Gesell (1948) used "drawing to investigate the child mind. When he asked three year olds to copy geometric shapes - squares, circles, triangles, crosses, diamonds - they did rather poorly. Yet the normal child of this age spontaneously draws esthetic versions of these geometric forms except for the diamond. Apparently, the mental activity involved in copy work differs from that needed for spontaneous art.“ Kellogg, p 179
What doesn't work and why
Lowest Literacy Learners: What Doesnt Work and WhyJean Marrapodi firstname.lastname@example.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-61615
BrainstormWork with aneighbor to list allof the necessaryskills for reading
During Reading “Every moment of reading involves interpreting print through neural networks that assign sounds to the letters and bring meaning from the lexicon, the language dictionary that develops in the brain through life. When a word does not make sense, the reader sounds it out in an effort to connect it to the lexicon and may bring an alternative interpretations to make sense of the message. An expert reader does this within milliseconds without being conscious of the process.” Abadzi, H. (2009). Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes, p 22
Reading Today: Four Areas Alphabetics Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency
Label Your List Alphabetics Comprehension A C Vocabulary Fluency V F
Scarborough, H. 2001. Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities: Evidence, theory, and practice. Pp. 97-110 inS. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.) Handbook of Early Literacy. NY: Guilford Press.
What DOESN’T WorkIf at first you don’t succeed, try, try again, & again & again.
Context Faith-based setting Adult Sunday School Class Liberian refugees Senior citizens, age unknown (not tracked in Liberia) Meet 1 hour/week for past 6 years
Preamble: Spring 2006 Lesson One: Palm Sunday Story told with help of an interpreter Draw a picture to illustrate the story Could not do. Through a translator: “We can’t do that. We haven’t practiced like you have to be able to do that.”
Preamble Two Lesson Two: Easter Ok, let’s copy some drawings to tell the story. We can’t do that.
Preamble Three Let’s try to copy some symbols then. Could not complete unless dots were drawn to connect the lines. Circles were misshapen and barely recognizable.
Why Didn’t That Work? Never touched pencil, paper or book No experience drawing Did not know what markers did No concept of symbols representing thingsBetter Approach Demonstrate writing tools Allow to experiment with drawing materials
From the research“The learner who knows how to learn comes to class withtools for tackling the different process of masteringlearning to read in a new language. The learner who doesnot have some educational experience usually has lessinformation upon which to draw in coping with conceptsas well as fewer techniques with which to tackle the job.”(Brod, 1999, p5)
Adult Non-literates Have Not Developed Most School Skills• Awareness of individual sounds in words; a sense of language associated with print• Visual processing and discrimination skills (e.g. seeing what is important in pictures, seeing differences in letters and words)• Fine motor skills for holding writing utensils, writing on lines, in boxes• Thinking and processing skills which are learned in school (Lovrien Schwarz, 2012)
Some DifferencesLiterate Learners Non-literate LearnersLearn from print Learn by doing and watchingTend to be visually oriented Tend to be aurally orientedMake lists to remember Repeat to rememberSpend years learning to read Have limited time for learning to readKnow they can learn Lack confidence in their learning abilityCan distinguish between May accept all content asimportant and less important being of equal valuepoints Brod, 1999, p6
Even their brains are different• “…Schooling and in particular the knowledge of orthography introduces in the brain new strategies for information processing…” (Castro-Caldas & Reis, 2003)• “…Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult human brain.” (Castro-Caldas, Petersson, Reis, Stone-Elander & Ingvar,1998)• “…Brains of illiterate subjects show patterns of activation that are different from those of literate subjects, thus reflecting that environmental conditions can influence brain organization.” (Ostroski-Solis, Garcia & Perez, 2004)
Some SimilaritiesLiterate learners Non-literate learners•Have varying needs and goals•Learn best when content is relevant to their lives•Come with life experiences and skills that can be leveraged•Want to succeed
Sight Word Approach Elizabeth loves Jesus Switched cards: Jesus loves Elizabeth Said: Elizabeth loves Jesus.
Why Didn’t That Work? No print awareness No idea that language is made of words No connection between word and concept Too much, too fastBetter Approach Need foundation of symbolism Introduce idea of words as print
Why Didn’t That Work? Words were not by the picture Did not make sense they were out of order Didn’t understand concept of drawing the line to the wordBetter Approach Practice matching cards to pictures Explicit explanation of the concept in a group Draw lines after concept of matching words to pictures is wholly understood
Limited Memory Resources “People’s level of education influences their ability to solve abstract problems, use readily presented data in decisions, recognize and name pictures of objects and understand radio broadcasts. Most important, the unschooled perform less well in most memory tasks: recalling a series of digits backward and forward, remembering lists of words, reproducing a short story, reproducing complex figures that were presented, recalling common objects, remembering sequences. The limited memory and cognitive resources probably also reduce performance in literacy classes.” Abadzi, H. (2003). Adult Literacy Outcomes, p 2
Why Didn’t That Work? Letters were things – new words to learn Capital or lower case, no connections No ideal of what a letter was Unable to discriminate between lettersBetter Approach Need foundation of symbolism Need to learn phonological concepts – words, sounds Introduce idea of words made of letters Talk about how letters look Learn to listen for sounds slowly
From the research•Young-Scholten and Strom found that while all of theirstudy participants “demonstrated solid knowledge of thealphabet in their ability to read letters in different fontsand out of order . . . many demonstrated no phonemicawareness and no decoding ability” (p. 63).•Such findings indicate that knowledge of thealphabet alone does not lead to phonologicalawareness and the ability to decode words.(Vinegrov and Bigelow, 2010)
Match letter to picture Not successful Used puzzle shape clues, not letters.
