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    Gross.Max, Singelpark Design Competition, book Gross.Max, Singelpark Design Competition, book Document Transcript

    • leidsesingels
    • lei
    • dse singels
    • intro
    • TheRomanticMovementwasabouttheawakeningofsensation,ofcuriosity,andthequickeningofthemind’seye, the imagination. For us landscape Architecturestill is the sensual desire for a pictorial exploration ofsensations. Calligraphy intertwined with cartography.Landscape painter John Constable asked in a lectureof 1836 “why, then may not landscape be considereda branch of natural philosophy, of which picturesare but experiment”. Andree Breton stated a nearcentury later: everything depends on our deliberatehallucination.During the 19th century many former city fortificationsacross Europe were transformed into concentric parksystems. The Leidse Singels were never part of a‘grand project’, rather incremental change creatingboth the Beauty and the Beast. It is this mixture ofopposites, which now provides this unique urbancocktail of post-industrial hardware and Arcadiansoftware. The history of the Leidse Singels is one ofcontinuous construction and dismantling.
    • golden years
    • Leiden is like a phoenix rising out of the ashes of 20thcentury mediocrity. Its sense of renewal, creativeenergy and new found imago is unprecedented.Many of the initiatives are taken by creative citizensrepresenting a new network city of Facebook, Blogsand Twitters….Ever since ‘leiden’s ontzet’, therealways has been a strong sense of citizenship andremarkable effective campaigns of city branding.Leiden was even marketed by its ‘burghers’ as theNew Rome in the green garden of Holland! Maybethe actual lack of a town square has something todo with this….an urge to compensate, a kind ofcollective subconscious Freudian envy..!
    • theanatomyof thecity
    • If we dissect the old city of Leiden we can revealthree phases of development; it was successivelya ‘burcht’, a dike town and a fortified water town.The burch was at the confluence of three rivers,the Old and New Rhines and the Mare. The burchtwas located on elevated ground between theRhine branches, an excellent place for defenceand territorial control. The curved river dikesbecame key urban arteries. New encircling canalswere dug to create a typical’ grachtenstad’. Itpossesses no large market though several smallones, which are sited alongside the waterways oron bridges astride. The combination of burcht,the curvilinear alignment of the river dikes andthe encircling fortifications creates the identity ofLeiden: a interconnected ‘gesammtkunstwerk’ ofpoint, lines and circle.
    • Kijk nu eens door die muuropeningen naar buiten, waarschoone stads- en landgezichten—natuurlijk eenigszinsà vol doiseau—u wachten. De torenspitsen vanNoordwijk, Oegstgeest en Valkenburg duiken uit een zeevan groene weilanden en bosschen aan den gezichteinderop, de Hooglandsche kerk, dat prachtige overblijfsel vanmiddeleeuwschen kunstzin ligt voor u; het Raadhuis en deMarekerk, de »Saaihal” en de Sint-Petruskerk verheffenhunne torentjes van hier gezien minder fier ten hemel,omdat wij zooveel dichter bij dien hemel zelven staan.Het westenwindje stoeit met de bladeren der boomen enzendt ons bloemengeuren toe uit de wandelpaden rondomons. Dat groote gebouw ginds is, gij herinnert het u reeds,het Academisch ziekenhuis, dat er met zijne rechte lijnenvan hier gezien uitziet als eene kolossale sarcophaag.Dat tal van hooge schoorsteenen, waaruit de rookwalmdik en dompig opstijgt, getuigt van Leidens bloeiendeindustrie, de talrijke zwarte en witte stippen op degroenende landouwen zijn de waarborg voor zijn drukbezochte veemarkt en betoogen de noodzakelijkheid dervoortdurende instandhouding van zijn Boterhuis, terwijlde spoortrein welke daar ginds zijn vlag van stoomzegevierend doet voortijlen getuigt van eene aansluitingbij het Europeesch spoorwegnet, die niet anders dangunstig op de welvaart dezer gemeente kan werken.Kijk nu eens door die muuropeningennaar buiten, waar schoone stads-en landgezichten—natuurlijkeenigszins à vol doiseau—uwachten. De torenspitsen vanNoordwijk, Oegstgeest enValkenburg duiken uit een zeevan groene weilanden en bosschenaan den gezichteinder op, deHooglandsche kerk, dat prachtigeoverblijfsel van middeleeuwschenkunstzin ligt voor u; het Raadhuisen de Marekerk, de »Saaihal”en de Sint-Petruskerk verheffenhunne torentjes van hier gezienminder fier ten hemel, omdat wijzooveel dichter bij dien hemelzelven staan. Het westenwindjestoeit met de bladeren der boomenen zendt ons bloemengeuren toeuit de wandelpaden rondom ons.
