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Experimental Design

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Study Notes and Guide for the AP Statistics Exam Theme 2

Study Notes and Guide for the AP Statistics Exam Theme 2

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  • 1. Study Session Experimental Design
  • 2. Experimental Design
    • 1. Which of the following is true regarding the difference between an observational study and and an experiment?
    • a) An experiment must have a control group whereas the observational study does not.
    • b) An observational study is used for human subjects whereas an experiment is used for non-human subjects.
    • c) In an experiment, the investigator randomly places subjects into treatment and control groups whereas in an observational study, the subjects are placed into groups based on a characteristic.
    • d) The observational study can produce causal results whereas an experiment can only identify an association.
    • e) None of these is true.
  • 3. Experimental Design
    • Which of the following is true regarding the difference between an observational study and and an experiment?
    • c) In an experiment, the investigator randomly places subjects into treatment and control groups whereas in an observational study, the subjects are placed into groups based on a characteristic.
  • 4. Experimental Design
    • What are the three principles of experimental design?
  • 5. Experimental Design
    • What are the three principles of experimental design?
    • Randomization
    • Control
    • Replication
  • 6. Experimental Design
      • 3. In an experiment, if two variable are confounded, which of the following statements is true?
      • a) One of the variables must be a lurking variable.
      • b) There is a clear indication that a placebo effect is present in the experiment.
      • c) The investigator cannot separate the effect of the variables on a response variable.
      • d) None of these is true.
  • 7. Experimental Design
      • In an experiment, if two variable are confounded, which of the following statements is true?
      • c) The investigator cannot separate the effect of the variables on a response variable.
  • 8. Experimental Design
    • Which one of the following statements about experiments is true?
    • a) All experiments must have a control group.
    • b) Blocking is employed to reduce variation.
    • c) Random assignment is only critical for treatment groups, as opposed to control groups.
    • d) Matching can be used in any experiment to eliminate lurking variables.
    • e) None of these is true.
  • 9. Experimental Design
    • Which one of the following statements about experiments is true?
    • b) Blocking is employed to reduce variation.
  • 10. Experimental Design
    • A randomized block design is similar to which
    • of the following sampling designs?
    • a) simple random sample
    • b) multi-stage cluster sample
    • c) stratified sample
    • d) convenience sample
    • e) systematic sample
    •  
  • 11. Experimental Design
    • A randomized block design is similar to which
    • of the following sampling designs?
    • c) stratified sample
    •  
  • 12. Experimental Design
    • Blocking is utilized to help
    • a) organize the treatment and control groups
    • b) counteract the placebo effect.
    • c) produce groups that are as similar as possible.
    • d) avoid the need for randomization.
    • e) replicate the experiment within each block
  • 13. Experimental Design
    • Blocking is utilized to help
    • c) produce groups that are as similar as possible.
  • 14. Experimental Design
    • A randomized block design is NOT
    • a) similar to a stratified random sample for surveys
    • b) a strategy to control for an influence that would
    • affect the outcome of the experiment.,
    • c) a strategy that depends on randomization.
    • d) only used for gender comparisons
    • e) All of these describe a randomized block design.
  • 15. Experimental Design
    • A randomized block design is NOT
    • d) only used for gender comparisons
  • 16. Experimental Design
    • A medical researcher is interested in testing a new
    • medicine for migraine headaches. She decides to
    • conduct a clinical trial on 100 randomly selected
    • adults who get migraine headaches at a rate of one
    • per week or more. Although age and gender are not
    • of primary interest in the trials, the researcher is
    • concerned that these factors may impact the
    • effectiveness of the drug.
    •  
    • Describe how she should set up her experiment for
    • the 100 subjects without considerations of age and
    • gender. A graphic is an acceptable answer.
  • 17. Experimental Design
    •  
    • Describe how she should set up her experiment for
    • the 100 subjects without considerations of age and
    • gender. A graphic is an acceptable answer.
    Randomize 50 adults new drug 50 adults old drug Measure and compare number of headaches
  • 18. Experimental Design
    • A medical researcher is interested in testing a new
    • medicine for migraine headaches. She decides to
    • conduct a clinical trial on 100 randomly selected
    • adults who get migraine headaches at a rate of one
    • per week or more. Although age and gender are not
    • of primary interest in the trials, the researcher is
    • concerned that these factors may impact the
    • effectiveness of the drug.
    •  
    • Describe how she should set up her experiment for the 100
    • subjects if she wishes to control for gender.
    •  
  • 19. Experimental Design
    • Describe how she should set up her experiment for
    • the 100 subjects if she wishes to control for gender.
    • -It is believed that males and females will respond differently to the drug, so we block by gender.
    Male Female New drug Old drug New drug New drug Measure number of headaches & compare Measure number of headaches & compare
  • 20. Barron’s Problems
    • P. 369 #12, 18, 25, 33, 34
    • P. 377 #3
    • P. 430 #1