Why Didn’t That Work? No phonemic awareness Unable to differentiate all sounds Pictures did not connect with real things No phonemic manipulation skillsBetter Approach Learn to listen for sounds Need foundation of symbolism Introduce idea of words made of letters Work with photographs Build visual literacy
From the research•Adults with limited literacy are generally lacking somecritical skills, such as sound-symbol association anddecoding skills (Gombert, 1994; Kurvers & van deCraats, 2007; Young-Scholten & Strom, 2006).•“Children learning in their first language have a naturalfacility for distinguishing and reproducing languagesounds (Minnesota Literacy Council, 1994). They canwork easily with the sounds they hear. Adults learningin a second language have limited abilities; they areconditioned to hear only the sounds that occur in theirnative languages and have less facility in reproducingunfamiliar sounds.” (Brod, 1999)
Learners Have Limited Visual LiteracySilver (1999) points out that learners frompre-literate societies may also haveproblems in “seeing” the third dimension inpictures: a simple line drawing of achair on the chalkboard may not convey theconcept of “chair” to someone withoutexperience with print media.
What does this mean?a) Headacheb) Feverc) Worriedd) Sleepe) Busy
What does this mean? a) Headache b) Fever c) Worried d) Sleep e) BusyThese were actual answers from learners describing the picture
Actual Answersa) Talkingb) Screamingc) Woman’s braind) Something about to hit the woman’s heade) Rain is coming
Actual Answersa) Basketballb) Basketball backboard and courtc) Computer monitord) Tiree) Book and stereo speaker
Actual Answersa) Clockb) Arrow counts minutesc) Arrow shows direction of movementd) Guidance for the short hande) Shadow cast by hand
Actual Answers a) Family b) Teacher and students c) Watching something d) Screaming e) Taking a picture
Teach them to read pictures Students did not know this was autumn.
Four Stages of Reading Development Students begin to make correlations Emergent among oral, written, and printed stimuli Beginning to read, uses problem Early solving to collect clues about meaning of new words Make sense of longer, more complex Transitional texts; employs strategies to support meaning Reads independently for extended Fluent periods; relies on text more than illustrations Ellery, V. (2009). Creating Strategic Readers, Newark, DE: International Reading Association. P.34.
LESLLASTUDENTS Pre-emergent! Students begin to make correlations Emergent among oral, written, and printed stimuli Beginning to read, uses problem Early solving to collect clues about meaning of new words Make sense of longer, more complexTransitional texts; employs strategies to support meaning Reads independently for extended Fluent periods; relies on text more than illustrations Ellery, V. (2009). Creating Strategic Readers, Newark, DE: International Reading Association. P.34.
Available in Ellery, V. (2009). Creating Strategic Readers
6 Essential Pre-Reading Skills Narrative Skills Print Motivation Vocabulary Print Awareness Letter Knowledge Phonological Awareness From Every Child Ready to Read a joint project of the Public Library Association and the Association for Library Service to Children.
6 Essential Pre-Reading SkillsNarrative SkillsBeing able to describethings and events andtell stories.How can weencourage thisin our learners? Image by Eric Westbrook http://www.ericwestbrook.com/p590.html
6 Essential Pre-Reading Skills Print Motivation Being interested in and enjoying books. How can we encourage this in our learners?
6 Essential Pre-Reading SkillsVocabularyKnowing thename of things.How can weencourage thisin our learners?
6 Essential Pre-Reading Skills Print Awareness Noticing print, knowing how to handle books & how to follow words on a page.How can we encourage this in our learners?
6 Essential Pre-Reading SkillsLetter Knowledge Knowing letters are different from each other, knowing their names and sounds and recognizing letters everywhere. How can we encourage this in our learners?
6 Essential Pre-Reading Skills Phonological Awareness Being able to hear and play with the smaller sounds in words. Wait! What’s the difference between phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and phonics?
Being phonologically aware meansknowing ways in which orallanguage is divided into smallercomponents and is manipulated. (Chard & Dickson, 1999)• This is a sentence.• It is made up of words.• Words are made of syl la bles.• Syllables are made of /s/ /n/d/z/
Adult Learners are Swiss Cheese We need to teach to the holes
Task Analysis Process of identifying elements required to complete a task Step by step procedure or list of knowledge and skills Used in special education and training programsCompare with learner abilities. This identifies the holes. Teach to the holes!!
Picture Recognition Task Analysis Identify pictures Know what items in pictures are [mental model] (elephant!?!) Know English word for item Sound Recognition Hear differences between sounds Isolate initial phoneme Word RecognitionLetter Recognition Connect word to picture Visually differentiate letters Identify letters Association Recognize capital and lower Connect letter, sound,case letters and picture for six items
What skills are needed to play? Card game Find the detail in the picture
What works? Whole-Part-Whole Vowels Connect to real life ConceptBut FIRST Vocabulary1. Do a deep task analysis2. Ensure the foundation is in place……3. Or it all just rolls away.
Connect with me! Jean Marrapodijmarrapodi@applestar.org @jmarrapodi 401-440-616 5