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Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
Research proposal final pptx 1
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Research proposal final pptx 1

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Prototype Educational Research Proposal Edgcc 513:

Prototype Educational Research Proposal Edgcc 513:

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  • Research Questions The primary research problem remained what impact does the degree of effective teaching have on the academic achievements of student populations from lower socio-economic statuses? The primary hypothesis zero lay in the null case or that the degree of either positive or negative effective teaching has no impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses.For hypothesis one, the question remained by what degree of positive effective teaching has a positive impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses. For hypothesis two, the question was what degree of negative effective teaching has a negative impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses.Thus far, there has been many articles found that appear to either generalize what aspects of disadvantaged or lower socio-economic status seem to be significantly impacted by a previously assumed inferior level of teacher interactions. The interactions have been usually attributed to elements commonly seen as characteristics found within the school systems evaluative tools such as experience, quality of in-serviced teacher training and supportive workshops {i.e. professional development] provided by the school districts and instructional strategies/methods. These searches showed results from areas like Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and New Zealand.
  • contentions that there exists an inherent inequity in the quality of teacher impacts within school populations served in the urban, lower socio-economic status regions of school districtsSuch literature is comprised of conceptual frameworks, methodologies and study instrumentations that addresses very specific and historically contentious context involving identifying what teacher characteristics are needed or currently exist that directly impact the quality of learning and student achievement [Rice, J., K. 2010]comparative examinations of correlational differences was influenced by district policies and procedures governing teacher hiring, placement, staff development and retention for affected urban lower SES student populations [Rice, J., K. 2010].
  • included [for 2 years] student test scores in reading and math with the 3 districts [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. As such, teacher characteristics will be also be for this study with particular demographic data The survey she conducted was comprised of 919 teachers across the Victorian state and included various factors related to professional considerations such as location, degree of innovation for the school’s programs and inter-familial pressures (Rice, 2010). Rice considered the manner in which teacher groups differed regarding how they prioritized a need to feel they had richly impacted context and direction their schools had implemented as a matter of program administration and mission (Rice, 2010)Dr. Rice stated that the most effective teachers were more likely than the least effective to say they transferred into their school because they wanted to teach somewhere with an innovative approach to education (Rice, 2010). She stated that effective primary teachers were twice as likely, and secondary teachers four times as likely, to mention innovativeness as a quality that attracted them to their current school (Rice, 2010).
  • J. K. Rice article [a Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data study] examined certain characteristics of teacher value within the context of high-poverty lower socio-economic class [SES] status schools such as the years of teaching experience, which the study called a key element contributing to student achievement [Rice, J.K., 2011]. Indeed, the study found that more impact was seen for differences between the marginal payoff -effect for teachers as opposed to differences in teacher characteristics like certification, licensure, academic preparation and experience [Rice, J.K., 2011].
  • exists inherent difficulties developing working definitions for exactly what makes up specific qualities or characteristics of teachers that significantly impact the learning and academic performances of students at large and for those students who are in targeted urban schools displaying various levels of SES status, for comparative analysis, this study focuses on a certain few. . Teacher characteristics such as previous academic preparation, level of licensure or certification, status of teacher supervisory evaluations, number of years of experience, level of teacher satisfaction for current position placements, level of teacher motivation or beliefs and the nature of teacher initial placements, transfers or retentions impacted by school or district policies will be those elements that comprise the independent variable of the study.
  • strove to explain and report the variables which include measurements for student performance scores, levels of SES status and differentiated teacher efficacy practices populations [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. Included, the article stated, were inherent preparations impacting student performance as well as adequately indicating data that can be examined and reproduced populations [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. of comparative impacts with both like and differing educational contexts just as other mainstream studies have done like the Sass studies [Sass, T.R., Hannaway, J., Xu, Z., Figlio, D. N. & Feng, L., 2010]. Sass sought comparative examples of information regarding whether teachers in schools that had populations of low socio-economic statuses [SES] showed greater or less effectiveness than those teachers having higher SES student populations [Sass, T.R., Hannaway, J., Xu, Z., Figlio, D. N. & Feng, L., 2010]. Demographics in the choice of targeted populations had played a vital role for many of the studies in research literature. As seen in the Stronge study the chosen subject populations [i.e. 307 5th grade teachers from three public school districts in Southeastern U.S.] were those which included [for two years] student test scores in reading and math with the three districts being comprised of 1 large urban/suburban and two rural districts [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. There were 67 schools in the urban-suburban district and 43 in the two rural districts [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011].