    • Dat groote gebouw ginds is, gijherinnert het u reeds, het Academischziekenhuis, dat er met zijne rechtelijnen van hier gezien uitziet alseene kolossale sarcophaag. Dat talvan hooge schoorsteenen, waaruit derookwalm dik en dompig opstijgt,getuigt van Leidens bloeiendeindustrie, de talrijke zwarte enwitte stippen op de groenendelandouwen zijn de waarborg voorzijn druk bezochte veemarkt enbetoogen de noodzakelijkheid dervoortdurende instandhouding vanzijn Boterhuis, terwijl de spoortreinwelke daar ginds zijn vlag vanstoom zegevierend doet voortijlengetuigt van eene aansluiting bij hetEuropeesch spoorwegnet, die nietanders dan gunstig op de welvaartdezer gemeente kan werken.Kijk nu eens door die muuropeningen naar buiten, waarschoone stads- en landgezichten—natuurlijk eenigszinsà vol doiseau—u wachten. De torenspitsen vanNoordwijk, Oegstgeest en Valkenburg duiken uit een zeevan groene weilanden en bosschen aan den gezichteinderop, de Hooglandsche kerk, dat prachtige overblijfsel vanmiddeleeuwschen kunstzin ligt voor u; het Raadhuis en deMarekerk, de »Saaihal” en de Sint-Petruskerk verheffenhunne torentjes van hier gezien minder fier ten hemel,omdat wij zooveel dichter bij dien hemel zelven staan.Het westenwindje stoeit met de bladeren der boomen enzendt ons bloemengeuren toe uit de wandelpaden rondomons. Dat groote gebouw ginds is, gij herinnert het u reeds,het Academisch ziekenhuis, dat er met zijne rechte lijnenvan hier gezien uitziet als eene kolossale sarcophaag.Dat tal van hooge schoorsteenen, waaruit de rookwalmdik en dompig opstijgt, getuigt van Leidens bloeiendeindustrie, de talrijke zwarte en witte stippen op degroenende landouwen zijn de waarborg voor zijn drukbezochte veemarkt en betoogen de noodzakelijkheid dervoortdurende instandhouding van zijn Boterhuis, terwijlde spoortrein welke daar ginds zijn vlag van stoomzegevierend doet voortijlen getuigt van eene aansluitingbij het Europeesch spoorwegnet, die niet anders dangunstig op de welvaart dezer gemeente kan werken.
    • i d e a l
    • c i t yLeiden can be interpreted as the overlay of two idealfortified city concepts; Scamozzi’s star shaped Italiancity with the ‘Burcht’ as centre and the rectilinear fortifiedcity of Simon Stevin. The ideal city combined the art ofwarfarewiththeartoftownplanning.Bythetimeofprintingdistinct shapes and silhouettes of cities of course alsobecame like an emblem; a mental image or ideogram– atool for city marketing- as displayed on many maps andgravures.Of course the idea of the ideal city has continuouslytransformed over time, during the 19th century the sharpangled geometry became rounded off into the sinuousline of beauty. Maybe the beauty of the ideal city oftoday is that it can reconcile opposite forces. Apollo andBacchus, classic and romantic, artificial and natural, realand ideal, beauty and sublime, growth and decay.
