Jorge Simões, 	

Instituto Superior Politécnico Gaya, Portugal	

www.ispgaya.pt	

From Games to Gamification	

Desenvolvime...
… and from Gamification to …	

•  Education	

•  Business	

•  Government	

•  Healthcare	

•  Lifestyle	

•  Sustainabilit...
q Origin and evolution	

q Definitions	

q Game elements	

q Behavior psychology	

q Examples	

q Gamification of educ...
If games are so engaging, let’s find out why, and use game
thinking and game design outside games to motivate and engage
pe...
q Soviet Union - early to mid 20th century, like a way to motivate
workers without relying on capitalist-style monetary i...
q “The wrong word for the right idea”;	

q Seen by many as misleading and difficult to define;	

q The term “gamification”...
(exploitationware; pointsification; badgification)
Some game designers do not agree neither with the word nor
with the con...
q Video games have become mainstream;	

q The Web 2.0 brought social games;	

q Change in technology: mobile devices wi...
Google Trends	

June, 	

2014	

The term only started to be searched in Google on August, 2010	

Gamification: web search i...
July, 2013	

Gamification: Gartner Hype Cycle	

	

Gartner uses hype cycles to track technology adoption: after the
“peak o...
“Motivating people through data.”	

(Rajat Paharia, founder of Bunchball, April 2014)	

	

“The use of game mechanics and ...
“The use of game design elements in non-game contexts” 	

(Deterding et al., 2011). 	

Gamification: definitions	

	

The mo...
The use of game design elements in non-game
contexts, to drive a game-like engagement in
order to promote desired behavior...
PBL / BLAP Elements	

Gamification: a definition - … game design elements …	

	

(Points, Badges and Leaderboards / Badges, ...
not the same as	

http://www.gamified.co.uk/2014/06/04/language-gamification-short-glossary/#.U56vay_eMso	

Gamification: a d...
Using game elements does not translate directly to engagement	

http://progresswars.com	

FB: Cow Clicker	

Gamification: a...
(until March 2013)	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …	

	

Foursquare
Business	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
Lifestyle & Wellness	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
Sustainability	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
Healthcare	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
Government	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …	

	

thefuntheory.com
Education	

Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …	

	

Gamified systems in
digital and non-digital
contexts
BigDoor	

BunchBall	

Badgeville	

Gygia	

	

Playbasis	

PunchTab	

CaptainUp	

Uplaude	

Uboost	

tierX	

…	

	

	

Gami...
Flow
Theory	

Self-Determination
Theory	

Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement …	

	

Psychology
The Self-Determination Theory (SDT)	

People are said to be intrinsically motivated when they do
something because it is i...
The Self-Determination Theory (SDT)	

Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement …	

Focus on psychologic...
8 major elements of flow: 	

q A challenge activity that requires skills; 	

q Clear goals;	

q Immediate feedback;	

q...
Gamification: a definition - … to promote desired behaviors.	

	

Fogg’s
Behavior
Model	

Psychology
A non-game context with high potential.	

Gamification of education	

Game-Based Learning (GBL) and the Serious Games
movem...
http://www.nmc.org/publications/2014-horizon-report-higher-ed	

Gamification of education
Gamification of education: tools
Gamification of education: tools	

https://wiki.mozilla.org/images/e/ed/Mozilla-OpenBadges-presentation.pdf
Gamification of education: learning platforms	

Gamified learning
platforms
Academy Platform LMS based on Fogg’s Behavioral Model 	

Gamification of education: learning platforms
Gamification of education: learning platforms
Gamification of education: learning platforms
Gamification of education: learning platforms
Gamification of education: learning platforms
Gamification of education: learning platforms	

Game elements in Moodle:	

q Quiz results block
(leaderboard)	

q Progres...
Gamification of education: with what and how?	

With what?	

q Gamified platforms	

	

q LMS with game elements
(plug-in’s...
§  Self-Determination Theory	

http://www.theselfdeterminationtheory.org	

§  Fogg’s Behavior Model	

http://www.behavio...
§  Nelson, M. (2012).
Soviet and american precursors to the gamification of work. In Lugmayr,A.,
editor, MindTrek, pages 2...
§  Fogg, B. (2009).A behavior model for persuasive design. In Proceedings of the
4th International Conference on Persuasi...
Obrigado,	

	

Jorge Simões, Instituto Superior Politécnico Gaya	

jsimoes@ispgaya.pt	

@jmapsimoes	

http://about.me/jmap...
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Palestra MIEIC Junho 2014

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Palestra realizada a 18 de junho de 2014, integrada da sessão de apresentação de trabalhos dos alunos da unidade curricular de Desenvolvimento de Jogos de Computador do Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Informática e Computação da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto.

