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WH Chapter 7 Aztecs
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WH Chapter 7 Aztecs

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  • 1. CHAPTER 7 Aztecs
  • 2. ROOTS OF AZTEC CULTURE Long before Mayan cities rose in the south, the city of Teotihuacan emerged in the Valley of Mexico  The Valley of Mexico is a huge oval basin ringed by snowcapped volcanoes, located in the high plateau of central Mexico 
  • 3. MAP OF EARLY CIVILIZATIONS IN MEXICO
  • 4. TEOTIHUACAN The city of Teotihuacan was well planned, with wide roads, massive temples, and large apartment buildings  The Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon rose majestically towards the sky along the main avenue  Citizens of Teotihuacan worshipped a powerful nature goddess and rain god  Eventually Teotihuacan fell to invaders but its culture influenced later peoples, especially the Aztecs 
  • 5. TEOTIHUACAN
  • 6. ARRIVAL OF THE AZTECS In the late 1200s, bands of nomadic peoples, the ancestors of the Aztecs, migrated into the Valley of Mexico from the north  According to Aztec legend, the gods had told them to search for an eagle perched atop a cactus holding a snake in its beak  The people found this sign on a swampy island in Lake Texcoco  Once they settled, the Aztecs shifted from hunting to farming  They slowly built the city of Tenochtitlan on the site of present-day Mexico City 
  • 7. VALLEY OF MEXICO
  • 8. LAKE TEXCOCO
  • 9. ARRIVAL OF THE AZTECS As their population grew, the Aztecs found ingenious ways to create more farmland  They built chinampas, artificial islands made of earth piled on reed mats that were anchored to the shallow lake bed  On these “floating gardens”, they raised corn, beans, and squash  They gradually filled in parts of the lake and created canals for transportation  Three wide stone causeways linked Tenochtitlan to the mainland 
  • 10. CHINAMPAS
  • 11. TENOCHTITLAN
  • 12. TENOCHTITLAN
  • 13. CONQUERING AN EMPIRE In the 1400s, the Aztecs greatly expanded their territory  Through a combination of fierce conquests and shrewd alliances, they spread their rule across most of Mexico, from the Gulf of Mexico on the east to the Pacific Ocean on the west  By 1500, the Aztec empire numbered an estimated 30 million people  War brought immense wealth as well as power  Tribute, or payment from conquered peoples, helped the Aztecs turn their capital into a magnificent city 
  • 14. AZTEC EMPIRE
  • 15. THE WORLD OF THE AZTECS When the Spanish and Hernan Cortes reached Tenochtitlan in 1519, they were awestruck at its magnificence  From its temples and royal palaces to its zoos and floating gardens, Tenochtitlan was a city of wonders 
  • 16. WORLD OF THE AZTECS---GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY           Unlike the Mayan city-states, each of which had its own king, the Aztecs had a single ruler Aztec Social Pyramid--Emperor Nobles, Priests Warriors Commoners Slaves Long-distance traders ferried goods across the empire and beyond From the highlands, they took goods such as weapons, tools, and rope to barter for tropical products such as jaguar skins and cocoa beans They also served as spies, finding new areas for trade and conquest
  • 17. WORLD OF THE AZTECS---RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Priests were very important to the Aztecs  They performed rituals needed to appease the many Aztec gods  The chief god was Huitzilopochtli, the sun god  The Aztecs believed that Huitzilopochtli battled the forces of darkness each night and was reborn again each morning  To give the sun the strength to rise each day, the Aztecs offered human sacrifices 
  • 18. HUITZILOPOCHTLI
  • 19. WORLD OF THE AZTECS---RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Priests offered the hearts of tens of thousands of victims to Huitzilopochtili and other Aztec gods  Most of the victims were prisoners of war, but sometimes a noble family gave up one of its own members to appease the gods  Other cultures such as the Olmecs and Mayas had practiced human sacrifice, but not on the massive scale of the Aztecs 
  • 20. WORLD OF THE AZTECS---EDUCATION AND LEARNING Priests were the keepers of Aztec knowledge  Besides performing rituals, they also recorded laws and events, and they also ran schools  Others used their skills in astronomy and mathematics to produce a calendar  The Aztecs believed that illnesses were punishments from the gods  Aztec physicians could set broken bones, treat dental cavities, and also prescribed steam baths as cures for ills 
  • 21. DOWNFALL OF THE AZTECS Hernan Cortes was the Spanish conquistador who took over the Aztec empire  The Aztec emperor, Montezuma, tried to appease the Spanish by offering gold by then Spaniards could never be given enough to satisfy their liking  After finally defeating the Aztecs, Cortes destroyed Tenochtitlan and rebuilt the city as Mexico City, the present-day capital of Mexico 
  • 22. HERNAN CORTES
  • 23. SPANISH HONOR
  • 24. ROUTE OF THE SPANIARDS
  • 25. MONTEZUMA
  • 26. MEXICO CITY
  • 27. MEXICO CITY AT NIGHT