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WH Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes
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WH Chapter 6 Section 1 Notes

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  • 1. Section 1 Notes
  • 2.    Horatius---legendary Roman hero who supposedly single-handedly saved Rome from the invading Etruscan army This legend helps us understand the virtues that the Romans admired Courage, loyalty, and devotion to duty were the pillars on which the Romans would build a mighty empire
  • 3.     Rome began as a small city-state in Italy that ended up ruling the entire Mediterranean world The Italian peninsula is shaped like a boot!!! It juts into the Mediterranean Sea The peninsula is centrally located in the Mediterranean and the city of Rome is in the center of Italy This location helped the Romans expand first in Italy and then later into the lands around the Mediterranean
  • 4.     Because of its geography, Italy was much easier to unite than Greece Unlike Greece, Italy is not broken up into small, isolated valleys The Apennine Mountains are less rugged than the mountains of Greece Italy has broad, fertile plains both in the north and under the shadow of the Alps and these plains helped to support a growing population
  • 5.   The ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, migrated into Italy by about 800BC and settled along the Tiber River in small villages scattered over low-lying hills where they farmed and herded These villages would in time grow into Rome, the city of seven hills
  • 6.      The Romans shared the peninsula with Greek colonists and the Etruscans, who for a time ruled central Italy including Rome The Romans learned a lot from the Etruscans They adapted the Etruscan alphabet Romans learned to use the arch in building and adapted Etruscan engineering techniques to drain the marshy lands along the Tiber River Etruscan gods and goddesses merged with Roman deities
  • 7.     The Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler in 509BC; this date is considered to be the founding of the Roman state The Romans set up a new government in which some officials were chosen by the people Republic---”thing of the people” Romans thought that a republic form of government would keep any individual from gaining too much power
  • 8.    In the early republic, the most powerful governing body was the senate---they made laws and served for life Each of the 300 senate members were patricians Patrician---member of the landholding upper class
  • 9.     Two consuls were elected every year by the senate Their job was to supervise the business of government and command the armies; they were also expected to consult with the senate They were only allowed to serve one term By limiting their time in office and making the consuls responsible to the senate, Rome had a system of checks on the power of government
  • 10.     In the event of war, the senate chose a dictator, a ruler who had complete control over the government Each Roman dictator was only allowed to rule for a period of six months The model dictator was Cincinnatus Cincinnatus organized an army, led the Romans to victory against the enemy, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmlands---all within 16 days!!!
  • 11.    At first, all government officials were patricians (landholding upper class) Plebeians (farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders i.e. the bulk of the population) had little influence The Laws of the 12 Tables helped the plebeians know what Roman laws were and they could now appeal judgments from patrician judges against them
  • 12.    In time, the plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials, called tribunes, to protect their interests The tribunes could veto those laws that they felt were harmful to the plebeians Plebeians eventually forced the senate to chose plebeians as consuls, appoint plebeians to high offices, and finally open up the senate itself to plebeians
  • 13.   Although the senate still dominated the Roman government, the common people gained access to power and won safeguards for their rights without having to resort to war or revolution Connection to our history---more than 2,000 years later the framers of the U.S. Constitution would adapt such Roman ideas as the senate, the veto, and checks on political power
  • 14.     The basic unit of Roman society was the family The father had absolute power of a household according to Roman law He enforced strict discipline and demanded total respect for his authority His wife was subject to his authority and was not allowed to administer her own affairs
  • 15.    Roman women played a larger role in society than Greek women did Women ran businesses such as small shops or even major shipyards Most women, though, worked at home raising their families, spinning, or weaving
  • 16.    Both girls and boys learned to read and write (including the lower classes) By the late republic, wealthy Romans were hiring private tutors, often Greeks, to supervise the education of their children Rhetoric was an important subject for boys who wanted to pursue political careers
  • 17.      Roman gods and goddesses resembled those of the Etruscans and Greeks Jupiter---main Roman god ruled over all other gods (Zeus) Juno---wife of Jupiter who protected marriage (Hera) Neptune---god of the sea (Poseidon) Mars---god of war
  • 18.    The Roman calendar was full of feasts and other celebrations to honor the gods and ensure divine favor for the city As loyal citizens, Romans joined in these festivals, which helped to inspire a sense of community Dozens of temples with statues of the gods were located throughout Rome for Romans to worship and ask for divine assistance
  • 19.     Roman armies first conquered the Etruscans and then the Greek city-states in the south By about 270 BC, Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula Rome’s success was due to skillful diplomacy and to its loyal, well-trained army The basic military unit was the legion, made up of about 5,000 men
  • 20.     Roman armies consisted of citizen-soldiers who fought without pay and supplied their own weapons (like in Greece) Roman citizens made good soldiers because they were brought up to value loyalty, courage, and respect for authority To ensure success, Roman commanders mixed rewards with harsh punishments Soldiers who showed courage in battle won praise and gifts---if a unit fled from battle, 1 out of every 10 men from the disgraced unit was put to death!!!
  • 21.    Rome generally treated its defeated enemies with justice Conquered peoples had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army In return, Rome let them keep their own customs, money, and local government
  • 22.    Rome gave the highly prized right of full citizenship to a few privileged groups among the conquered peoples Others became partial citizens, who were allowed to marry Romans and carry out trade in Rome Most conquered lands remained loyal to Rome even in bad times because of these policies
  • 23.     To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers throughout the land It also built a network of all-weather military roads to link distant territories to Rome As trade and travel increased, local peoples incorporated Latin into their languages and adopted many Roman customs and beliefs (assimilation) Italy began to slowly united under Roman rule

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