    • the artofobservation
    • From its very origin the role of Leiden University has beenthat of intellectual hothouse generating an atmosphere ofspeculative thought. Many of the early scholars followed thenotiontoundertakeresearchwithoutthepreconceivednotionof the hypothesis. All was based upon direct observationand a strongly visual culture ranging from the anatomyof the human body, the growth of plants or the orbits ofthe celestial bodies. Engravings, etchings, and woodcutsallowed artists, natural historians, cosmographers, andanatomist to record their observations and circulate themwidely. Take for example the works of Jacques de Gheyn.His exposure to natural history at the university in Leiden ledhim to concentrate on drawing and painting specimens withhe utmost accuracy, as if his depictions were a naturalist’stool of identification and classification. Most interesting wesee the same sense of observation in paintings of this period.The atelier of the artist was a kind of optical laboratory.
    • measu
    • urementToaccuratelymapyouneedascaleofmeasurement. Thesystemof measurement for both Dou and Snelius to measure was thelocal Rijnlandse Roede and for the mapping of the Galaxy it wasthe line of emission at 21 cm wavelength of instellar hydrogen!The exact measurement of The Rijnlandsce Roede 3,767358meter is still engraved into the façade at the entrance of LeidenTown hall. It is still being applied to measure the surface arealof bulb fields. We propose to reintroduce Rhinelandic Rod asscales of measurement and create a kind of typical LeidenModular system. Leiden not only needs a city architect but alsoits own ‘Corbusian’ Modular Man!
    • 0 10 1 2 3 4 5 60 12Rhinelandic Thumbs=Rhinelandic Foot=0or
    • 2 3 .7677 8 9 10 11 12Rhinelandic RodRhinelandic FeetMetric Meters1
    • m a
    • p p i n gThe first planned urban extension of Leiden was by surveyor Jan Pietersz.Dou who also worked on the land reclamation of the Beemster, Purmerand the Wormer. He invented his own surveying instrument called the“Dutch Circle’. Another key figure was Snellius who contributed to thedevelopment of arithmetic, optics, astronomy, surveying and navigation.Snellius was the first to measure the circumference of the earth on the basisof a triangulation. He did so by establishing a base line between Leidenand Zoeterwoude and to measuring the exact distance between Alkmaarand Bergen op Zoom, which are located almost on the same meridian. Thistradition of mapping and cartography continued until last century when theheroic astronomers of Leiden observatory were the first to map the spiralsystem of the galaxy.
    • 8=3h’(va� ∫88-w } sin l0
    • v ) I+00{ (v- v )a2
    • constellationsand
    • configurationsAs landscape architects we are the children of the Google Earth Revolution.Zooming out / zooming in. Both Microscopic and Macroscopic.As in sciencewe are looking for patterns in space and process in time. In an article entitled’The Galaxy explored by Radio Waves” written for the scientific journal theObservatoryAugust 1953 the Leiden based Dr H. C. Van de Hulst declared:“Science is discovery. We must go to the limits of present understandingand then try to reach beyond”. The spiraling pattern of the galactic systemas discovered our heroic team Leiden scientists is not dissimilar to Leidentown plan. The town is kind of spiraling with a centrifugal force aroundthe nucleus of the Burcht, and the linear development along the river dikessimilar the spiral arms of the galaxy with the buildings as nebula of scatteredstardust. How to express such concept. We propose an extensive systemof dotted underwater spotlights, which will create a fantastic illuminatedorbit of sparkling stardust all around the inner city of Leiden. Imagine thisgalaxy of lights shining through the rippling water during a hot summerevening or mysteriously flickering through the surface of frozen ice - likeflashes of northern lights- during winter. We believe that this underwaterinstallation – a kind of underwater planetary garden- will become a mustsee attraction in its own right.
