Jat ea chapter 08


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Jat ea chapter 08

  1. 2. The Rise of Rome
  2. 3. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Sicily (SIH·suh·lee) </li></ul><ul><li>Apennines (A·puh· NYNZ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Latium (LAY·shee·uhm) </li></ul><ul><li>Tiber River (TY·buhr) </li></ul><ul><li>Etruria (ih·TRUR·ee·uh) </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings
  3. 4. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Romulus (RAHM·yuh·luhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Remus (REE·muhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Aeneas (ih·NEE·uhs) </li></ul><ul><li>Latins (LA·tuhnz) </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans (ih·TRUHS·kuhnz) </li></ul><ul><li>Tarquins (TAHR·kwihnz) </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings
  4. 5. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>republic (rih ·PUH ·blihk) </li></ul><ul><li>legion (LEE·juhn) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 262 of your textbook to show how the Etruscans affected the development of Rome. Rome’s Beginnings
  5. 6. The Origins of Rome <ul><li>Italy is a boot-shaped country in the Mediterranean . </li></ul><ul><li>The Alps are mountains at Italy’s northern border, and the Apennines is a mountain range that extends through Italy from north to south. </li></ul>(pages 263 – 265) <ul><li>The toe of the boot points toward the island of Sicily. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy’s terrain was easier to farm than the terrain of Greece, so Italy could support more people . </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings
  6. 7. The Origins of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>The Latins built the city of Rome on the plain of Latium . </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was located in central Italy on the Tiber River. </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings <ul><li>Two stories tell about Rome’s beginning: the legend of Remus and Romulus and the tale of Aeneas and his Trojan followers . </li></ul>(pages 263 – 265)
  7. 8. The Origins of Rome (cont.) <ul><li>The Greeks and the Etruscans influenced the Roman way of life . </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscans were skilled metal workers who helped shape Roman civilization. </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings <ul><li>The Etruscan army was the model for the Roman army . </li></ul>(pages 263 – 265)
  8. 9. The Birth of a Republic <ul><li>The Tarquins were leaders of the Etruscan-ruled Rome . </li></ul>(pages 265 – 267) <ul><li>After 100 years under the Tarquins, the Romans rebelled against Etruscan rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans established a republic . </li></ul><ul><li>In a republic, the leader is not a king or queen but someone voted into office by citizens. </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings
  9. 10. The Birth of a Republic (cont.) <ul><li>Rome had a large, powerful army made up of excellent, disciplined soldiers . </li></ul><ul><li>Roads connected all of Rome’s military settlements. </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings (pages 265 – 267)
  10. 11. The Birth of a Republic (cont.) <ul><li>The Roman Confederation gave full citizenship to some people, who could vote and serve in government . </li></ul><ul><li>Romans gave others the status of allies, which meant they could rule their own local affairs. </li></ul>Rome’s Beginnings (pages 265 – 267)
  11. 12. What was the benefit of organizing soldiers into legions? Smaller bands of troops were easier to maneuver than one large army. Rome’s Beginnings
  12. 13. Where did the Greeks live in Italy, and how did they influence Roman civilization? Greeks colonized southern Italy and Sicily. They passed on farming methods, sculpture, literature, and an alphabet. Rome’s Beginnings
  13. 14. Describe the two legends that tell of the founding of Rome. Then describe how and when Rome was actually founded. The legend of Romulus and Remus and the Aeneas story. Rome was probably founded by Latins in c. 700s B.C. Rome’s Beginnings