  • Clotfelter article stated that any uneven distribution of teacher credentials via race and socio-economic status for the high school students would facilitate gaps in achievement, (Clotfelter, 2010). The article also stated that an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the impact or relationships between teacher credentials and teacher quality was troubling with regard to student achievement accountability (Clotfelter, 2010).
  • The article, How teacher turnover harms student achievement,  illustrated how the study’s primary methodology was concerned with addressing if the average impact of teacher turnover, if there were different effects for various types of schools and the nature of the relationship for turnover with student scores [Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J., 2013]. incongruences for retention of teachers with varied levels of experience who share likewise production levels of students with higher and lower academic achievements [Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J., 2013]data the study used was primarily from the New York City [NYC] Department of Education and was comprised of a population that included 625, 000 observations of district 4th and 5th graders across all NYC schools for the academic years of 200-2002 and 2005-2007 [Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J. 2013]. The study described a linkage of scores for math and ELA with varied characteristics of student, school and teacher characteristics for a student population that was over 70% black or Hispanic [Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J., 2013].As well, another article, A qualitative study of the sources and impact of stress among urban teachers, was concerned with issues of stress and the urban teacher (Shernoff, E. S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf, R., & Spencer, J. 2011). The study was concerned with the impact of particular stressors on the qualitative productivity of urban teachersseveral areas related to schools located in lower socio economic status regions of urban cities directly impacting urban teachers such as classroom overcrowding, physical deterioration of buildings and limited resources [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011]. article had discussed apparent and study-supported negative impact issues on quality teaching like high rates of teacher dissatisfaction and high rates of students with growing needs for mental health or learning disabled needs that go unmet [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011]. The study’s chosen population was 20 K-8 grade teachers selected randomly from a sample of 56 teachers selected from 3 comparison schools [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011]. The final number of 14 teachers showed demographics such as 12 were female, mean age of 33, mean years of teaching was 4.8 and a breakdown of the ethnicity of the subjects [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011]. Also, 8 teachers were European-American, 4 were African-American, one was Latina, and one self-identified as other, [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011]. All semi-instructed interviews were video-taped and transcribed and included interview formats which utilized generalized and open ended questions [Shernoff, E.S. et al., 2011].
  • Bridging socio-cultural incongruity: conceptualizing the success of students from low socio-economic status backgrounds in Australian higher education, (Delvin, 2011) stated that it was based on primary key literature from several countries including Australia and contains “conceptual frames” that were considered to be of value during evaluations of student populations from low socio-economic statuses. The specific population in Australia was denoted as belonging to higher education students (Delvin, 2011). article investigated was the apparent impact of diverse ethnicity within both teacher and student populations on student outcomes is such a way as include mutli-group modeling for investigative variables such as seen within the teacher-student interpersonal relationship context. As such, the British Journal of Educational Psychology article addressed the subject with populations that included Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese ethnic groups within Dutch secondary multi-ethnic class school systems. [Brok, P., et al. 2010].article investigated was the apparent impact of diverse ethnicity within both teacher and student populations on student outcomes is such a way as include mutli-group modeling for investigative variables such as seen within the teacher-student interpersonal relationship context. As such, the British Journal of Educational Psychology article addressed the subject with populations that included Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese ethnic groups within Dutch secondary multi-ethnic class school systems. The study used sampling methods that included Dutch (N = 387), Turkish first- and second-generation immigrant students (N = 267), Moroccan first and second generation (N = 364), and Surinamese second-generation students (N = 101). The study resulted in a finding that student attitudes accounted for differences in variable pathways and there existed a more or less causal model that showed certain confluences of impacted associations between student outcomes and teacher behaviors; particularly for the immigrants of the 2nd generation [Brok, P., et al. 2010].
