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Chapter 12 Section 2
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Chapter 12 Section 2


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  • 1. Section 2 Notes
  • 2.  AMERICANS and NEWCOMERS from Europe moved to the FRONTIER for a variety of reasons: many wanted the chance to own INEXPENSIVE LAND with RICH SOIL; some sought NEW ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES; some farmers had WORN OUT THE SOIL on their land and wanted new, fertile land; some wanted to START A NEW LIFE.  In 1775, DANIEL BOONE led a group of 30 pioneers through the Appalachian Mountains. They then cleared a trail to central Kentucky. It became the main road west. By 1800, about 20,000 settlers traveled this rocky, primitive trail, known as the WILDERNESS ROAD.
  • 3.  The rise of INDUSTRY and an INCREASE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION encouraged improvements in TRANSPORTATION. People wanted CHEAP, SPEEDY TRANSPORTATION to get RAW MATERIALS to factories and GOODS to market.  Between 1800 and 1830, several companies built private roads called TURNPIKES. Travelers on these roads had to pay a TOLL, which was used to improve the roads. Soon, turnpikes CONNECTED a number of CITIES in the East.  In 1806, Congress approved government funds to finance building the NATIONAL ROAD for western travel. When it was finished, the road connected CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND with what is now WHEELING, WEST VIRGINIA. Congress then lengthened the road, and by 1852, it stretched to VANDALIA, ILLINOIS.
  • 4.  As the nation build new roads, it also sought to improve river travel. In 1807, ROBERT FULTON launched the nation’s FIRST STEAMBOAT on the HUDSON RIVER. It greatly reduced travel time on the river. Soon, STEAMBOATS carried people and goods along the MISSISSIPPI RIVER and the GREAT LAKES.  In order to transport heavy goods, Americans built many CANALS. A CANAL is a channel dug out and filled with water to allow boats to cross a stretch of land.  The ERIE CANAL, built in 1825, opened a continuous water route LINKING THE GREAT LAKES WITH NEW YORK CITY’S HARBOR ON THE ATLANTIC COAST. It became the CHEAPEST WAY to send goods from the Northeast to the West. The success of the Erie Canal inspired many other canals to be built.