  14. 15. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Cincinnatus ( SIHN ·suh·NA·tuhs) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Hannibal (HA·nuh·buhl) </li></ul><ul><li>Scipio (SIH·pee· OH ) </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>Carthage (KAHR·thihj) </li></ul>Locating Places <ul><li>Cannae (KA·nee) </li></ul><ul><li>Zama (ZAY·muh) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>patrician (puh·TRIH·shuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>plebeian (plih·BEE·uhn) </li></ul><ul><li>consul (KAHN·suhl) </li></ul><ul><li>praetor (PREE·tuhr) </li></ul><ul><li>veto (VEE·toh) </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>dictator (DIHK·TAY·tuhr) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Rome’s Government <ul><li>Top government officials were called consuls . </li></ul><ul><li>Another important group of officials were the praetors. </li></ul><ul><li>Patricians and plebeians were the two classes of people in Rome. </li></ul>(pages 269 – 273) The Roman Republic <ul><li>The Senate was the most important lawmaking body. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Rome’s Government (cont.) <ul><li>Plebeians challenged the class system by going on strike. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans then allowed the plebeians to set up their own legislative group called the Council of the Plebes. </li></ul><ul><li>Another important legislative body was the Assembly of Centuries. </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>Today, a dictator is an oppressive ruler. </li></ul>(pages 269 – 273)
  18. 19. Rome’s Government (cont.) <ul><li>Cincinnatus, the best-known early Roman dictator, led an army of men to defeat a powerful enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Twelve Tables were Rome’s first code of laws. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Roman Republic, a dictator was a person who served the people and ruled temporarily during emergencies. </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>They were the basis of all future Roman laws. </li></ul>(pages 269 – 273)
  19. 20. Rome’s Government (cont.) <ul><li>The rule of law is the idea that laws should apply to everyone equally. </li></ul><ul><li>The Law of Nations was created to address issues of conquered peoples. </li></ul>The Roman Republic (pages 269 – 273)
  20. 21. Rome Expands <ul><li>Carthage, a state on the coast of North Africa, was a powerful enemy of Rome. </li></ul>(pages 274 – 276) <ul><li>The First Punic War began as a dispute between Rome and Carthage over the island of Sicily. </li></ul><ul><li>The war continued for 20 years before Rome won. </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>The Second Punic War began after Carthage expanded into Spain. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Rome Expands (cont.) <ul><li>Rome helped the people of Spain rebel. </li></ul><ul><li>Hannibal was a great Carthaginian general who fought in the Second Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>At the Battle of Cannae, Hannibal’s forces overpowered the Romans. </li></ul>The Roman Republic <ul><li>The Roman general Scipio led his forces to defeat the Carthaginians at the Battle of Zama. </li></ul>(pages 274 – 276)
  22. 23. Rome Expands (cont.) <ul><li>Rome destroyed Carthage in the Third Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome also took all of Greece and Macedonia and parts of Africa during the Punic Wars. </li></ul>The Roman Republic (pages 274 – 276)
  23. 24. Why did Rome create a navy? Carthage was a great sea power. To beat the Carthaginians, the Romans had to build a great naval fleet. The Roman Republic
  24. 25. What does mare nostrum mean, and why did the Romans use the term? It means “our sea.” The Romans controlled the Mediterranean Sea. The Roman Republic
  25. 26. Geography Skills Where was Carthage located, and why did it compete with Rome? Carthage was located on the coast of North Africa and was a trading rival of Rome. The Roman Republic
  26. 27. Summarize What other conquests did Rome carry out during the period of the Punic Wars? Rome conquered Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor. The Roman Republic
  27. 28. Locating Places <ul><li>Rubicon (ROO·bih· KAHN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Actium (AK·shee·uhm) </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar (jool·yuhs SEE·zuhr) </li></ul>Meeting People The Fall of the Republic <ul><li>Octavian (ahk·TAY·vee·uhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Antony (AN·tuh·nee) </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero (SIH·suh· ROH ) </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus (aw·GUHS·tuhs) </li></ul>Get Ready to Read (cont.)
  28. 29. Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>latifundia ( LA ·tuh·FUHN·dee·uh) </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic <ul><li>triumvirate (try·UHM·vuh·ruht) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Finding the Main Idea Complete a chart like the one on page 277 of your textbook to identify the main ideas of Section 3 and supporting details. Get Ready to Read (cont.)