    • The distribution of Atomic hydrogen in theouter parts Galactic system
    • 1954BAN....12..117V
    • l a b o r a t o r i e
    • e s o f n a t u r eThe Hortus Botanicus acquired one of the most varied collections of plants inEurope rivaling Padua’s the first university garden founded in 1545. Thesegarden provided ‘laboratories of nature’. The four quadrants, each consistingof sixteenth flowerbeds at the Hortus Botanicus Leiden were organized sothat each quadrant represents one of the four continents Europe, Asia, Africa,and America) creating a microcosm of the world. We propose to leap thefence of the Hortus and see all of Singel Park as a laboratory of Nature. Weextend the botanic gardens with a water garden along its waterfront. Thenew extended glasshouse will partly extend into the Singel and incorporatean exotic water garden and organic orgy of orchids. At night movable lightsources will display fantastic shadow projections on the glass house outerskin. Opposite of the botanic garden we create a docking station of exoticlooking floating gardens which can be moved around and docked at variouslocation along Singel Park.
    • Tulip maniaIn 1593 the international botanical megastar Carolus Clusius was offered anhonorary post as director of the new botanical garden at Leiden University. Thatsame year Clusius planted the first Dutch tulips. As a result, 1594 is consideredthe official date of the tulips first flowering in the Netherlands, despite reportsof the flowers being cultivated in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam twoor three decades earlier. The Dutch word tulp comes from the Turkish tulbent,meanung turban. Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulipbulbs in the final years of the sixteenth century. He finished writing the firstmajor work on tulips in 1592, and he made note of the variations in colour thathelp make the tulip so admired. While occupying a chair as a faculty member inthe school of medicine at the University of Leiden, Clusius planted both a teachinggarden and private plot of his own with tulip bulbs. In 1596 and 1598, Clusiussuffered thefts from his garden, with over a hundred bulbs stolen in a singleraid. Between 1634 and 1637, the early enthusiasm for the new flowers triggereda speculative frenzy now known as the tulip mania. Tulips would become soexpensive that they were treated as a form of currency. Rumors are that the tulipwill be soon reintroduced as Dutch national currency to replace the endangeredEuro. Singel Park will pay tribute to the original botanic tulip by establishing bigsweeping botanic tulip plantations encircling its old town.
    • Tulip maniaCarolus Clusius planted the first tulips at the Leiden Universitys newly establishedHortus Botanicus, where he was appointed director. There he planted some of histulip bulbs in late 1593. As a result, 1594 is considered the official date of thetulips first flowering in the Netherlands, despite reports of the flowers beingcultivated in private gardens in Antwerp and Amsterdam two or three decadesearlier. Carolus Clusius is largely responsible for the spread of tulip bulbs inthe final years of the sixteenth century. He finished writing the first major workon tulips in 1592, and he made note of the variations in colour that help make thetulip so admired. While occupying a chair as a faculty member in the school ofmedicine at the University of Leiden, Clusius planted both a teaching garden andprivate plot of his own with tulip bulbs. In 1596 and 1598, Clusius suffered theftsfrom his garden, with over a hundred bulbs stolen in a single raid. Between 1634and 1637, the early enthusiasm for the new flowers triggered a speculative frenzynow known as the tulip mania. Tulips would become so expensive that they weretreated as a form of currency. Rumors are that the tulip will be soon reestablishedas Dutch national currency to replace the endangered Euro. Singel Park will pay
