WH Chapter 5 Section 5 Notes


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WH Chapter 5 Section 5 Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 Section 5 Notes
  2. 2. Alexander the Great     King Philip of Macedonia brought all of Greece under his control around 338 B.C. He then wanted to conquer the neighboring Persian empire However, he was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding His son Alexander took over the thrown
  3. 3. King Philip
  4. 4. Macedonia Today
  5. 5. The Former Yugoslavia
  6. 6. Alexander the Great
  7. 7. Alexander the Great     Alexander took the thrown when he was only 20 years old He was well educated because his tutor had been Aristotle However, he was a fierce warrior who wanted to conquer the Persian empire He crossed the Dardanelles---the straight that separates Europe from Asia Minor
  8. 8. Alexander the Great     Alexander won victory after victory capturing Palestine, Egypt, Babylon and other Persian capitals He continued to push east and crossed the Hindu Kush mountains into northern India He continued winning battles, however, his troops began to grow tired and refused to continue moving east Alexander then retreated and headed back to Babylon
  9. 9. Alexander’s Empire
  10. 10. Alexander the Great     While still in Babylon, Alexander contracted a fever and died---he left his empire “to the strongest” However, no one leader was strong enough to succeed Alexander Eventually, three generals divided up his empire Macedonia and Greece went to one general, Egypt to another, and most of Persia to a third
  11. 11. The Legacy of Alexander     Although Alexander’s empire crumbled, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuries His most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Alexander had founded many new cities that bore his name Local peoples assimilated Greek ideas
  12. 12. The Legacy of Alexander     Gradually, a blending of eastern and western cultures occurred Alexander encouraged this blending of cultures by marrying a Persian woman and urged his soldiers to follow his example He also adopted many Persian customs including dress Hellenistic culture---combined Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences
  13. 13. The Legacy of Alexander      The heart of the Hellenistic world was located in Alexandria, Egypt It was located on the sea lanes between Europe and Asia A Greek architect designed the city Over a million people including Egyptians, Persians, Hebrews, and others lived there The most famous sight was the Pharos, an enormous lighthouse that was 440 feet tall
  14. 14. Alexandria, Egypt
  15. 15. Pharos
  16. 16. The Legacy of Alexander     Alexander and his successors encouraged the work of scholars The great Museum was built in Alexandria as a center of learning The Museum boasted laboratories, lecture halls, and even a zoo!!! It had a well-stocked library with thousands of scrolls representing the accumulated knowledge of the ancient world
  17. 17. The Legacy of Alexander    During the Hellenistic period, paintings, statues, and legal codes all show that women were no longer restricted to their homes Women learned to read and write---some became philosophers or poets In Egypt, Queen Cleopatra ruled the country ablely
  18. 18. Cleopatra
  19. 19. Hellenistic Civilization     Political turmoil during the Hellenistic age contributed to the rise of new schools of philosophy Stoicism---founded by Zeno---urged people to avoid desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life brought Stoics preached high moral standards including the idea of protecting the rights of fellow humans They taught that all people, including women and slaves, were morally equal because all had the power of reason
  20. 20. Zeno---founder of Stoicism
  21. 21. Hellenistic Civilization    Hellenistic thinkers built on earlier Greek, Babylonian, and Egyptian knowledge Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right triangle (a² + b²=c²) Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry
  22. 22. Pythagoras
  23. 23. Euclid
  24. 24. Hellenistic Civilization   The astronomer Aristarchus believed the Earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun (heliocentric solar system that was not accepted until almost 2,000 years later) The astronomer Eratosthenes showed that Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference
  25. 25. Hellenistic Civilization     The most famous Hellenistic scientist was Archimedes He applied principles of physics to make practical inventions Mastered the use of the lever and pulley “Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand on, and I will move the world”
  26. 26. Archimedes
  27. 27. Hellenistic Civilization     Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses and look for cures His Hippocratic oath set ethical standards for doctors Physicians swore to “help the sick according to my ability and judgment but never with a view to injury and wrong” and to protect the privacy of patients Present doctors take a similar oath
  28. 28. Hippocrates
  29. 29. Hippocratic Oath