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Chapter 3 PowerPoint Chapter 3 PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

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  • Chapter Introduction Section 1 The First Israelites Section 2 The Kingdom of Israel Section 3 The Growth of Judaism Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Ancient Israelites Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • The Ancient Israelites
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
    • Canaan (KAY· nuhn )
    • Mount Sinai (SY· NY )
    Meeting People
    • Abraham
    • Jacob
    • Moses
    • Deborah
    • Phoenician (fih·NEE·shuhn)
    The First Israelites
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
    • monotheism (MAH·nuh·thee· IH ·zuhm)
    • covenant (KUHV·nuhnt)
    • alphabet
    • tribe
    • Torah (TOHR· UH )
    The First Israelites
  • The Early Israelites
    • The Israelites built a kingdom in Canaan, along the Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia, in 1000 B.C.
    • Israelites believed in one God.
    (pages 81 – 83)
    • Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan occupy the land that was once Canaan.
    • The belief in one god is called monotheism.
    The First Israelites
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • The Israelite faith became the religion of Judaism .
    • Israelites spoke Hebrew and wrote their history and beliefs in what later became the Hebrew Bible.
    • Judaism influenced Christianity and Islam and helped shape the beliefs of European and American societies.
    The First Israelites (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • The Israelites believed they were descended from a man named Abraham .
    • Abraham’s grandson, named Jacob, raised 12 sons in Canaan.
    • The Israelites believed God told Abraham to settle in Canaan and worship the one true God.
    The First Israelites (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • After 100 years in Canaan, the Israelites suffered a long drought .
    • The Egyptian pharaoh enslaved the Israelites.
    • To survive, some Israelites went to Egypt.
    The First Israelites
    • To prevent the Israelites from rebelling, the pharaoh ordered all baby boys to be thrown into the Nile River.
    • Their families became the 12 tribes of Israel.
    (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • The pharaoh’s daughter found a baby boy in a basket on the riverbank .
    • When Moses grew up, he herded sheep in the hills outside Egypt.
    • She named the baby Moses.
    The First Israelites
    • In those hills, he saw a burning bush and heard a voice.
    • He believed it was God telling him to lead the Israelites out of Egypt.
    (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • The Hebrew Bible says that God sent 10 plagues to trouble Egypt .
    • The last plague killed all the first-born children, except for those Israelites who marked their doors with lamb’s blood.
    The First Israelites
    • The plague convinced the pharaoh to let the Israelites leave Egypt.
    • After the Israelites left, the pharaoh changed his mind.
    (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • He sent soldiers after the Israelites .
    • The Hebrew Bible says that God parted the Red Sea, so the Israelites could pass.
    The First Israelites
    • The water flowed back when the soldiers tried to cross, and they drowned.
    (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Early Israelites (cont.)
    • These laws were known as the Torah, which became the first part of the Hebrew Bible .
    • The Ten Commandments —what God believes to be right and wrong—are an important part of the Torah .
    The First Israelites
    • The Ten Commandments helped form the basic moral laws of many nations.
    • On the way back to Canaan, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai and received laws from God.
    (pages 81 – 83)
  • The Promised Land
    • It took the Israelites about 40 years to reach Canaan .
    (pages 84 – 85)
    • Along the way, Moses died, and Joshua took over.
    • When the Israelites reached Canaan, they found a group of people, the Canaanites, living there.
    • The Israelites believed it was God’s will to conquer the Canaanites.
    The First Israelites
  • The Promised Land (cont.)
    • Joshua led the Israelites into battle .
    • They marched around the walls of the city of Jericho for six days.
    • On the seventh day, the Israelites let out a great shout, and the wall of Jericho crumbled.
    The First Israelites (pages 84 – 85)
  • The Promised Land (cont.)
    • The land they seized was divided among the 12 tribes .
    • After Joshua’s death, the Israelites looked to judges for leadership.
    • Judges were usually military leaders who led one or two tribes.
    The First Israelites
    • Joshua led the Israelites in three more wars.
    (pages 84 – 85)
  • The Promised Land (cont.)
    • The Israelites built walled towns to protect themselves .
    • The Phoenicians were a group of Canaanites who developed an alphabet.
    • An alphabet is a group of letters that stands for sounds.
    The First Israelites
    • Eventually, the Israelites won the hilly region of Canaan, and the Canaanites kept the coastal areas.
    (pages 84 – 85)
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
    • Jerusalem (juh·ROO·suh·luhm)
    • Philistine (FIH·luh· STEEN )
    Meeting People The Kingdom of Israel
    • Judah (JOO·duh)
    • Saul (SAWL)
    • David
    • Solomon (SAHL·uh·muhn)
    • Nebuchadnezzar ( NEH ·byuh·kuhd·NUH·zuhr)
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
    • prophet (PRAH·fuht)
    • empire (EHM· PYR )
    • tribute (TRIH·byoot)
    • proverb (PRAH· VUHRB )
    The Kingdom of Israel
  • The Israelites Choose a King
    • The Israelites began to think a king would unite the tribes and help them fight off the Philistines .
