Jat ea chapter 09


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Jat ea chapter 09

  1. 2. Roman Civilization
  2. 3. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Virgil (VUHR·juhl) </li></ul><ul><li>Horace (HAWR·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Galen (GAY·luhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Ptolemy (TAH·luh·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>Spartacus (SPAHR·tuh·kuhs) </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  3. 4. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>vault (VAWLT) </li></ul><ul><li>satire (SA· TYR ) </li></ul><ul><li>ode (OHD) </li></ul><ul><li>anatomy (uh·NA·tuh·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>forum (FOHR·uhm) </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator (GLA·dee· AY ·tuhr) </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias ( PA ·tuhr·fuh·MIH·lee·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>rhetoric (REH·tuh·rihk) </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  4. 5. Roman Culture <ul><li>The Romans admired the Greeks and copied some of their ideas, though they often changed what they borrowed . </li></ul><ul><li>Roman statues and art portrayed people with flaws, whereas Greek art and statues portrayed ideal people. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) <ul><li>Romans incorporated Greek ideas in their architecture, such as columns and porches. </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  5. 6. <ul><li>They also used their own ideas, such as arches, domes, and vaults, which are curved ceilings . </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous buildings still stand today: the Colosseum, which is a large arena, and the Pantheon, which is a temple built in honor of Rome’s gods. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  6. 7. <ul><li>The Roman writer Virgil wrote the Aeneid , which tells the story of the Trojan prince Aeneas and his followers . </li></ul><ul><li>The poet Horace wrote satires , which are works that poke fun at human weaknesses, and odes , which express strong emotions about life. </li></ul><ul><li>The writers Ovid and Catullus were inspired by Greek writing and myths. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  7. 8. <ul><li>Livy, one of Rome’s most famous historians, wrote the History of Rome . </li></ul><ul><li>Many modern European languages spoken today are based on Latin, the language of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek doctor Galen brought Greek medical ideas to Rome. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  8. 9. <ul><li>Ptolemy was a famous scientist who studied and mapped the stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers created an advanced road system and aqueducts that provided water. </li></ul>(pages 303 – 305) Life in Ancient Rome Roman Culture (cont.)
  9. 10. Daily Life in Rome <ul><li>Rome was one of the largest cities in the ancient world . </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) <ul><li>The Forum was in the center of Rome and served as a marketplace and public square. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy Romans lived in large, fine homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer people lived in apartment buildings of stone and wood. </li></ul>Life in Ancient Rome
  10. 11. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Because of high rent, most people could not afford large homes . </li></ul><ul><li>The government provided free grain and sporting shows, such as chariot races and gladiator contests. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators were men who fought animals and each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman families were large, including young and married children, other relatives, and enslaved servants. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  11. 12. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>The paterfamilias was the man who headed the family . </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy children—boys and girls—received an education through hired tutors. </li></ul><ul><li>Some boys went to school. </li></ul><ul><li>A boy became a man between ages 14 and 16 years. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  12. 13. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Girls became adults when they married . </li></ul><ul><li>Women had few rights but were influential in the family. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  13. 14. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Wealthy women had more freedom than poor women . </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were not uncommon in the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves suffered many hardships and were treated poorly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes slaves revolted against the Romans. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  14. 15. Daily Life in Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Spartacus was a gladiator who led a slave revolt . </li></ul><ul><li>Romans worshipped many gods and goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Roman Empire grew, the Romans conquered people of other religions. </li></ul><ul><li>They were allowed to worship freely as long as they did not threaten the Roman government. </li></ul>(pages 306 – 310) Life in Ancient Rome
  15. 16. What were some of Ptolemy’s scientific achievements? He mapped more than 1,000 stars and studied the motions of the planets. Life in Ancient Rome
  16. 17. Life in Ancient Rome How were the Roman and Greek religions similar? The Romans adopted Greek gods and gave them Roman names.
