Section 3 Notes
The Complex Caste System
 The three pillars of Indian life are the caste
system, family, and village
 Aryans divided soc...
Aryan Caste System
Caste System
The Complex Caste System
 To ensure spiritual purity, a web of complex caste rules
governed every aspect of life---where ...
Caste System
Castes and Relationships
 http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/08/world/india-love-
commandos/index.html?hpt=hp_c3
Untouchables
Untouchables
Untouchables
Untouchables
Untouchables
Untouchables
The Complex Caste System
 The caste system ensured a stable social order
 People could not change their status in this l...
Family Life
 Ideal family was the joint family---
parents, children, grandchildren, uncles, and cousins
shared a common d...
Family Life
 In early Aryan society, women enjoyed a higher status
than in later times
 By late Gupta times, upper-class...
Family Life
 A woman’s primary duties were to marry, show
devotion to her husband, and raise children
 Beyond these resp...
Family Life
 As customs changed, a high-caste widow was
forbidden to remarry
 Often, a widow became a sati (“virtuous wo...
Village Life
 The village was at the heart of life
 A typical village included a cluster of homes made of
earth or stone...
Village Life
 In most of India, farming depended on the rains
brought by the summer monsoons
 Too much or too little rai...
Monsoon Flooding
Monsoon Flooding
Monsoon Flooding
Monsoon Flooding
Monsoon Flooding
Monsoon Flooding
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WH Chapter 4 Section 3 Notes

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WH Chapter 4 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. Section 3 Notes
  2. 2. The Complex Caste System  The three pillars of Indian life are the caste system, family, and village  Aryans divided society into four classes (you learned this in the previous chapter)  Non-Aryans were considered outcasts and held the lowest jobs  The caste system ensured a stable social order  People could move up castes in the afterlife
  3. 3. Aryan Caste System
  4. 4. Caste System
  5. 5. The Complex Caste System  To ensure spiritual purity, a web of complex caste rules governed every aspect of life---where people lived, what they ate, how they dressed, and how they earned a living  Rules forbade marrying outside one’s caste or eating with members of another caste  High-caste people had the strictest rules to protect them from the spiritually polluted lower castes  “Untouchables”---lowest ranked caste---life was harsh--- received the most “impure” jobs such as digging graves, cleaning streets, or turning animal hides into leather
  6. 6. Caste System
  7. 7. Castes and Relationships  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/08/world/india-love- commandos/index.html?hpt=hp_c3
  8. 8. Untouchables
  9. 9. Untouchables
  10. 10. Untouchables
  11. 11. Untouchables
  12. 12. Untouchables
  13. 13. Untouchables
  14. 14. The Complex Caste System  The caste system ensured a stable social order  People could not change their status in this life, but they could reach a higher caste in a future life by fulfilling the duties of their present caste  The caste system also adapted to changing conditions, absorbing foreigners and new occupations into their own castes  This flexibility allowed people with diverse customs to live side by side in relative harmony
  15. 15. Family Life  Ideal family was the joint family--- parents, children, grandchildren, uncles, and cousins shared a common dwelling  Indian family was patriarchal---the father or oldest male in the family headed the household  Arranged marriages were (and still are) common  A dowry was paid by the bride’s family to the groom’s family
  16. 16. Family Life  In early Aryan society, women enjoyed a higher status than in later times  By late Gupta times, upper-class women were restricted to their homes  Women were thought to have shakti  Shakti---creative energy of a woman that a man lacked  Positive---helped to make her husband complete  Negative---could be destructive if she didn’t listen
  17. 17. Family Life  A woman’s primary duties were to marry, show devotion to her husband, and raise children  Beyond these responsibilities, women had few rights within the family and society  Rebirth into a higher existence was gained through devotion to her husband
  18. 18. Family Life  As customs changed, a high-caste widow was forbidden to remarry  Often, a widow became a sati (“virtuous woman”)  This was accomplished by the widow joining her dead husband on his funeral pyre (fire)  Some widows accepted this painful death as a noble duty that would wipe out both her and her husband’s sins
  19. 19. Village Life  The village was at the heart of life  A typical village included a cluster of homes made of earth or stone  Farmers grew crops such as wheat, rice, cotton, and sugar cane  Each village included people of different castes who performed the tasks needed for daily life  Castes might include priests, landowners, herders, farmers, metalworkers, and carpenters, as well as such low castes as leather workers and sweepers
  20. 20. Village Life  In most of India, farming depended on the rains brought by the summer monsoons  Too much or too little rain meant famine  Each village ran its own affairs based on caste rules and traditions  A village headman and council made decisions  Women at one time were able to serve on the councils but were later restricted and their role in society became virtually non-existent outside of their homes
  21. 21. Monsoon Flooding
  22. 22. Monsoon Flooding
  23. 23. Monsoon Flooding
  24. 24. Monsoon Flooding
  25. 25. Monsoon Flooding
  26. 26. Monsoon Flooding

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