Chapter 8 Section 4 Notes


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Chapter 8 Section 4 Notes

  1. 1. Section 4 Notes
  2. 2.      Europe’s economic recovery was symbolized by the appearance of new towns The revival period from 1000-1300 is known as the High Middle Ages The iron plow was created which made it easier to plow the heavy soil of northern Europe A new harness allowed for the use of horses to pull plows rather than oxen Windmills allowed the use of wind power to grind grain into flour---towns no longer needed to be located next to a swift water source in order to get their grain ground
  3. 3.        Feudal lords who wanted to boost their incomes pushed peasants to clear forests, drain swamps, and reclaim wasteland for farming and grazing animals Peasants adopted the three-field system One field planted with grains, one with legumes, one left fallow (unplanted) Legumes---helped restore soil fertility This new method left only 1/3 of land unplanted Farmers produced more food---population grows Between 1000-1300 Europe’s population doubles
  4. 4.    The growing population demanded more goods which helped bring trade back Trade routes brought goods from Asia and the Middle East Northern Europeans paid for goods with products such as honey, furs, cloth, tin, and lead
  5. 5.     Yearly trade fairs took place near navigable rivers or where busy trade routes met People flocked to these fairs and traded farm goods and animals Besides eating and drinking, they enjoyed the antics of jugglers, acrobats, or even dancing bears Peasants had no money to buy goods such as swords, sugar, and silks---these goods were purchased by feudal rulers, nobles, and wealthy churchmen
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  7. 7.       Small centers of trade developed into real medieval cities Some had populations of 10,000 and a few had populations over 100,000---towns of this size were not seen since Roman times The richest cities were in northern Italy and Flanders Merchants who set up new towns wanted a charter in order to protect their interests Charter---written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town Charters let townspeople choose their own leaders and control their own affairs---also had clauses that benefitted runaway serfs (year and a day)
  8. 8.     Banking houses were created in order to lend merchants capital to start businesses Partnerships began to become common--this let several investors pool their money together to start a business Insurance system was developed to help reduce business risks and insure goods being transported Bills of exchange allowed merchants to travel without carrying money
  9. 9.      The use of money undermined serfdom Many peasants began selling farm products to townspeople and paying their rent to their lords in cash rather than in labor By 1300, most peasants were tenant farmers or hired farm laborers By 1000, a middle class began to emerge in society Anti-Semitism began to rise against Jews…why?
  10. 10.      Medieval guilds were equivalent to our modern-day unions Each guild represented workers in a specific occupation--merchants, weavers, bakers, brewers, goldsm iths, etc. Becoming a guild member was hard At the age of 7 or 8 a child worked as an apprentice to a guild master for seven years and then went on to become a journeyman Women either had their own guilds, were guild masters, or worked as apprentices
  11. 11.    Medieval towns and cities were surrounded by high, protective walls As the city grew, space within the walls filled to overflowing, and newcomers had to settle in the fields outside the walls Every few years the city might have to rebuild its walls farther and farther out
  12. 12.     A typical medieval city was a jumble of narrow streets lined with tall houses Upper floors hung over the streets, making those below dark even in daytime Large cities had great cathedrals or a magnificent guild hall During the day, the streets echoed with the cries of hawkers selling their goods, at night the streets were deserted
  13. 13.     Even rich towns did not have garbage collection or sewer systems Residents simply flung their wastes into the street below Larger cities might pass laws, such as one requiring butchers to dump their garbage on the edge of town However, towns remained filthy, smelly, noisy, and crowded places (bad idea…you’ll see why in Chapter 9)