    • Al wat het plantenrijk merkwaardigs aanbiwetenschappelijk gerangschikt. Ruime kahet meest uwe aandacht trekt, brengen dehun geboorteland—geboortewater zou ik vahebben, da‘‘Tristes exilés surzijn. Zij groeien en bloeien er dan ook dapvreemdeling en stadgenoot, die deze schoonvoorrecht den waardigen hortulanus te oninlichtingen geven, altijd belangrijk uit dgeschreven proza aantoont, dat hij de taader planten gevoeld heeft, als hij de pen ogaarne met hem uitrusten op eene der tuopleveren; maar dan zal het na luttel poodat wij verder moeten, dat de daarnevensvraagt en dat wij, naar buitentredende, nuitwendige der Academie, haar eigenaAl wat het plantenrijk merkwaardigs aanbiedt vindtgij hier bijeen, even smaakvol als wetenschappelijkgerangschikt. Ruime kasten, waaronder die der»Victoria Regia” het meest uwe aandacht trekt,brengen de tropische gewassen in den waan dat zijhun geboorteland—geboortewater zou ik van sommigenmoeten zeggen—niet verlaten hebben, dat zij geene‘‘Tristes exilés sur la terre étrangère”zijn. Zij groeien en bloeien er dan ook dapper op los enwekken de verbazing op van vreemdeling en stadgenoot,die deze schoone inrichting komen bezoeken. Hebt gij hetvoorrecht den waardigen hortulanus te ontmoeten, danzal hij u gaarne nog eenige inlichtingen geven, altijdbelangrijk uit den mond van een man, wiens dichterlijkgeschreven proza aantoont, dat hij de taal der bloemenbeluisterd en den harteklop der planten gevoeld heeft,als hij de pen opneemt om ze te beschrijven. Gij zultdan gaarne met hem uitrusten op eene der tuinbanken,welke zulke schoone gezichten opleveren; maar danzal het na luttel poozens weder aan mij zijn om teherinneren dat wij verder moeten, dat de daarnevensgelegen Sterrenwacht nog onze aandacht vraagt endat wij, naar buitentredende, nog wel eens een blikmogen slaan op het uitwendige der Academie, haareigenaardig torentje en hooge kruisramen.
    • iedt vindt gij hier bijeen, even smaakvol alssten, waaronder die der »Victoria Regia”e tropische gewassen in den waan dat zijan sommigen moeten zeggen—niet verlatent zij geenela terre étrangère”pper op los en wekken de verbazing op vanne inrichting komen bezoeken. Hebt gij hetntmoeten, dan zal hij u gaarne nog eenigeden mond van een man, wiens dichterlijkal der bloemen beluisterd en den harteklopopneemt om ze te beschrijven. Gij zult danuinbanken, welke zulke schoone gezichtenozens weder aan mij zijn om te herinnerens gelegen Sterrenwacht nog onze aandachtnog wel eens een blik mogen slaan op hetaardig torentje en hooge kruisramen.
    • EudicotsRosaceaeFabaceaeCucumisPopulusGossypiumCitrusBrassicalesVitisRibesAntirrhinumMimulusSolanaceaeAsteraceaeVacciniumMesembryanthemumBetaPapaver, EschscholziaAquilegiaPerseaLiriodendronSarumaPoaceaeMusaAsparagus, AlliumAcorusIlliciumNupharAmborellaCryptomeriaWelwitschiaGnetumPinus, PiceaGinkgoCycasZamiaAdiantumSelaginellaMarchantiaPhyscomitrellaMesostigmaChlamydomonasOstreococcusMagnoliidsMonocotsGymnospermsBryophytaMoniliformopsesLycopodiophytaMesostigmatophyceaeChlorophytaAngiospermsSeed plantsVascular plantsLand plants
    • t h ea r to f
    • m e m o r ySingelParkmaybedefinedasastateofcontinuousbecoming,never quite started and never quite finished. Not an objectbut a process. TheArt of Memory seeks to memorize througha technique of impressing ‘places’ and ‘images’ on memory’.We like the notion of palimpsest; the accumulation of remainsand ideas over time. For us the opportunity and challengeof the Singelpark is to create a journey through space andtime; a kind of Mobius strip intertwining past / future andpresent, without a beginning or an end.
