Although the French settled Canada, Britain
controlled it as a colony since 1763. In 1791, Britain
DIVIDED Canada into TWO PARTS. UPPER
CANADA included mostly ENGLISH-SPEAKING
PEOPLE. Mostly FRENCH-SPEAKING PEOPLE
lived in LOWER CANADA.
In the 1800s, however, CANADIANS UNITED and
REBELLED against British rule. Responding to the
rebellion, Parliament agreed to unite Upper and
Lower Canada and allow Canadians to control
local affairs. CANADA gained greater freedom
over the years and eventually became a NATION.
By 1818, the UNITED STATES and SPAIN had moved close
to war over the Spanish-held territory of FLORIDA. The
UNITED STATES wanted to take control of Florida in order
to keep Native Americans and enslaved Africans from
seeking refuge there.
SPAIN had little interest in trying to hold onto the region. In
1819, SPAIN ceded FLORIDA to the UNITED STATES in the
Throughout the early 1800s, SPAIN was forced to give up
other lands in the Western Hemisphere. During this time,
many LATIN AMERICAN COLONIES REVOLTED against
the SPANISH and declared their INDEPENDENCE.
MEXICO won its FREEDOM from SPAIN in 1821. By 1825,
SPAIN HAD LOST ALL OF ITS COLONIES IN LATIN
AMERICA EXCEPT PUERTO RICO AND CUBA.
Soon after losing their Latin American colonies, SPAIN and other
EUROPEAN NATIONS plotted to recapture them.
U.S. leaders OPPOSED such plans, declaring that Europeans no longer
had a right to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
In 1823, President Monroe made this position official by issuing the
MONROE DOCTRINE. The doctrine declared that EUROPEANS WERE
NOT TO COLONIZE OR OTHERWISE INTERFERE WITH NATIONS IN
THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE. In return, the United States PROMISED
THAT IT WOULD STAY OUT OF EUROPEAN AFFAIRS.
GREAT BRITAIN supported the doctrine and offered to support the
United States with its powerful navy. Many European nations were
surprised at Monroe’s boldness. However, they did not want to challenge
the United States---and the British navy.
The doctrine was PRAISED in the United States. To many citizens, it
demonstrated the NATION’S GROWING INDEPENDENCE AND