  • “At the end of the year evaluators consider evidence from all observations” the study stated “and submitted evidence for a given teacher in arriving at a final formal standard score for each of the fifteen standards within domains 1-4” [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. However, there were studies, the article stated, that examined correlations between the teacher’s measured impact on student achievement and administrator ratings but ultimately found that they did not utilize criteria used by principals [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. there were studies, the article stated, that examined correlations between the teacher’s measured impact on student achievement and administrator ratings but ultimately found that they did not utilize criteria used by principals [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. As such, the study stated, there were indicators for grades and years when reading and math tests were administered. Across all tested grades and years, the study stated, there existed math test scores for 93 percent of students (ranging from 83 percent to 97 percent in any particular grade and year) and reading scores for 94 percent of students (ranging from 83 percent to 98 percent in any particular grade and year) [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. The study also found that the overarching message of the data given in the tables illustrated that TES scores are an important predictor of student achievement growth. overall TES score is most strongly associated with achievement gains for the students he taught during the year of the TES evaluation (i.e., 0.27 in math, 0.26 in reading) [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. It was upon the study’s estimates that the TES scores based on the administrator’s observations offered a comparative reflection favorable to those functions predicting student achievement [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. When the study concerned itself with math the overall TES measures acted to predict specific student achievement growth more vigorously for the elementary grades (0.51 standard deviations) than for the middle grades (0.08 standard deviations and not significant) and showed that with reading the coefficient on overall TES measure was higher for middle grades (0.29 versus 0.19) [Kane, T. et al., 2011].Thus, measuring TES components and other instrument measures of teacher effectiveness apparently did offer cohorts that were predictive of student achievement [Kane, T. et al., 2011]. Rice used comparisons between most and least effective teacher groups with participants from top and bottom quartiles in each sampling that showed a cutoff point of half a standard deviation above the mean on her teacher effectiveness scale that measured the total number of teachers [in primary and secondary] as sectioned for high effectiveness versus low effectives sub samples (Rice, 2010). The results where 54 to 65 for primary levels [out of 205 total N] and 187 to 205 [out of 714 total N] with effective teachers designated as those demonstrating confidence in their capacities [e.g., enthusiasm]of teaching to impact student learning (Rice, 2010).The survey instrument itself had sections such as demographic information [i.e. age, gender, years of teaching, educational qualifications, type of their own school education, level of parents education and current post-graduate studies if any], Information on the school from the teacher’s perspective [school leadership, other staff, professional development and use of 4-point Likert scale], attitudinal and belief measures [4-point Likert scale for academic orientation, beliefs on effectiveness of education] and information on participants teaching careers [current position, years at current and previous schools, factors influencing the move to current school, predicted factors influencing decisions to change schools, satisfaction in current school/position, teaching responsibilities, number of schools taught in last 10 years, caring responsibilities, travel time and preferred travel time/distance from a school-use of 3-point Likert scale] (Rice, 2010). The survey was twice piloted with small volunteer groups where wording was changed for clarity (Rice, 2010).
  • The study which was conducted in three regions of Victoria, Australia and comprised of 919 part-time and full time teaching staff was used as a targeted instrument focused upon the metropolitan Melbourne area, another economically poor region [with a large segment of non-English speakers] and a rural area that had a wide range of socio-economic mixtures (Rice, 2010). The sampling, which also was comprised of 205 primary and 714 secondary teachers, was taken from a pool of government, catholic and independent schools (Rice, 2010). These subjects were chosen and recruited via a selection process which included characteristics germane to lower socio-economic regions in the country area for the government secondary teachers on the one hand (Rice, 2010). The subsequent teacher participation rates were high and ranged from 16% to 85% per school (Rice, 2010). The rate for average participation was 58% and the usual initial contact was via letters to principals that gave an outline for the study objectives and goals (Rice, 2010). Thus, assumptions connected with the use of value-added measurements lent to pre-supposed perceptions that raised student achievement like the raising of student scores by 10% in highly disadvantaged SES urban settings versus a like amount in middle SES schools (Rice, 2010). This particular confound leads to another measure where teacher qualifications were subject to wide criticism for indicated related differences in student achievement showing highly qualified teachers as poor performers (Rice, 2010). Thus, when Rice illustrated that an option may be to use teacher qualifications in the Victorian context, her focus that state employment standards were strict and influenced the statistic where only 3.5% of teaching staff were uncertified [and thereby judged as lacking teacher qualifications] this would result in an uncertified cohort too small to be of significant comparison (Rice, 2010).