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Palestra MIEIC Junho 2014

  1. 1. Jorge Simões, Instituto Superior Politécnico Gaya, Portugal www.ispgaya.pt From Games to Gamification Desenvolvimento de Jogos de Computador MIEIC 18 de junho de 2014
  2. 2. … and from Gamification to … •  Education •  Business •  Government •  Healthcare •  Lifestyle •  Sustainability •  etc From Games to Gamification
  3. 3. q Origin and evolution q Definitions q Game elements q Behavior psychology q Examples q Gamification of education q Tools and platforms q How to apply in education Agenda
  4. 4. If games are so engaging, let’s find out why, and use game thinking and game design outside games to motivate and engage people … Gamification: how did it started?
  5. 5. q Soviet Union - early to mid 20th century, like a way to motivate workers without relying on capitalist-style monetary incentives; q American management - on the transition from the 20th to the 21st century - turning the workplace into a more playful setting; q “Gamification of work” (or playbour) – Charles Coonradt (the “grandfather of gamification”) published the book The Game of Work (1984) to deal with employee motivation; q Frequent flyer programs in airline companies where travelers gain miles (i.e. points) that can be exchanged for some benefit; q Marketing campaigns incorporate game features for a long time. Gamification: the early origin
  6. 6. q “The wrong word for the right idea”; q Seen by many as misleading and difficult to define; q The term “gamification” was coined by Nick Pelling, a British programmer and video game designer in 2002 and became public in 2003; q Other alleged authors; q In digital media - written as gameification - was mentioned for the first time in 2008 in a blog post (Terrill, 2008). Gamification: the name
  7. 7. (exploitationware; pointsification; badgification) Some game designers do not agree neither with the word nor with the concept and propose alternate terms: Gamification: the name
  8. 8. q Video games have become mainstream; q The Web 2.0 brought social games; q Change in technology: mobile devices with sensors and always on-line. Gamification: why now?
  9. 9. Google Trends June, 2014 The term only started to be searched in Google on August, 2010 Gamification: web search interest
  10. 10. July, 2013 Gamification: Gartner Hype Cycle Gartner uses hype cycles to track technology adoption: after the “peak of inflated expectations” period, technologies will fall into the “trough of disillusionment”. Then, they will start evolving to the “slope of enlightenment” and some of them will reach the “plateau of productivity”.
  11. 11. “Motivating people through data.” (Rajat Paharia, founder of Bunchball, April 2014) “The use of game mechanics and experience design to digitally engage and motivate people to achieve their goals” (Brian Burke, Gartner,April 2014) “The process of making activities more game-like” (KevinWerbach, University of Pennsylvania, January 2014) Gamification: definitions
  12. 12. “The use of game design elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding et al., 2011). Gamification: definitions The most used definition:
  13. 13. The use of game design elements in non-game contexts, to drive a game-like engagement in order to promote desired behaviors. http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers Gamification: a definition
  14. 14. PBL / BLAP Elements Gamification: a definition - … game design elements … (Points, Badges and Leaderboards / Badges, Leaderboards, Achievements and Points)
  15. 15. not the same as http://www.gamified.co.uk/2014/06/04/language-gamification-short-glossary/#.U56vay_eMso Gamification: a definition - … game design elements … Game Elements: components taken from games q Game Mechanics: explicit sets of rules that define the outcomes of user activities. q Game Dynamics: emergent activities of the users as they interact with mechanics. q Aesthetics: the experience of the end user.
  16. 16. Using game elements does not translate directly to engagement http://progresswars.com FB: Cow Clicker Gamification: a definition - … game design elements …
  17. 17. (until March 2013) Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts … Foursquare
  18. 18. Business Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  19. 19. Lifestyle & Wellness Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  20. 20. Sustainability Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  21. 21. Healthcare Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  22. 22. Government Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts … thefuntheory.com
  23. 23. Education Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  24. 24. Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts … Gamified systems in digital and non-digital contexts
  25. 25. BigDoor BunchBall Badgeville Gygia Playbasis PunchTab CaptainUp Uplaude Uboost tierX … Gamification Platforms Nike+ Zamzee Fitbit HAPIfork Grush … Foursquare Foodzy Lose It! HabitRPG SuperBetter … Applications (web applications, apps) ClassDojo ChoreWars HighScore House ChoreMonster Vivo Miles … Gamification: a definition - … in non-game contexts …