  29. 30. Trouble in the Republic <ul><li>The gap between the rich patricians and the poor plebeians grew, and farmers especially suffered . </li></ul><ul><li>Latifunda were large farming estates created when wealthy Romans bought small farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers whose land had been bought traveled to cities to try to find jobs. </li></ul>(pages 278 – 279) The Fall of the Republic
  30. 31. Trouble in the Republic (cont.) <ul><li>Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two wealthy brothers who tried to reform government. They were killed . </li></ul><ul><li>Marius, a former military leader, was appointed counsel and promised land to poor men if they became soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla drove Marius out of Rome, declared himself dictator, and spent three years reforming government before resigning from office. </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic (pages 278 – 279)
  31. 32. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a triumvirate after Sulla left office. </li></ul><ul><li>A triumvirate is a political alliance of three people . </li></ul>(pages 280 – 281) The Fall of the Republic
  32. 33. Julius Caesar (cont.) <ul><li>Caesar declared himself dictator of Rome for life and made many changes to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar marched on Rome and defeated Pompey’s forces after Crassus died in battle . </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic <ul><li>The Julian calendar was created during Caesar’s rule . </li></ul>(pages 280 – 281)
  33. 34. Julius Caesar (cont.) <ul><li>This calendar was changed slightly in A.D. 1582, but is basically still in use today. </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic <ul><li>Caesar had many enemies as well as supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>His enemies plotted to kill him and succeeded on March 15, called the “Ides of March.” </li></ul>(pages 280 – 281)
  34. 35. Rome Becomes an Empire <ul><li>Antony and Lepidus were two of Caesar’s top generals. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian was Caesar’s grandnephew, who had inherited Caesar’s wealth . </li></ul>(pages 282 – 283) <ul><li>Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate, although the triumvirate began to quarrel immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Antony fell in love with Cleopatra VII and formed an alliance with her. </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic
  35. 36. Rome Becomes an Empire (cont.) <ul><li>Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian declared war on Antony to keep him from taking over the republic . </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic (pages 282 – 283)
  36. 37. Rome Becomes an Empire (cont.) <ul><li>Octavian restored the republic with some reforms and took the title Augustus, meaning “revered one.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero was a political leader, writer, and public speaker who favored representative government and supported Octavian . </li></ul><ul><li>This began the Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Fall of the Republic (pages 282 – 283)
  37. 38. The Fall of the Republic What is a triumvirate? a political alliance of three people
  38. 39. The Fall of the Republic Who was Cicero, and how did he influence the writers of the United States Constitution? Cicero was a political leader whose ideas on a representative government with limited powers influenced the U.S. Constitution.
  39. 40. Analyze What reforms did Julius Caesar put in place that increased his popularity with poor and working-class Romans? Caesar provided land for the poor and created new jobs. He also ordered landholders to hire more free workers. The Fall of the Republic
  40. 41. Persuasive Writing Imagine you are a Roman citizen. Decide whether you would have been for or against Julius Caesar’s rise to power and his reforms. Then write a newspaper editorial explaining your views. Be sure to include facts to support your opinions. Your editorial should include facts to support your opinions. The Fall of the Republic
  41. 42. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Rhine River (RYN) </li></ul><ul><li>Danube River (DAN· YOOB ) </li></ul><ul><li>Puteoli (pyu·TEE·uh· LY ) </li></ul><ul><li>Caligula (kuh·LIH·gyuh·luh) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Nero (NEE·roh) </li></ul><ul><li>Ostia (AHS·tee·uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian (HAY·dree·uhn) </li></ul>The Early Empire
  42. 43. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>Pax Romana ( pahks roh·MAH·nah) </li></ul><ul><li>aqueduct (A·kwuh· DUHKT ) </li></ul><ul><li>currency (KUHR·uhn·see) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Cause and Effect Use a chart like the one on page 286 of your textbook to show the changes Augustus made in the Roman Empire and the effect of each change. The Early Empire
  43. 44. The Emperor Augustus <ul><li>The Pax Romana is the long era of peace that began with Augustus . </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus built a permanent, professional army and created a special guard called the Praetorian Guard, who guarded him. </li></ul>(pages 287 – 288) <ul><li>Augustus restored Rome’s splendor and fed the hungry poor of Rome with imported grain. </li></ul>The Early Empire