  • The study by Desimone and Long contended they found evidence that lower achieving students are initially assigned to teachers who emphasize basic instruction, and higher achieving students are assigned teachers who emphasize more advanced instruction [Desimone, Long 2010]. The use of intensive procedures/interventions and the amount of time spent on math apparently were related to achievement growth for traditionally disadvantaged populations such as black students and low-SES students [Desimone, Long 2010]. Therefore the neediest students tended to have been assigned to the teachers with the weakest time-relative characteristics for intensive interactions [Desimone, Long 2010]. The study examined math achievement and English language proficiency achievements using national center and for education statistics [NCES] Early Childhood Longitudinal Study [ECL] data [Desimone, Long 2010].The study findings included level 1 math achievement of 31.29 [mean] with scoring of 33.03 for Whites, 27.21 for Blacks, 33.72 for high SES and 26.88 for lower SES [Desimone, Long 2010]. The level 2 descriptive statistics which included sub-components were characterized by SES and ethnicity were standardized .05 mean full sample, 022. For Whites, -.35 for Blacks, 1.09 for high SES and -.081 for low SES [Desimone, Long 2010]. Level 3 descriptive [including Kindergarten Teacher quality elements like experience, new teachers, less than B.A., B.A, high certification, regular certification, no certification and emergency certification, etc.] statistics were experience .04, Whites .07, Blacks .02, high SES .07 and low SES .04 [Desimone, Long 2010]. Most importantly, the statistics showed for 1st grade instruction scores of minutes of instruction/day [math in 10 minute increments] 23.39 full sample mean, Whites at 23.39, Blacks at 24.16, high SES at 23.79 and low SES at 23.93 [Desimone, Long 2010]. These scores are indicators for supporting findings of the study which stated that the statistics for white versus black samples and the ones for Low SES versus High SES all showed similar patterns in teacher qualities and none of the statistics showed significant differences [Desimone, Long 2010].
  • The over-all approach for methodology concerning the stated research thesis of whether or not lower socio-economic class students receive less effective teaching will be described using several different parameters. These protocols include descriptions for what method the data was collected, demographic description of the chosen study population, description for the chosen school district [e.g. urban, rural, Midwestern, etc.], the expected time frame for the study, the nature of the study’s execution and the presence of submission to the Institutional Review Board for permission/approval to conduct the study. As well, discussions for the designated variables [i.e. independent and dependent] will include a brief description of the data collection instruments or mechanisms utilized. The preferred method for this particular type of study often involves interview instruments, observations, if allowed by school districts and some degree of document or artifact analysis that all favor deployment of mixed methods design with emphasis on qualitative study design elements for data collection. VariablesThus, with respect to the stated research problem and considering the review of accepted common literature on the topic, the chosen primary data collection instrument shall be interviews using survey mechanisms and data reviews for district policies and procedures. Such district protocols that are currently in place concerning teacher placement, supervisory evaluation, professional experience, in-service training, academic preparation, NCLB [No Child Left Behind] highly qualified ratings and retention shall act as independent variables. The dependent variable will be standardized student achievement scores reported to federal and state entities such as ISBE [Illinois State Board of Education] and will be data collected via publically available databases as well as valid education advocacy organizations like the Chicago teacher’s union and the U.S. Department of Education. Such advocacy organizations and government entities will also be relied upon in the face of restrictive Chicago Board of Education [CBOE] protocols regarding the prevention of any educational research by any investigators other than those directly sponsored by CBOE.Discussion of Methodology: Ethics and InstrumentationSubmission of the study to be conducted will be submitted to the IRB for Saint Xavier University prior to the implementation of any study activities. Conceding that the basic strengths for using survey/interviews as a primary mode for