  26. 26. Flow Theory Self-Determination Theory Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement … Psychology
  27. 27. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) People are said to be intrinsically motivated when they do something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable and they are extrinsically motivated when they do something because it leads to a separable outcome. Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement … q Proposed by Deci and Ryan (1985); q Framework for the study of human motivation and personality; q A theory of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
  28. 28. The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement … Focus on psychological basic needs: q Autonomy - control over an action with the ability to determine the outcomes of that action; q Competence (or Mastery) - the need for challenge and a felling of being effective performing an activity; q Relatedness - the experience to be connected to others and be involved with others.
  29. 29. 8 major elements of flow: q A challenge activity that requires skills; q Clear goals; q Immediate feedback; q The sense of control; q Concentration on the task at hand; q The merging of action and awareness; q The loss of self-consciousness; q The distortion of time. Gamification: a definition - …to drive a game-like engagement … The Flow Theory (Csikszentmihalyi,1975) Intrinsic Motivation Flow
  30. 30. Gamification: a definition - … to promote desired behaviors. Fogg’s Behavior Model Psychology
  31. 31. A non-game context with high potential. Gamification of education Game-Based Learning (GBL) and the Serious Games movement contribute to the spread of the concept, revealing that games could be useful in non-ludic contexts instead of just being used for fun and amusement.
  32. 32. http://www.nmc.org/publications/2014-horizon-report-higher-ed Gamification of education
  33. 33. Gamification of education: tools
  34. 34. Gamification of education: tools https://wiki.mozilla.org/images/e/ed/Mozilla-OpenBadges-presentation.pdf
  35. 35. Gamification of education: learning platforms Gamified learning platforms
  36. 36. Academy Platform LMS based on Fogg’s Behavioral Model Gamification of education: learning platforms
  37. 37. Gamification of education: learning platforms
  38. 38. Gamification of education: learning platforms
  39. 39. Gamification of education: learning platforms
  40. 40. Gamification of education: learning platforms
  41. 41. Gamification of education: learning platforms Game elements in Moodle: q Quiz results block (leaderboard) q Progress bars (plug-in) q Badges (since release 2.5) q Conditional access
  42. 42. Gamification of education: with what and how? With what? q Gamified platforms q LMS with game elements (plug-in’s, add-on’s) q Other tools q Activities with clear goals q Intermediate goals q Immediate feedback q Balance skill / challenge §  repeat after failure / fun failure §  leveling up / player levels How? Game elements must be used to provide immediate feedback!
  43. 43. §  Self-Determination Theory http://www.theselfdeterminationtheory.org §  Fogg’s Behavior Model http://www.behaviormodel.org/ §  Flow Theory http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Flow_theory http://www.jenovachen.com/flowingames/flowtheory.htm §  Gco http://www.gamification.co/ §  Enterprise gamification wiki http://www.enterprise-gamification.com/mediawiki/ §  Mozilla Open Badges http://www.openbadges.org/ §  Gamification Gurus https://www.leaderboarded.com/gurus Resources
  44. 44. §  Nelson, M. (2012). Soviet and american precursors to the gamification of work. In Lugmayr,A., editor, MindTrek, pages 23–26.ACM. §  Coonradt, C. (2007). The Game of Work: How to Enjoy Work as Much as Play. Gibbs Smith. §  Terrill, B. (2008). My coverage of lobby of the social gaming summit [web log message]. §  Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., and Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining ”gamification". In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, MindTrek ’11, pages 9–15, NewYork, NY, USA.ACM. §  Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA. §  Deci, E. and Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum, New York. References
  45. 45. §  Fogg, B. (2009).A behavior model for persuasive design. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology. §  The Mozilla Foundation and Peer 2 Peer University (2012). Open badges for lifelong learning.Technical report,The Mozilla Foundation. §  Werbach, K. and Hunter, D. (2012). For the Win: How Game Thinking Can RevolutionizeYour Business. Wharton Digital Press. §  Kapp, K. (2012). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education. Pfeiffer. §  Kapp, K., Blair, L., and Mesch, R. (2014) .The Gamification of Learning and Instruction Fieldbook: Ideas into Pratice. Wiley. §  Marczewski,A. (2012). Gamification:A Simple Introduction. Marczewski,A. References
  46. 46. Obrigado, Jorge Simões, Instituto Superior Politécnico Gaya jsimoes@ispgaya.pt @jmapsimoes http://about.me/jmapsimoes http://pt.linkedin.com/in/jmapsimoes http://www.edulearning2.blogspot.com From Games to Gamification
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