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Learning preferences as we age
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Learning preferences as we age


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  • 1. Learning Preferences as we age
  • 2. Part 1: VARK Learning Styles
  • 3. VARK is a questionnaire that provides users with a profile of their learning preferences.
    These preferences are about the ways that they want to take-in and give-out information.
  • 4. VARK was based on an earlier model called VAK:
    VAK was a originally a sales model established in the 1920s.
    VAK is still taught today in sales training.
  • 7. VAK Sales Model
    Visual & Auditory
    Talk about the key features whilst showing them the product or brochure.
    Encourage them to touch or use the product.
  • 8. VARK began in 1987 and was designed by Neil D Fleming a New Zealand teacher.
    He added Read / Write to the VAK model and is the main author of the questionnaire.
    The VARK website has collected statistical data from users who have completed the online survey since 2001.
  • 9. VARK
    Read / Write
  • 10. VARK research suggests that preferences are influenced by:
    • Our ethnic culture
    • 11. Our age
    • 12. Our physical and neurological health
    • 13. The generation we belong to
    • 14. Our educational history
    • 15. The country we were raised in
  • Australian Generation birth years
  • 16. Part 2: VARK as we age
  • 17. Visual
    Generation X have the highest Visual preference
    Visuals began to be used more heavily in the 1970s and 1980s in school education due to emerging technologies.
    They also watch more TV than other generations
  • 18. As we age, our eyes and lenses change shape causing changes to our colour perception and reducing vision sharpness.
    Monet and eyesight research
    Monet painted the same places in his garden throughout his life.
    By studying his paintings, it was discovered that the way we perceive colour changes as we age.
    Blue is more dominant when we are younger, yellow is more dominant when we are older.
    The following slides show paintings of the same bridge in Monet’s garden. The first was painted in his 20s. The last in his 60s. Monet suffered from cataracts in his later life.
  • 19.
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  • 22.
  • 23. Auditory
    Typically, our hearing starts to decline from our mid-30s.
    Around age 65 our hearing starts to rapidly deteriorate –particularly our ‘directional hearing’ . This affects our ability to distinguish different sounds in noisy environments.
    Yet, this is the second dominant preference for persons over 65.
    Builders listen to more radio than any other generation.
  • 24. Healthy Inner Ear Hair Cells
    (Person in their mid-20s)
    Deteriorated Inner Ear Hair Cells
    (Person in their late 50s)
  • 25. Read / Write
    This is the dominant preference for persons over 45 years old.
    Generation Y also show a strong preference for Read / Write.
    It is thought that Gen X prefer to read for pleasure rather than for learning.
  • 26. Kinaesthetic
    Kinaesthetic is based on touch and ‘doing’
    This is the dominant learning preference for young persons
    It is thought that reduced mobility and slower neurological functions is why this preference reduces with age
  • 27. Some Learning Professionals believe that VARK should become VARKO to include Olfactory Senses
  • 28. Olfactory
    Our olfactory senses continue to develop throughout our lives.
    A healthy 65 year old will have a more refined sense of taste and smell than a healthy 25 year old.
  • 29. Part 3: Find out more
  • 30. Information for this slide show was derived from a variety of sources, including:
    CTL Center for Learning
    McCrindle Research
    Scientific American
    NCVER Research Papers
    I have posted links regarding NCVER on my Wiki if you wish to find out more