data collection include how much the construction of the survey/interview questions where responses will be basically designed using Likert scales for degree of efficacy, teacher satisfaction, supervisory evaluations, teacher beliefs and motivations provide the researcher a control of communication in order to get needed information. As well, historical and classroom/school site context perspectives will be provided along with such survey documentation giving a reliable backup for other inherent observations gauging teacher impact and efficacy that develops from teacher-student interactions and intervention strategies within the selected SES population.Procedures and Data AnalysisThe initial procedure will be the use of the developed survey instrument-questionnaire that will employ 25-50 questions regarding the desired datasets concerning factors determined to be directly related to measurable teacher characteristics impacting student achievements. Such characteristics again will include areas such as previous academic training, experience, principal evaluations, graduate education, retention status, transfer status, assignment satisfaction factors, subjects and grade levels taught, use of classroom intervention protocols, classroom management techniques, socio-economic status backgrounds, teaching philosophies, beliefs and others. The student achievement scores will be obtained relative to the chosen student-teacher populations. Data will be analyzed from scores obtained from completed questionnaires that have used Likert scaling for answer choices. The coding will be assessed within categories attributable to the various questions and will also reflect multiple overarching categories for like subjects such as satisfaction, adequacy and motivation using a developed ordinal and nominal system. That system will be quantified via the use of an established codebook that will be available. The range for the Likert scaling will be 1=lowest and 6=highest.Teacher Characteristics and Population ChoiceOf primary concern for the study was the development of a means for adequately defining specific factors involved in describing the qualities and characteristics of teacher interactions and impacts evidenced within the urban schools where a preponderance of lower SES students exists. As such, the Chicago Public School system was chosen as this presented a good representation for the urban locale that experiences high degrees of lower SES students that also share academic performances of often varied scoring. This Midwestern region’s primary grade level will be the 11th grade of high school and was chosen to best represent inner-city, urban schools that traditionally have exhibited notable difficulties recruiting and retaining highly qualified, well-motivated experienced teachers. Of course, there are many other factors that need to be addressed within the explanation of the study methodology.Time FrameThe expected time frame for the study will be 6 months to a year in order to allow for time-consuming nature of mixed-method research design instruments such as interviews and surveys. The study will employ a sampling size of 75-150 teachers and students. Determination of lower SES populations will adhere to those student populations that are eligible to receive free or reduced lunch programs. Gender differentiations will be factored in to reflect any possible correlations in both student academic achievements and for teacher efficacy and satisfaction characteristics. The data shall be collected via the use of the survey/interview method and will include some degree of face to face question submission with regard to the use of members of the teacher’s union and supervisory educational personnel recruited to participate with both hands-on and phone interviews/surveys (McMillan, J. H., 2012). Also, comparative data collection will be obtained via the participation of several nationally recognized professional educators organizations like TNTP [The New Teachers Project]. Private school participation for inner-city schools will be represented by participation with district managers and administrators regarding their perspectives on teacher qualifications, performance evaluations, teacher placement and retention policies. Specific attention will be given to describing and differentiating between the levels of teaching staff development activities within the chosen institutional entities. As well, given the elements of teacher academic experience and evaluation status, the impact of such characteristics on teacher beliefs, motivations, and philosophies with relation to student learning shall be explored within the responses to questions designed to elicit teacher and supervisory reflections.