    • The 12 tribes asked Samuel, a prophet, to choose a king .
    • The Philistines were the strongest people in Canaan around 1000 B.C.
    (page 87) The Kingdom of Israel
  • The Israelites Choose a King (cont.)
    • Samuel warned the Israelites against a king and did not choose one .
    • The Israelites named Saul as king .
    • A prophet is a person who was believed to be instructed by God .
    (page 87) The Kingdom of Israel
    • King Saul displeased God, so God chose another king, David .
  • The Israelites Choose a King (cont.) (page 87) The Kingdom of Israel
    • God told Samuel to anoint David in secret.
  • David and Solomon
    • He killed a giant Philistine named Goliath with a slingshot and stones .
    • David was a famous warrior.
    (pages 89 – 90)
    • King Saul put David in charge of the army but later grew envious of David and plotted to have him killed.
    • David hid until Saul and his sons were killed.
    • Then, David took the throne.
    The Kingdom of Israel
  • David and Solomon (cont.)
    • David drove the Philistines out and conquered other countries, building his empire.
    • The conquered people had to pay tribute to David.
    • The Israelites also had to pay heavy taxes.
    • David used the money to expand the capital, Jerusalem.
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 89 – 90)
  • David and Solomon (cont.)
    • Solomon was David’s son who took the throne after David’s death.
    • Solomon built the stone temple in Jerusalem that David wanted to build.
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 89 – 90)
  • David and Solomon (cont.)
    • When Solomon died, the 12 tribes began fighting.
    • Ten of the tribes moved to the north and called their nation the kingdom of Israel.
    The Kingdom of Israel
    • The other two tribes moved to the south and called their kingdom Judah.
    • The capital of Judah was Jerusalem, and the people of Judah were called Jews.
    (pages 89 – 90)
  • A Troubled Time
    • After creating the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, many Israelites faced troubled times .
    (pages 90 – 92)
    • The prophets told the Israelites to please God by leading a moral life and helping others .
    • The kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threatened by the Assyrians and Chaldeans, who had powerful empires in southwest Asia .
    The Kingdom of Israel
  • A Troubled Time (cont.)
    • The Assyrians conquered Israel and dispersed the 10 tribes throughout their empire .
    • These Israelites lost contact with those who remained in Israel and Judah and were often called the lost tribes of Israel .
    • The Assyrians brought people to live in Samaria. A new culture developed, and the people became known as Samaritans.
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
  • A Troubled Time (cont.)
    • To appease God, they offered sacrifices and began following the Israelites’ religion .
    • The people of Judah believed that God only accepted sacrifices from the temple at Jerusalem .
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
    • The Samaritans adopted many Israelite beliefs. Over time, however, their religious practices developed separately from those of Judah.
  • A Troubled Time (cont.)
    • The Chaldeans conquered Egypt in 605 B.C.
    • The Jews joined forces with the Egyptians to conquer the Chaldeans .
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
    • The Egyptians conquered the kingdom of Judah in 620 B.C.
    • They believed they were God’s only people.
  • A Troubled Time (cont.)
    • In 586 B.C., the Jews revolted against the Chaldeans, and the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem .
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
    • King Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem and punished the Jews.
    • He sent 10,000 Jews to Babylon and appointed a new Jewish king .
  • A Troubled Time (cont.)
    • The Chaldeans took the king and thousands of Jews to Babylon .
    • This period is known as the Babylonian Captivity.
    The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
    • Babylon (BA·buh·luhn)
    Meeting People
    • Judas Maccabeus
    • (JOO·duhs MAK ·uh·BEE·uhs)
    • Herod (HEHR·uhd)
    • Zealot (ZEH·luht)
    The Growth of Judaism
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
    • exile (EHG· ZYL )
    • Sabbath (SA·buhth)
    The Growth of Judaism
    • Johanan ben Zakkai
    • (YOH·kah·nahn behn·zah·KY)
    • synagogue (SIH·nuh· GAHG )
  • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 93 of your textbook to describe the Maccabees. The Growth of Judaism Building Your Vocabulary
    • Diaspora (dy·AS·pruh)
    • messiah (muh·SY·uh)
    • rabbi (RA· BY )
  • Exile and Return
    • Exile occurs when people are forced to leave their homeland .
    • During the Israelites’ exile in Babylon, their religion became what we call Judaism.
    • Jews met each week on the Sabbath, a day of worship and rest, in a synagogue, or house of worship.
    (pages 94 – 95) The Growth of Judaism
  • Exile and Return (cont.)
    • After the Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took control of Babylon, the Persian king, Cyrus, allowed the Jews to return to Judah .
    • Persian officials still controlled the Jews in Judah, so Jews looked to their religious leaders to run society.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 94 – 95)
  • Exile and Return (cont.)
    • The Hebrew Bible consists of the Torah, the Prophets, and 34 other books .
    • Some of these books describe Jewish history.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 94 – 95)
  • Exile and Return (cont.)
    • The book of Genesis tells how God punished people for their bad behavior.
    The Growth of Judaism
    • The story of Noah is in the book of Genesis.
