WH Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes
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WH Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes

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WH Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes WH Chapter 3 Section 2 Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Section 2 Notes
  •  The Aryans migrated across Europe and Asia seeking water and pasture for their horses and cattle  Early Aryans built no cities and left no statues  Most of what we know about them comes from the Vedas  Vedas---collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings
  •  In the Vedas, the Aryans appear as warriors who fought in chariots with bows and arrows  They loved eating, drinking, music, chariot races, and dice games  The Aryans valued cattle, which provided them with food and clothing  When they Aryans became settled farmers, families continued to measure their wealth in cows and bulls
  •  From the Vedas, we have learned that the Aryans divided their society according to occupation  Brahmins---Priests  Kshatriyas---Warriors  Vaisyas---Herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants  Sudras---Farmworkers, servants, and other laborers  The Aryans captured the Dravidian people and placed them along with other non-Aryan peoples in the Sudra class
  •  During the Vedic age, class divisions came to reflect social and economic roles more than ethnic differences between Aryans and non- Aryans  As these changes occurred, they gave rise to a more complex system of castes, or social groups into which people are born and which they cannot change
  •  The Vedas show that the Aryans were polytheistic  They worshipped gods and goddesses that embodied natural forces such as sky and sun, storm, and fire  Indra---god of war, chief Aryan deity, weapon was the thunderbolt which he used to destroy demons and to announce the arrival of rain  Veruna---god of order and creation  Agni---god of fire
  •  Over time, some religious thinkers were moving toward the notion of a single spiritual power beyond the many gods of the Vedas  Brahman---single spiritual power that resided in all things  Mysticism also started to evolve  Through meditation and yoga, Aryan mystics sought direct communication with divine forces  The religions that emerged in India after the Vedic age reflected the impact of mysticism as well as the notion of brahman
  •  Aryans tribes were led by chiefs called rajahs  Rajah---often the most skilled war leader who was elected to his position by an assembly of warriors  Aryans eventually fanned out over the Ganges basin  They started making tools out of iron  Sanskrit---written language developed by the Indian people
  •  The Mahabharata is India’s greatest epic  Tells of battles fought between rival Aryan tribes for control of the Ganges region  Five royal brothers, the Pandavas, lose their kingdom to their cousins but win it back after an 18 day battle and then bring peace to India  One episode, known as the Bhagavad-Gita reflects important Indian religious beliefs about the immortality of the soul and the importance of duty
  •  The Ramayana recounts the fantastic deeds of the daring hero Rama and his beautiful bride Sita  Sita is kidnapped by the demon-king Ravana  The rest of the story tells how Rama rescues Sita with the aid of the monkey general Hanuman
  •  Middle East gave rise to three major world religions---Judaism, Christianity, and Islam  South Asia was the birthplace of Hinduism and Buddhism