  • The expected time frame for the study will be 6 months to a year in order to allow for time-consuming nature of mixed-method research design instruments such as interviews and surveys. The study will employ a sampling size of 75-150 teachers and students. Determination of lower SES populations will adhere to those student populations that are eligible to receive free or reduced lunch programs. Gender differentiations will be factored in to reflect any possible correlations in both student academic achievements and for teacher efficacy and satisfaction characteristics. The data shall be collected via the use of the survey/interview method and will include some degree of face to face question submission with regard to the use of members of the teacher’s union and supervisory educational personnel recruited to participate with both hands-on and phone interviews/surveys (McMillan, J. H., 2012). Also, comparative data collection will be obtained via the participation of several nationally recognized professional educators organizations like TNTP [The New Teachers Project]. Private school participation for inner-city schools will be represented by participation with district managers and administrators regarding their perspectives on teacher qualifications, performance evaluations, teacher placement and retention policies. Specific attention will be given to describing and differentiating between the levels of teaching staff development activities within the chosen institutional entities. As well, given the elements of teacher academic experience and evaluation status, the impact of such characteristics on teacher beliefs, motivations, and philosophies with relation to student learning shall be explored within the responses to questions designed to elicit teacher and supervisory reflections.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Research Proposal: Do Lower Socio-Economic Class Students Receive Less Effective Teaching? Jeffery Massey, Sr. EDGCC 513 Saint Xavier University Graduate School of Education Prof. Wendy Sears
    • 2. CHAPTER 2-Introduction • Research Problem: What impact does the degree of effective teaching have on the academic achievements of student populations from lower socio-economic statuses? • Hypothesis 0: In the null case, the degree of either positive or negative effective teaching has no impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses. • Hypothesis 1: The degree of positive effective teaching has a positive impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses. • Hypothesis 2: The degree of negative effective teaching has a negative impact upon the academic achievements of students from lower socio-economic statuses
    • 3. CHAPTER 2-Introduction  increasing desire for accountability of teacher’s effectiveness  impact of teaching characteristics, district policy and procedures governing teacher evaluations and placements • best allow for examination through the use of qualitative studies • more open- ended, evolving and process-oriented nature of the stated research theme [McMillan, J. H., 2012]
    • 4. CHAPTER 2-Introduction Cont’d • to discovering the nature of teaching efficacy on lower and higher socio-economic [SES] status • teacher retention, student alienation or identified effective teaching strategies practiced in classrooms [McMillan, J. H., 2012]. • Morgan saw as an educational inequity due in part to a lack of educational resources and deficient teaching quality (Morgan, 2012) • devising methodologies and instruments that would restrict investigator bias. • many studies that appeared inadequate in their referencing of known and accepted study findings • central phenomena relative to discovering the nature of teaching efficacy on lower and higher socio-economic [SES] status students-schools.
    • 5. LITERATURE REVIEW • development of adequate measurement instruments for both teacher intervention traits and methods [Rice, J., K. 2010]. • new insight into exactly what takes place both in the lower SES schools and the higher level SES student populations • contemporary research landscape that, through the use of mixed methods study designs, illustrates distinctly causal qualitative and quantitative datasets • focuses are at the heart of this literature review for the stated research problem
    • 6. LITERATURE REVIEW Primary Sources • The Stronge study evaluated chosen subject populations [i.e. 307 5th grade teachers from 3 public school districts in Southeastern U.S.] • gender, age, time of experience, seniority, staff development and teacher academic preparations [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. • Dr. Suzanne Rice is an educator and research fellow at the Melbourne Graduate School of Education. • 2006, through the University of Melbourne, which looked at how teachers in Victoria made their decisions on where to teach. • 919 teachers across the Victorian state • looked at teachers retention rate
    • 7. Literature Review: Primary Sources • J. K. Rice (2011) examined numerous variables comparatively in order to see if strong correlations existed between teachers showing various teaching experience time [Rice, J.K., 2011]. • looked at involved math achievement where apparently stronger influences lay with regard to experience of teachers with lower number of years at the middle-school or elementary levels[Rice, J.K., 2011]. • lowest years of experience were more likely to be assigned to lower SES school populations and that apparent teacher productivity returns [for the chosen student populations located in North Carolina and Florida] evidenced gaps between lower and higher SES comparative populations [Rice, J.K., 2011].
    • 8. Identifying Teacher Efficacy Characteristics • previous academic preparation, • level of licensure or certification, • status of teacher supervisory evaluations, • number of years of experience, • level of teacher satisfaction for current position placements, • level of teacher motivation or beliefs • the nature of teacher initial placements, transfers or retentions impacted by school or district policies • independent variable of the study strategies ( • Rubie-Davies, Flint and McDonald, 2012) that suggested a direct link between variables in the efficacy scores connected to the teacher’s belief about how writing should be taught
    • 9. Identifying Teacher Efficacy Characteristics • those preparations gave unbiased evidence of causal relationships between teaching practices-qualities • learning in multiple levels of SES populations [Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Grant, L. W. 2011]. • comparative examples of information : • populations of low socio- economic statuses [SES] showed greater or less effectiveness than those teachers having higher SES student populations [Sass, T.R., Hannaway, J., X u, Z., Figlio, D. N. & Feng, L., 2010].