    • cabinet ofcuri
    • iositiesThe Hortus Botanicus not only contained plants but a walkinggallery which a most wonderful cabinet of curiosities of turtle shell,the jaw of a polar bear, large and small crocodiles, a globefish, apiece of coral, a swordfish and a flying fox from the west indies.Imagine now, the entire Singel park becomes a ‘walking gallery’of discovery. This means change encounters, juxtaposition andlayering of ideas. Certainly, a park does not only need gardenersbut also artist, philosophers and curators. What Singel Park needis a cultural intifada. The park should be used to turn Leiden insideout; quite literally the collection and programmes of its museums,university and cultural institutions should activate, infiltrate andconfiscate the park. A park as a cabinet of curiosities! As Laugierin Observationssur lArchitecture stated: "There must be regularityand fantasy, relationships and oppositions, and; great order in thedetails, confusion, uproar and tumult in the whole." Of course,the permanent collection of every park, as ever, are its trees……
    • The ‘leyden Jar’ Nuon SquareA Leyden Jar is a device that stores staticelectricity between two electrodes on theinside and the outside of a glass jar. TheLeyden Jar was used to conduct earlyexperiments in electricity. It was inventedby Dutch scientist and professor of LeydenPieter van Musschenbroek back in 1745 andnamed after his hometown. Musschenbroekwas one of the foremost teachers ofEurope, and so widely known that greatuniversities vied with each other, and kingswere bidding, for his services. The adventof the Leyden Jar was followed by morespectacular demonstrations of various kind
    • all over Europe. These exhibitions arousedinterest of the kings and nobleman, so thatelectricity no longer remained a “playthingof the philosophers” alone, but of the kingsas well. A favorite demonstration was thatof sending the electrical discharge throughlong lines of soldiers linked together bypieces of wire, the discharge causing themto “spring into the air simultaneously’” ina most astonishing manner. The electricaldischarge of the Leyden Jar becomes theinspiration for a magical for the NuonSite.
    • Beached Whale BridgeIn late December 1601, after a sperm whale washedup on the coast of the North Sea, spectators gatheredto observe the lifeless monster. The spectaclewas pictured in great detail by the engraver andmapmaker Jan Saerendam. The inscription in thecartouche at the bottom center conveys : “ a veryaccurate drawing in accordance with the geometricalproportions of limbs and muscles, of the ominoussea monster….which measured 60 feet in lengths,14 in height, 36 in girth, had a tail of 14 feetand a mouth opening of 12’. In 1618, Otto vanHeurne, an anatomy professor at Leiden acquiredan impression of Saerendam’s engraving for thecollection of the anatomical theater to complementthe collection’s set of whale bones. In 2012 GROSS.MAX. Landscape architects proposed to design anew Singel bridge in Leiden inspired by the whale’sskeleton.
    • Musis SacrumMusis Sacrum (Devoted to the Muses wasa music society, including its own choir andorchestra founded in 1828 and existed until1929.From 1870 it occupied an elegant summerpavilion with veranda and terraces in park the“Plantsoen’. Weekly concerts were organised forthe beau monde of Leiden.The building designedby the eclectic orientated city architect JanWillem Schaap in the shape of a Greek crosswas positioned on an artificial raised mound andorientated to the alignment of compass. Schaapwas well read and in possession of an extensivelibrary of architectural treatises includingVitruvius, Serlio, Scamozzi and Vignola. Bothmound and pavilion were demolished in 1929.We propose to erect a new Greek cross shapedpavilion devoted to the muses of the 21st century.
    • musis
    • sacrumpoplar island
    • Paved HerringHerring are a forage fish. They move aroundin large schools around fishing banks nearthe coast. The history of Holland is thehistory of herring. Even bricks are laid outin Herringbone patterns! The invention of theso called ‘gibing’ preservation technique ledto the Dutch to become a seafaring power. Italso was served to the starving population ofLeiden during its liberation from the Spanishoccupied forces. For Lammermarkt, the mainevent space for the 3rd of October streetparties, we propose an even more elaborateherring pattern engraved into the paving.