    • Genesis also explains why the world has different languages.
    • The book of Daniel reminds Jews that God will rescue them .
    • Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the idea that good will triumph over evil.
    (pages 94 – 95)
  • The Jews and the Greeks
    • He introduced the Greek language and ways to the Jews who stayed in Judah.
    • Judah came under the control of Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.
    (pages 95 – 96)
    • The Diaspora refers to Jews who lived outside of Judah.
    • The word diaspora means “scattered.”
    The Growth of Judaism
  • The Jews and the Greeks (cont.)
    • A priest named Judas Maccabeus and his followers formed an army known as the Maccabees to fight the Greeks.
    • The Greek ruler Antiochus wanted the Jews to worship Greek gods and goddesses .
    • The Maccabees drove the Greeks out of Judah.
    • They removed evidence of the gods and goddesses from their temple.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 95 – 96)
  • The Jews and the Greeks (cont.)
    • Each year Jews recall the cleansing of the temple when they celebrate Hanukkah .
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 95 – 96)
  • The Jewish Way of Life
    • Sons were valuable in Jewish society.
    • Jewish laws influenced Jews’ education, food, and clothes .
    (pages 97 – 98)
    • Sons carried on the family name and became the head of the family after the death of their fathers.
    • Sons learned how to earn a living and how to worship God from their fathers.
    The Growth of Judaism
  • The Jewish Way of Life (cont.)
    • Girls learned how to be good wives, mothers, and housekeepers.
    • They later learned how to read the Torah from religious leaders .
    • They also learned about Jewish laws and strong women of ancient Israel.
    • Jewish laws stated that Jews could eat only certain animals, such as beef, lamb, and certain scaly fish.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 97 – 98)
  • The Jewish Way of Life (cont.)
    • Jewish laws also applied to clothing.
    • Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is called kosher .
    • Men wore tunics, caps or turbans, and sandals.
    • Women wore dresses and covered their heads with shawls.
    The Growth of Judaism
    • Wealthy women wore shoes, makeup, and jewelry.
    (pages 97 – 98)
    • After Herod’s death, the Romans replaced Jewish kings with Roman officials.
    • King Herod, the most famous ruler of Judaea, was known for the additions he made to the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.
    (pages 100 – 102) The Jews and the Romans
    • In 63 B.C., the Romans conquered Judah and renamed it Judaea.
    • The Jews were divided over how to deal with the Romans.
    The Growth of Judaism
    • A third group was the Essenes. They lived in the desert and waited for God to deliver the Jews from the Romans.
    • Another group was the Sadducees, who emphasized the written law and did not agree with many of the Pharisees’ teachings.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • One group was the Pharisees, who stressed oral traditions and were supported by the common people.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
    • Some Jews, known as the Zealots, wanted to fight the Romans.
    • The Jews hated Roman rule.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • The Dead Sea Scrolls were found near the Dead Sea in A.D. 1947. They describe Judaism during Roman times.
    • They revolted in A.D. 66 and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
    • The Romans also destroyed the temple in Jerusalem.
    • They killed thousands of Jews and forced many others to leave.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • The Romans regained control four years later.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
  • The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • What remains today is the Western Wall.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
    • Rabbis, teachers of the Torah, became important leaders.
    • This time, they forbade Jews to visit Jerusalem and gave Judah the name of Palestine, referring to the Philistines.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • The Jews revolted again, but the Romans stopped the revolt.
    • Rabbis wanted to pass on the teachings of the Torah.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
    • In A.D. 1947 Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish nation called Israel was created in 1948.
    • For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and faced persecution.
    The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • They combined the teachings into books called commentaries. The Talmud is an important commentary dealing with many laws about daily life.
    The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
  • __ 1. Jewish house of worship __ 2. claims to be inspired by God __ 3. family group __ 4. holy day of worship and rest __ 5. forced absence __ 6. belief in one god __ 7. deliverer sent by God __ 8. agreement Review Vocabulary
    • A. tribe
    • B. prophet
    • C. synagogue
    • D. Sabbath
    • messiah
    • monotheism
    • covenant
    • exile
    B A Define Match the vocabulary words on the right with the definitions on the left. C The Ancient Israelites F D H E G
  • Click the map to view an interactive version.
  •  
  •  
  • The peak of Mount Sinai, where —according to the Hebrew Bible—Moses received the Ten Commandments, can be reached by climbing 3,750 stone steps. The steps were created by the monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery . The First Israelites
  • Jerusalem has had different names throughout history. Before King David conquered Jerusalem, the city was called Jebus. King David renamed the city the City of David. Accounts of the Assyrians’ conquering of the city referred to Jerusalem as the City of Judah. The Kingdom of Israel
  • The Jewish Sabbath, or Shabbat, begins on Friday evening at sundown and ends at sunset Saturday evening. Jews commemorate the separation of Shabbat from the rest of the week with special ceremonies. The Growth of Judaism
  • The Ten Commandments
  • Proverbs
  • The Talmud
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3–1 Chapter 3
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3–2 Chapter 3
  • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3–3 Chapter 3