    • 10. Identifying Teacher Efficacy Characteristics • IES- January 2014 study of the Institute for Educational Sciences • average disparity in teaching efficacy: 4 weeks of learning & 2 weeks of math learning • overall achievement gap for disadvantaged students in grades four through eight was equivalent to about 24 months in reading and 18 months of math (Institute for Educational Sciences, 2014). • Clofelter Study –serious lack of knowledge for impacts re: credentials v. teacher quality • Raised concerns over impact on student achievement accountability • (Clotfelter, 2010).
    • 11. Issues of District Controlled Environment, Policy and Procedures • Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J., 2013 • incongruences for retention of teachers • varied levels of experience who • share likewise production levels of students • higher and lower academic achievements [Ronfeldt, M., & Wycoff. J., 2013] • Shernoff, E. S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf, R., & Spencer, J. 2011 • Impact of stressors on urban teachers production • Overcrowding, Px. Deteriorated bldgs., Ltd. Resources • Hi rates Tchr. Dissatisfaction • Hi rate of mental health & learning disabled needs • Use of videotape & transcript-open ended Q’s
    • 12. Other Significant International Studies • Delvin, 2011 • Conceptual frames-Low SES Higher Education • Bridging socio-cultural incongruity • adequate achievement by low socio-economic students would best be facilitated using a joint- venture approach between primary stakeholders (Delvin, 2011). • Brok, P., Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., & Veldman, I., 2010 • apparent impact of diverse ethnicity within both teacher and student populations on student outcomes • Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese ethnic groups within Dutch secondary multi-ethnic class school systems.
    • 13. Findings & Results • Kane, T., Taylor, E.S., Tyler, J.H. & Wooten, A.L., 2011 • Cincinnati Public School System’s Teacher Evaluation System [TES] • Danielson Framework with 4 domains • planning and preparing for student learning, creating a student learning environment, teaching for student learning and professionalism [Kane, T. et al., 2011] • illustrated that TES scores are an important predictor of student achievement growth. • Suzanne L. Rice study (Rice, 2010) • most and least effective teacher groups with participants from top and bottom quartiles • demographic information [i.e. age, gender, years of teaching, educational qualifications, type of their own school education, level of parents education and current post-graduate studies if any] • teacher’s perspective *school leadership, other staff, professional development and use of 4-point Likert scale], attitudinal and belief measures [4-point Likert scale for academic orientation, beliefs on effectiveness of education]
    • 14. Findings & Results • Rice, S. 2010 cont’d • in three regions of Victoria, Australia and comprised of 919 part-time and full time teaching staff • 205 primary and 714 secondary teachers, was taken from a pool of government, catholic and independent schools (Rice, 2010). • characteristics germane to lower socio-economic regions in the country • teacher participation rates were high and ranged from 16% to 85% per school (Rice, 2010). • rate for average participation was 58% and the usual initial contact was via letters to principals that gave an outline for the study objectives and goals (Rice, 2010)
    • 15. Issues of Class, Race and Ethnicity for Lower and Higher SES Models • Desimone, Long 2010 • lower achieving students initially assigned teachers who emphasize basic instruction, • higher achieving students assigned teachers who emphasize advanced instruction • intensive interventions- time spent on math related to achievement growth for disadvantaged populations such as black students and low-SES students [Desimone, Long 2010]. • weak correlations existed- instruction by teachers and that for teacher quality
    • 16. METHODOLOGY • Sample/Ethical Behavior • primary grade level 11th grade – • sampling size of 75-150 teachers and students. Determination of lower SES- students eligible to receive free or reduced lunch programs. • submission to the Institutional Review Board for permission/approval to conduct the study • Setting-Midwestern region over 6-12 months • Chicago School System • chosen to best represent inner-city, urban schools that traditionally have exhibited notable difficulties recruiting and retaining highly qualified, well- motivated experienced teachers.