    • Pigeon DutchNow, of course, we have unmanned remote controlled aerial vehicle (UAV),commonly known as a drone light aircrafts but in 1574 carrier pigeonsplayed a heroic role during the Siege of Leiden. The provided a means ofcommunication between the Dutch rebels and the troops of the Prince ofOrange. These pigeons were provided by musician Willem Cornelisz who,four years after the siege was as reward given the honorary name of VanDuyvenbode. The original letters couriered by the freedom fighting pigeonsare still to be found in the Lakenhal Museum. Ever since Leiden Siege thecity has a long standing obsessive love affair with the phenomena pigeon.Coenraad Jacob Terminck, first director of the National History Museumat Leiden published in 1813 “de Histoire naturelle generale des Pigeons ”.Another monograph on pigeons was published by Charles Lucien Bonaparte‘Iconographie de Pigeons’ in 1857. Bonaparte was one of the foremostornithologist of his time and a nephew of Napoleon. In 1849 and 1850 heworked in Leiden on the bird collection, which he believed to be the greatestornithological treasure of his time. He worked day and night rearrangingthe entire collection and describing many new species and genera. Hisfamous book on bird taxonomy (conspectus Generum Avium) was largelycomposed and subsequently published in Leiden. More recently HarryBoelens, assistant professor in the unit Development and EducationalPsychology of the Institute of Psychology at Leiden University wrote hisPhD on self-control and choice behavior in pigeons. Leiden University hasnow offered him the opportunity to study and teach about, young children.The Dutch are never easy to pigeonhole. Around Singelpark a series ofdovecots are positioned to celebrate the pigeon’s heroic role in ‘Leiden’sOntzet’.
    • hollandse
    • cirkel
    • Dutch CircleWe like the concept of Singel Park as a necklace;or even better the comparison to those typicalDutch collars or ‘Hollandse Kraag’.
    • The Leyden Jar’A Leyden Jar is a device that stores static electricitybetween two electrodes on the inside and the outsideof a glass jar. The Leyden Jar was used to conductearly experiments in electricity. It was invented byDutch scientist and professor of Leyden Pieter vanMusschenbroek back in 1745 and named after hishometown. Musschenbroek was one of the foremostteachers of Europe, and so widely known that greatuniversities vied with each other, and kings were bidding,for his services. The advent of the Leyden Jar wasfollowed by more spectacular demonstrations of variouskind all over Europe. These exhibitions aroused interestof the kings and nobleman, so that electricity no longerremained a “plaything of the philosophers” alone, butof the kings as well. A favorite demonstration was thatof sending the electrical discharge through long lines ofsoldiers linked together by pieces of wire, the dischargecausing them to “spring into the air simultaneously’” ina most astonishing manner. The electrical discharge ofthe Leyden Jar becomes the inspiration for a magical forthe Nuon Site.
    • Punting by numbersA punt is an open flat bottom boat withsquare ends, used in shallows watersand propelled by a 5 meter long pole.Originally a poplar summer pastimefor Cambridge and Oxford studentsand now a major tourist attraction.Imagine a leisurely experience offloating down the Singelpark ofLeiden.
    • Pink BalloonThe burcht was from origin a fortified outlookacross the surrounding territory. Image risingfrom here an anchored helium filled observationballoon; from its gondola visitors which will beprovided a commanding view across Leiden andbe to survey the new Leidse Singelpark in its fullentirety.
    • Blue LagoonOnce we proposed a project Global warming/Local freezing consisting of a nuclearpowered iceberg and a hotwater blue lagoonon the East coast of Scotland. We now like touse Leiden as a test bed. Currently the coolingwater of the EON power station is pumpedback into the Singel. We propose to utilize theheated water to create an industrially outdoorheated pool.We found a similar suggestion placed bycreative polymath Jeroen Maters at thecreativestadleiden blogspot. We pay tributehere to his relentless overflow of creativeenergy. For the less faint hearted we alsoproposed a series of floating lido’s along theLeidse Singels waterfront.