  44. 45. The Emperor Augustus (cont.) <ul><li>Augustus appointed a proconsul, or governor, for each province, replacing politicians appointed by the Senate . </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus reformed the tax system by making tax collectors permanent workers, and he reformed the legal system by creating a set of laws for people who were not citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>The Julio-Claudian emperors were the rulers who followed Augustus: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. </li></ul>The Early Empire (pages 287 – 288)
  45. 46. The Emperor Augustus (cont.) <ul><li>Caligula and Nero were cruel leaders, and Tiberius and Claudius were competent rulers . </li></ul>The Early Empire (pages 287 – 288)
  46. 47. Unity and Prosperity <ul><li>Vespasian restored order to Rome after the chaos following Nero’s death . </li></ul>(pages 290 – 294) <ul><li>The Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by Vespasian’s armies in the effort to put down a Jewish rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed the city of Pompeii in A.D. 79. </li></ul><ul><li>The rulers known as the good emperors were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. </li></ul>The Early Empire
  47. 48. Unity and Prosperity (cont.) <ul><li>The Roman Empire flourished under their rule . </li></ul><ul><li>Aqueducts are human-made water channels for carrying water long distances. </li></ul><ul><li>They were created during the prosperous times of the good emperors. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Empire became one of the largest empires in history during the reign of the good emperors. </li></ul>The Early Empire (pages 290 – 294)
  48. 49. Unity and Prosperity (cont.) <ul><li>The different people of the Roman Empire were united by Roman law, Roman rule, and their shared identity as Romans . </li></ul><ul><li>Most people were farmers who grew olives, grapes, and grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Other people were artisans who traded with others inside and outside the Roman Empire. </li></ul>The Early Empire (pages 290 – 294)
  49. 50. Unity and Prosperity (cont.) <ul><li>Roads and currency — a system of money — were important to the prosperous trade that developed . </li></ul><ul><li>A gap existed between rich merchants, shopkeepers, and skilled workers and poor farmers and city dwellers. </li></ul>The Early Empire (pages 290 – 294)
  50. 51. The Early Empire What was the Pax Romana ? a period of peace and prosperity lasting 200 years
  51. 52. Sequencing Information Describe the sequence of emperors who ruled Rome, from Augustus through the “Good Emperors.” Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius The Early Empire
  52. 53. Analyze Why was Rome’s creation of a common currency important? A common Roman currency advanced trade throughout the empire. The Early Empire
  53. 54. __ 1. A ___ is a form of government in which the citizens choose their leader. __ 2. ___ included artisans and shopkeepers. __ 3. The judge in a Roman court case was a ___ . __ 4. In early Rome, the role of ___ lasted only until a crisis had passed. Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. dictator </li></ul><ul><li>B. plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>C. praetor </li></ul><ul><li>D. republic </li></ul><ul><li>latifundia </li></ul><ul><li>aqueduct </li></ul>Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. D B C A The Rise of Rome
  54. 55. __ 5. Large farming estates that used enslaved people to tend crops were called ___ . __ 6. A(n) ___ was a human-made channel for carrying water. Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. E F The Rise of Rome <ul><li>A. dictator </li></ul><ul><li>B. plebeians </li></ul><ul><li>C. praetor </li></ul><ul><li>D. republic </li></ul><ul><li>latifundia </li></ul><ul><li>aqueduct </li></ul>
  55. 56. How did treating people fairly help Rome to increase its power? Treating conquered people fairly inspired loyalty to the Roman government. The Rise of Rome Section 1 Rome’s Beginnings Review Main Ideas
  56. 57. How did the roles of patricians and plebeians differ in Roman society? Patricians were the upper class and plebeians were the lower class. The Rise of Rome Section 2 Roman Republic Review Main Ideas
  57. 58. Explain how Rome gradually defeated the Carthaginians. Rome developed a navy and eventually attacked Carthage. The Rise of Rome Section 2 Roman Republic Review Main Ideas
  58. 59. How did Augustus change the Roman Republic? He replaced it with an empire. The Rise of Rome Section 3 The Fall of the Republic Review Main Ideas
  59. 61. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  60. 62. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  61. 63. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  62. 66. Julius Caesar was born to a patrician family. According to myth, Julius’ ancestor was the goddess Venus. The Fall of the Republic
  63. 67. The first fire brigade, or fire department, was created by Augustus. The Early Empire
  64. 68. The Aeneid
  65. 69. Augustus 63 B.C–A.D. 14
  66. 70. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 8–1 Chapter 8
  67. 71. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 8 – 2 Chapter 8
  68. 72. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 8 – 3 Chapter 8
  69. 73. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 8 – 4 Chapter 8