CHAPTER 3
Section 3 Notes
The Geography of China
 The ancient Chinese called their land
“Zhongguo”---Middle Kingdom
 China was isolated by long di...
The Geography of China
 Physical barriers---
 West and Southwest---high mountain ranges
(Tien Shan and Himalayas)
 Sout...
Himalayan Mountains
Himalayas
Mt. Everest (29,035 ft.)
Mt. Everest
Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
The Geography of China
 The Chinese heartland lay along the east
coast and the valleys of the Huang He River
(Yellow Rive...
Yangzi River
Yangzi River
Yangzi River
Geography of China
 Beyond the heartland are the outlying
regions of Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria
 China also exten...
Tibet
Flag of Tibet
Dalai Lama
Tibet
Tibet
Tibet
Protests for a Free Tibet
The Geography of China
 Chinese history began in the Huang He
(Yellow River) valley, where Neolithic people
learned to fa...
The Geography of China
 As loess settles to the river bottom, it raises
the water level
 Chinese peasants labored consta...
Huang He (Yellow River)
Yellow River (Huang He)
China Under the Shang
 The Shang dynasty ruled from 1650-1027BC
 Shang China probably more closely
resembled the city-st...
Religious Beliefs
 Prayed to many gods and nature spirits
(polytheistic)
 The prayers of rulers and nobles to their
ance...
Religious Beliefs
 The Chinese believed the universe reflected a
delicate balance between two forces, yin and
yang
 Yin ...
Yin and Yang
System of Writing
 Writing, like religious beliefs, was an early
development that continued to influence
cultures in Chin...
System of Writing
 Written Chinese took shape almost 4,000 years
ago and it evolved to include tens of thousands
of chara...
Chinese Writing
The Zhou Dynasty
 Battle-hardened Zhou people overthrew the
Shang dynasty
 Last from 1027-256BC
 Used the Mandate of He...
The Zhou Dynasty
 The Zhou rewarded their supporters by
granting them control over different regions
 China became a feu...
The Zhou Dynasty
 China’s economy grew
 Iron axes and ox-drawn iron plows replaced
stone, wood, and bronze tools allowin...
Chinese Achievements
 Calendar was composed of 365 ¼ days
 By 1000BC, the Chinese had discovered how
to make silk thread...
Silkworms
Processing the Cocoons
Spinning the Thread
Final Product (thread)
Chinese Achievements
 Silk became China’s most valuable export
 The trade route that eventually linked China
and the Mid...
The Silk Road
Chinese Achievements
 Under the Zhou, the Chinese made the first
books
 They bound thin strips of wood or bamboo
togethe...
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WH Chapter 3 Section 3 Notes

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WH Chapter 3 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 Section 3 Notes
  2. 2. The Geography of China  The ancient Chinese called their land “Zhongguo”---Middle Kingdom  China was isolated by long distances and physical barriers---the ancient Chinese believed that China was the center of the Earth and the sole source of civilization
  3. 3. The Geography of China  Physical barriers---  West and Southwest---high mountain ranges (Tien Shan and Himalayas)  Southeast---thick jungles  North---Gobi desert  East---Pacific Ocean  All of these physical barriers helped to contribute to Chinese isolation
  4. 4. Himalayan Mountains
  5. 5. Himalayas
  6. 6. Mt. Everest (29,035 ft.)