    • Wanneer gij nu met mij voortwandelt zultgij eene liefelijke plek gronds aanschouwen,welke de Leidenaar met vooringenomenheid zijnPlantsoen heet, eene wandelplaats waarvan hetbergje—met het rustiek koepeltje op zijn topen de breede Singelgracht, waarin witte zwanendartelen, aan zijn voeten—zeker niet het minstpittoreske gedeelte uitmaakt. Wellicht verneemtgij van hier reeds de tonen eener militaire muzieken verhaast gij daarom den tred naar de zijdevanwaar het geluid tot u komt. Zoo gij dat doetdan staat gij weldra voor »Musis Sacrum”,de zomersociëteit voor Leidens burgerij in alleschakeeringen. Wilt gij er eenige oogenblikkenmet mij uitrusten, plaats u dan onder de ruimeveranda. Of wilt gij liever verder gaan, sla daneen blik op de Hoogewoerdspoort die haar torenzoo slank ten hemel heft, op den doodenakker aande overzijde van den Rijn, wiens hooggetoptepopulieren—bewogen door het zuidenwindje—wuiven, trillen en groeten, als waren het palmendes vredes, tuigende van de ruste des doods.Wanneer gij nu met mij voortwandelt zultgij eene liefelijke plek gronds aanschouwen,welke de Leidenaar met vooringenomenheid zijnPlantsoen heet, eene wandelplaats waarvan hetbergje—met het rustiek koepeltje op zijn topen de breede Singelgracht, waarin witte zwanendartelen, aan zijn voeten—zeker niet het minstpittoreske gedeelte uitmaakt. Wellicht verneemtgij van hier reeds de tonen eener militaire muzieken verhaast gij daarom den tred naar de zijdevanwaar het geluid tot u komt. Zoo gij dat doetdan staat gij weldra voor »Musis Sacrum”,de zomersociëteit voor Leidens burgerij in alleschakeeringen. Wilt gij er eenige oogenblikkenmet mij uitrusten, plaats u dan onder de ruimeveranda. Of wilt gij liever verder gaan, sla daneen blik op de Hoogewoerdspoort die haar torenzoo slank ten hemel heft, op den doodenakker aande overzijde van den Rijn, wiens hooggetoptepopulieren—bewogen door het zuidenwindje—wuiven, trillen en groeten, als waren het palmendes vredes, tuigende van de ruste des doods.
    • on the edge
    • Singel Park will become the longest park in the Netherlands.In effect Singel Park is one long elongated, double sided water edge. The alignment and sectional treatmentof this edge is fundamental to the experience of the park.
    • City for the TreesIn a forest you can’t see the wood for the trees. In early Leiden onecould not see the city for its trees. Was Leiden located in a forest ora forest created out of Leiden? The ultimate greenbelt was providedby the outer Singels with its majestic double row of Ulmus trees. Fromthis promenade one could look straight in the countryside beyond.Sometimes we don’t have to reinvent the wheel but simply reinstate thepast…..
    • Thesis OneThe history of Singelpark is one of continuousconstruction and dismantlingThesis TwoSingelpark should be transformed into one SingleparkThesis ThreeThis SinglePark is a combi-mix of industrial hardwareand Arcadian softwareThesis FourThe Arcadian software of Singlepark should beintensified to create areas for contemplation andnature activationThesis FiveThe industrial hardware of Single Parkshould be fully utilized to create areasfor events and innovation
    • Thesis SixSinglepark is not one route but a dynamicorbit of overlapping walk, cycle andwaterwaysThesis SevenSinglepark act as transmitterbetween centre and peripheryThesis EightSingle park is an outdoor ‘gallery walk’;a cabinet of curiosities and a laboratory ofnatureThesis nineSinglepark has no beginning and no endThesis TenWhat we cannot dream about wemust not design
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    • GROSS. MAX. Landscape Architects