishers, farmers
    Low Class – slaves
    Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization.
  • 11. Main Ideas
    Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest known written story (written in cuneiform).
    Sumerians invented the wagon wheel, the plow, the sailboat, geometry, and the 12-month calendar.
    Sargon was king of the Akkadians and he conquered Mesopotamia.
  • 12. Main Ideas
    After Sargon came the Babylonian king Hammurabi.
    Hammurabi developed a code (Code of Hammurabi) that gave laws concerning farming, crime, family and marriage, and business activities.
    The code had cruel punishments but was important in the creation of a justice system.
  • 13. Main Ideas
    Assyrians came about 1000 years after Hammurabi.
    The Assyrian army was the first large army to use iron weapons.
    Nineveh was the capital of the Assyrian empire.
    The Chaldeans, who were descendents of the Babylonians, came to power next.
  • 14. Main Ideas
    The Chaldean king was Nebuchadnezzar.
    He rebuilt Babylon as the center of the Chaldean empire.
    Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife (a Mede).
    Babylon was a rich city because it was on a major trade route and had sites such as the Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate.