JAMES MADISON TAKES OVER
JAMES MADISON, JEFFERSON’S secretary of
state, won the presidential election of 1808.
In 1810, Congress passed a new law opening trade
with all nations. It allowed the President to reinstate
the embargo if FRANCE or BRITAIN again
interfered with American ships.
The British, however, continued their attacks on
American ships. In 1811, MADISON cut off trade
with Britain. The two countries moved closer to war.
NATIVE AMERICAN RESISTANCE
The British-American struggle on the seas was linked to
ongoing conflicts with NATIVE AMERICANS in the OHIO
VALLEY and NORTHWEST TERRITORY. The British in
CANADA supplied weapons to NATIVE AMERICANS
who were struggling to keep settlers off their land.
One of the leaders in this region was the SHAWNEE
In 1810, TECUMSEH and the U.S. military clashed in
the BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE in present-day Indiana.
Many soldiers and warriors died. The battle marked the
beginning of the long, deadly war between NATIVE
AMERICANS and white settlers on the frontier.
A CALL FOR WAR
A growing number of AMERICANS called for war
against GREAT BRITAIN. They were known as
Anti-British feelings were strongest in the WEST
and SOUTH. WESTERNERS believed there could
be no peace on the frontier until the BRITISH were
pushed out of NORTH AMERICA.
Meanwhile, SOUTHERNERS wanted to obtain
FLORIDA from SPAIN, which was BRITAIN’S ally.
MADISON soon gave in to the demands of the
WAR HAWKS, and in June 1812, he asked
Congress to declare war against GREAT BRITAIN.