  7. 7. Mt. Everest
  8. 8. Gobi Desert
  9. 9. Gobi Desert
  10. 10. The Geography of China  The Chinese heartland lay along the east coast and the valleys of the Huang He River (Yellow River) and theYangzi River  In ancient times as today, these fertile farming regions supported the largest populations  The rivers provided water for irrigation and served as transportation routes
  11. 11. Yangzi River
  12. 12. Yangzi River
  13. 13. Yangzi River
  14. 14. Geography of China  Beyond the heartland are the outlying regions of Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria  China also extended its influence over the Himalayan region ofTibet, which the Chinese called Xizang
  15. 15. Tibet
  16. 16. Flag of Tibet
  17. 17. Dalai Lama
  18. 18. Tibet
  19. 19. Tibet
  20. 20. Tibet
  21. 21. Protests for a Free Tibet
  22. 22. The Geography of China  Chinese history began in the Huang He (Yellow River) valley, where Neolithic people learned to farm  The needed to control the flooding of the river  TheYellow River got its name from the loess that it carries eastward from Siberia and Mongolia  Nicknamed the “River of Sorrows”
  23. 23. The Geography of China  As loess settles to the river bottom, it raises the water level  Chinese peasants labored constantly to build and repair dikes that kept the river from overflowing  If the dikes broke, flood waters burst over the land, destroying crops and bringing mass starvation
  24. 24. Huang He (Yellow River)
  25. 25. Yellow River (Huang He)
  26. 26. China Under the Shang  The Shang dynasty ruled from 1650-1027BC  Shang China probably more closely resembled the city-states of Sumer than the centralized government ruled by the Egyptian pharaohs  Shang society---royal family, warriors, artisans and merchants, peasants
  27. 27. Religious Beliefs  Prayed to many gods and nature spirits (polytheistic)  The prayers of rulers and nobles to their ancestors were thought to serve the community as a whole, ensuring good harvests or victory in war  Many westerners saw this as “ancestor worship”
  28. 28. Religious Beliefs  The Chinese believed the universe reflected a delicate balance between two forces, yin and yang  Yin was linked to Earth, darkness, and female forces  Yang stood for Heaven, light, and male forces  The well-being of the universe depended on maintaining balance between yin and yang (they were not opposing forces)
  29. 29. Yin and Yang
  30. 30. System of Writing  Writing, like religious beliefs, was an early development that continued to influence cultures in China throughout history  The system used both pictographs and ideographs  Shang priests wrote on oracle bones  The questions were addressed to the gods or the spirit of an ancestor  Priests heated the bone or shell until it cracked and then interpreted the pattern of cracks to provide answers or advice from the ancestors
  31. 31. System of Writing  Written Chinese took shape almost 4,000 years ago and it evolved to include tens of thousands of characters  Each character represented a word or idea and was made up of a number of different strokes  The Chinese have simplified their writing over the years  Chinese is one of the most difficult languages to learn---students must memorize over 10,000 characters to read a newspaper!!!
  32. 32. Chinese Writing
  33. 33. The Zhou Dynasty  Battle-hardened Zhou people overthrew the Shang dynasty  Last from 1027-256BC  Used the Mandate of Heaven idea to justify their overthrow of the Shang  Mandate of Heaven---rulers got the divine right to rule from the gods---if a ruler was cruel or unjust Heaven would withdraw its support for the rulers
  34. 34. The Zhou Dynasty  The Zhou rewarded their supporters by granting them control over different regions  China became a feudal state  Feudalism---system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler
  35. 35. The Zhou Dynasty  China’s economy grew  Iron axes and ox-drawn iron plows replaced stone, wood, and bronze tools allowing farmers to be more productive  New crops such as soybeans  Began to use money, built new roads, built new canals  Economic expansion led to an increase in population and territory
  36. 36. Chinese Achievements  Calendar was composed of 365 ¼ days  By 1000BC, the Chinese had discovered how to make silk thread from the cocoons of silkworms  Women did the laborious work of tending the silkworms and processing the cocoons into thread and weaving the threads into a smooth cloth that was then dyed  Only royalty and nobles could afford this silk
  37. 37. Silkworms
  38. 38. Processing the Cocoons
  39. 39. Spinning the Thread
  40. 40. Final Product (thread)
  41. 41. Chinese Achievements  Silk became China’s most valuable export  The trade route that eventually linked China and the Middle East became known as the Silk Road  To protect their control of this profitable trade, the Chinese kept the process of silk- making a secret
  42. 42. The Silk Road
  43. 43. Chinese Achievements  Under the Zhou, the Chinese made the first books  They bound thin strips of wood or bamboo together and then carefully drew characters on the flat surface with a brush and ink  Among the greatest Zhou works is the Book of Songs---many of its poems describe such events as planting, harvesting, praise kings and describe court ceremonies, and also includes sad love songs!!!

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