  17. 18. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Diocletian ( DY ·uh·KLEE·shuhn) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Constantine (KAHN·stuhn· TEEN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Theodosius ( THEE ·uh·DOH·shuhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople ( KAHN·STAN ·tuhn·OH·puhl) </li></ul>Locating Places <ul><li>Alaric (A·luh·rihk) </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer (OH·duh· WAY ·suhr) </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  18. 19. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>plague (PLAYG) </li></ul><ul><li>inflation (ihn ·FLAY ·shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>barter (BAHR·tuhr) </li></ul><ul><li>reform (rih·FAWRM) </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  19. 20. The Decline of Rome <ul><li>After the Severans ended, Rome’s leadership grew weak, and the government grew corrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>With a weak government, the economy worsened. </li></ul><ul><li>After Aurelius’s death, Commodus and the Severans ruled Rome. </li></ul>(pages 318 – 320) <ul><li>A plague, or a disease that spreads widely, broke out and killed many people. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  20. 21. The Decline of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Invaders began pushing into the empire’s territory, and the Roman government could not pay Roman soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Diocletian tried to establish reforms that would improve the political situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation, or rapidly increasing prices, occurred because money became less valuable. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 318 – 320)
  21. 22. The Decline of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>He moved the capital city to Byzantium, and the city later became known as Constantinople. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Constantine tried to stop the empire’s decline. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 318 – 320)
  22. 23. Rome Falls <ul><li>Theodosius became emperor after Constantine’s death. </li></ul>(pages 322 – 324) <ul><li>Theodosius split the empire into two separate empires: the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Visigoths feared the Huns and asked Rome for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange, Rome required the Visigoths to be loyal to them. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  23. 24. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Visigoths rebelled against the Romans and beat the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople. </li></ul><ul><li>More Germanic groups invaded Roman territory. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  24. 25. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Visigoth leader Alaric and his soldiers captured the city of Rome and burned it. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  25. 26. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>The Vandals overpowered Rome’s territories in Spain and northern Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Then they entered Rome and destroyed buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Odoacer was a Germanic leader who took control of Rome’s government from the emperor Romulus Augustulus. </li></ul><ul><li>This event marked the end of the Western Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  26. 27. Rome Falls (cont.) <ul><li>A band of Visigoths killed Odoacer and set up a kingdom in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire continued to prosper after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>It became known as the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 322 – 324)
  27. 28. The Legacy of Rome <ul><li>The law and government of the United States today is influenced by the laws and government of the ancient Romans. </li></ul>(pages 325 – 326) <ul><li>The alphabet of the Latin language is used through the Western world today. </li></ul><ul><li>Many European languages stemmed from Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>Many English words come from Latin. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome
  28. 29. The Legacy of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>Western architecture uses styles of the Romans, such as domes and arches. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity began in the Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of Rome (pages 325 – 326)
  29. 30. What ideas in the U.S. legal system came from the Roman system? We believe that all people are created equal, that people are innocent until proven guilty, that judges should be fair, and that the best form of government is a republic made up of equal citizens. The Fall of Rome
  30. 31. Why did the Roman government use Germanic warriors in its army? The Romans used Germanic warriors to help defend its borders. The Fall of Rome
  31. 32. Persuasive Writing Imagine you are living in Rome around the time of the fall of the empire. Write an editorial for a newspaper identifying what you think is the main reason for the decline and fall of the empire, and what might have been done to prevent it. Answers will vary. The Fall of Rome
  32. 33. <ul><li>Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Aegean Sea (ih·JEE·uhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian (juh·STIH·nee·uhn) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Theodora ( THEE ·uh·DOHR·uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Belisarius ( BEH ·luh·SAR·ee·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Tribonian (truh·BOH·nee·uhn) </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
  33. 34. The Rise of the Byzantines <ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire was known as the Byzantine Empire . </li></ul><ul><li>It included Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs, and Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul>(pages 328 – 329) The Byzantine Empire
  34. 35. The Rise of the Byzantines (cont.) <ul><li>Constantinople was located between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, at the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and Asia . </li></ul><ul><li>People of early Constantinople initially followed Roman ways. </li></ul><ul><li>They spoke Latin and enforced Roman laws. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 328 – 329)