    • 17. METHODOLOGY • Instrumentation • survey/interview method and will include some degree of face to face question submission with regard to the use of members of the teacher’s union and supervisory educational personnel recruited to participate with both hands- on and phone interviews/surveys (McMillan, J. H., 2012). • Data will be analyzed from scores obtained from completed questionnaires that have. • Procedures/Research Design-Private school participation for inner-city schools will be represented by participation with district managers and administrators • perspectives on teacher qualifications, performance evaluations, teacher placement and retention policies. Specific attention will be given to describing and differentiating between the levels of teaching staff development activities • used Likert scaling for answer choices. The coding will be assessed within categories attributable to the various questions and will also reflect multiple overarching categories for like subjects such as satisfaction, adequacy and motivation using a developed ordinal and nominal system
    • 18. REFERENCES • Brok, P., Tartwijk, J., Wubbels, T., & Veldman, I. (2010). The differential effect of the teacher–student interpersonal relationship on student outcomes for students with different ethnic backgrounds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 199-221. DOI: 10.1348/000709909X465632 • Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2010). Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school a cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects. Journal of Human Resources, 45(3), 655-681. Accessed: http://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&continue=/scholar%3Fhl%3 Den%26start%3D10%26as_sdt%3D0,14%26as_ylo%3D2010%26scilib%3D1&citilm=1&cit ation_for_view=evBnn4oAAAAJ:UebtZRa9Y70C&hl=en&oi=p • Coleman. J. (1964). Equality of educational opportunity. United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States Government Printing Office • Creswell, J. W., Hanson, W. E., Plano, V. L. C., & Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative research designs selection and implementation. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(2), 236-264. • Devlin, M. (2011). Bridging socio-cultural incongruity: conceptualizing the success of students from low socio-economic status backgrounds in Australian higher education. Studies in Higher Education, (ahead-of-print), 1-11. • Desimone, L. M., & Long, D. (2010). Teacher effects and the achievement gap: do teacher and teaching quality influence the achievement gap between black and white and high- and low-ses students in the early grades? Teachers College Record, 112(12), 3024-3073. • Institute for Educational Studies (2014) Do disadvantaged students get less effective teaching? The National Center for Educational Evaluation (NCEE), January 2014.
    • 19. REFERENCES • Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Identifying effective classroom practices using student achievement data. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 587-613. Accessed: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/cepr-resources/files/news-events/ncte-effective- classroom-practices--kane-taylor-tyler-wooten.pdf0 • McMillan, J. H., (2012) Educational research: fundamentals for the consumer. 6th ed. Pearson Educational Inc., 501 Boylston St., Boston, MA. 02116 • Morgan, H. (2012). Poverty-stricken schools: what we can learn from the rest of the world and from successful schools in economically disadvantaged areas in the U.S. Education, 133(2), 291-297. • Rice, J. K. (2010). The Impact of Teacher Experience: Examining the Evidence and Policy Implications. Brief No. 11. National center for analysis of longitudinal data in education research. Accessed: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511988.pdf • Rice, S. (2010). Getting our best teachers into disadvantaged schools: differences in the professional and personal factors attracting more effective and less effective teachers to a school. Educational Research for Policy & Practice, 9(3), 177-192. doi:10.1007/s10671- 010-9085-2 • Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4-36. Accessed: http://doczine.com/bigdata/1/1383667518_0af8737597/w17176.pdf • Rubie‐Davies, C. M., Flint, A., & McDonald, L. G. (2012). Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual factors: What are the relationships? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 270-288. Accessed: https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/2292/10693/j.2044- 8279.2011.02025.x.pdf?sequence=3
    • 20. • Sass, T. R., Harris D.N. (2008) Teacher training, quality and student achievement. Calder Urban Institute, March 12, 2008 Accessed: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED509656.pdf • Sass, T. R., Hannaway, J., Xu, Z., Figlio, D. N., & Feng, L. (2012). Value added of teachers in high-poverty schools and lower poverty schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 72(2), 104-122. Accessed: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED513819.pdf • Shernoff, E. S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf, R., & Spencer, J. (2011). A qualitative study of the sources and impact of stress among urban teachers. School Mental Health, 3(2), 59-69. DOI: 10.1007/s/12310-011-9051-z • Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., & Grant, L. W. (2011). What makes good teachers good? A cross-case analysis of the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(4), 339-355. DOI: 10.1177/0022487111404241

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