  35. 36. The Rise of the Byzantines (cont.) <ul><li>Eventually, the Byzantine Empire became more influenced by Greece . </li></ul><ul><li>People spoke Greek and drew upon Greek culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ideas from the Slavs, Egyptians, and Persians also mixed in with the Greek influences. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 328 – 329)
  36. 37. Emperor Justinian <ul><li>Empress Theodora, Justinian’s wife, helped her husband rule Byzantine. </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from A.D. 527 until A.D. 565 . </li></ul>(pages 329 – 330) <ul><li>She gave him advice and advocated more rights for Byzantine women. </li></ul><ul><li>Justinian tried to restore the Roman Empire by invading Western Europe and northern Africa. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire
  37. 38. Emperor Justinian (cont.) <ul><li>Tribonian was a legal scholar who worked with his colleagues to simplify the law code, so it could be more easily understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Belisarius was a general who helped lead the Byzantine army . </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 329 – 330)
  38. 39. Byzantine Civilization <ul><li>Constantinople was its largest and wealthiest city. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire lasted for about 1,000 years . </li></ul>(pages 332 – 334) The Byzantine Empire
  39. 40. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>It was the center of trade between Europe and Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire depended on trade . </li></ul>(pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>Silk weaving was a major industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine emperors supported artists and architects. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire
  40. 41. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Hagia Sophia was the religious center of the Byzantine Empire and was a great architectural accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics are pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>Marriage and family were very important in the Byzantine way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Most mosaics showed saints, or Christian holy people . </li></ul>
  41. 42. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Byzantine women obtained some rights. </li></ul><ul><li>They became educated, and some served as regents, or people who stand in for rulers who are too young or too ill to govern. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334) <ul><li>The Byzantine government supported education . </li></ul>
  42. 43. Byzantine Civilization (cont.) <ul><li>Boys studied academic subjects in Byzantine schools . </li></ul><ul><li>Girls did not attend school but were taught at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Most written literature was religious. </li></ul>The Byzantine Empire (pages 332 – 334)
  43. 44. The Byzantine Empire What is a mosaic, and where were mosaics found in the Byzantine Empire? A mosaic is a picture made of tiny pieces of colored glass or stone, usually found in churches and monasteries.
  44. 45. Explain Why were divorces difficult to get in the Byzantine Empire? Religion and the government stressed the importance of marriage. The Byzantine Empire
  45. 46. Persuasive Writing Which civilization do you think was the most advanced —that of the Greeks, the Romans, or the Byzantines? Write a speech explaining your answer. Answers will vary. The Byzantine Empire
  46. 47. __ 1. pictures made of many bits of colored glass or stone __ 2. rapidly increasing prices __ 3. father of a family __ 4. emotional poem about life’s ups and downs Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. ode </li></ul><ul><li>B. inflation </li></ul><ul><li>C. anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>plague </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator </li></ul><ul><li>regent </li></ul>Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. D B A Roman Civilization F
  47. 48. __ 5. a disease that spreads widely __ 6. a person who stands in for a ruler who cannot govern __ 7. a warrior who fought animals and people in public arenas __ 8. study of the body’s structure Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. ode </li></ul><ul><li>B. inflation </li></ul><ul><li>C. anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>plague </li></ul><ul><li>paterfamilias </li></ul><ul><li>gladiator </li></ul><ul><li>regent </li></ul>Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. E H G C Roman Civilization
  48. 49. Section 1 Life in Ancient Rome What did the Romans borrow from the Greeks? What did they develop on their own? Romans borrowed ideas in sculpture, architecture (porches, colonnades) and literature. They developed architecture (vault, dome, concrete), roads, aqueducts, and law and government. Roman Civilization Review Main Ideas
  49. 50. Section 2 The Fall of Rome What weakened the Roman Empire? Poor leadership, a declining economy, and attacks by Germanic tribes weakened the Roman Empire. Roman Civilization Review Main Ideas
  50. 51. What caused the fall of Rome in the A.D. 400s? Germanic invasions Roman Civilization Section 2 The Fall of Rome Review Main Ideas
  51. 52. What different groups of people contributed to the Byzantine culture? Greeks, Egyptians, Slavs, Persians, and others Roman Civilization Section 3 The Byzantine Empire Review Main Ideas
  52. 53. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  53. 54. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  54. 57. c. A.D. 280 – 337 Constantine The Great
  55. 58. Ptolemy was limited to what he could see with his own eyes. When observed from the earth, the other planets and stars seem to rotate around. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–1 Chapter 9
  56. 59. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–2 Chapter 9
  57. 60. Answers will vary, but should reflect that the Muslim Turks wanted to hide Christian symbols. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9–3 Chapter 9