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# Experimental Design

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Study Notes and Guide for the AP Statistics Exam Theme 2

Study Notes and Guide for the AP Statistics Exam Theme 2

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### Transcript

• 1. Study Session Experimental Design
• 2. Experimental Design
• 1. Which of the following is true regarding the difference between an observational study and and an experiment?
• a) An experiment must have a control group whereas the observational study does not.
• b) An observational study is used for human subjects whereas an experiment is used for non-human subjects.
• c) In an experiment, the investigator randomly places subjects into treatment and control groups whereas in an observational study, the subjects are placed into groups based on a characteristic.
• d) The observational study can produce causal results whereas an experiment can only identify an association.
• e) None of these is true.
• 3. Experimental Design
• Which of the following is true regarding the difference between an observational study and and an experiment?
• c) In an experiment, the investigator randomly places subjects into treatment and control groups whereas in an observational study, the subjects are placed into groups based on a characteristic.
• 4. Experimental Design
• What are the three principles of experimental design?
• 5. Experimental Design
• What are the three principles of experimental design?
• Randomization
• Control
• Replication
• 6. Experimental Design
• 3. In an experiment, if two variable are confounded, which of the following statements is true?
• a) One of the variables must be a lurking variable.
• b) There is a clear indication that a placebo effect is present in the experiment.
• c) The investigator cannot separate the effect of the variables on a response variable.
• d) None of these is true.
• 7. Experimental Design
• In an experiment, if two variable are confounded, which of the following statements is true?
• c) The investigator cannot separate the effect of the variables on a response variable.
• 8. Experimental Design
• Which one of the following statements about experiments is true?
• a) All experiments must have a control group.
• b) Blocking is employed to reduce variation.
• c) Random assignment is only critical for treatment groups, as opposed to control groups.
• d) Matching can be used in any experiment to eliminate lurking variables.
• e) None of these is true.
• 9. Experimental Design
• Which one of the following statements about experiments is true?
• b) Blocking is employed to reduce variation.
• 10. Experimental Design
• A randomized block design is similar to which
• of the following sampling designs?
• a) simple random sample
• b) multi-stage cluster sample
• c) stratified sample
• d) convenience sample
• e) systematic sample
•
• 11. Experimental Design
• A randomized block design is similar to which
• of the following sampling designs?
• c) stratified sample
•
• 12. Experimental Design
• Blocking is utilized to help
• a) organize the treatment and control groups
• b) counteract the placebo effect.
• c) produce groups that are as similar as possible.
• d) avoid the need for randomization.
• e) replicate the experiment within each block
• 13. Experimental Design
• Blocking is utilized to help
• c) produce groups that are as similar as possible.
• 14. Experimental Design
• A randomized block design is NOT
• a) similar to a stratified random sample for surveys
• b) a strategy to control for an influence that would
• affect the outcome of the experiment.,
• c) a strategy that depends on randomization.
• d) only used for gender comparisons
• e) All of these describe a randomized block design.
• 15. Experimental Design
• A randomized block design is NOT
• d) only used for gender comparisons
• 16. Experimental Design
• A medical researcher is interested in testing a new
• medicine for migraine headaches. She decides to
• conduct a clinical trial on 100 randomly selected
• per week or more. Although age and gender are not
• of primary interest in the trials, the researcher is
• concerned that these factors may impact the
• effectiveness of the drug.
•
• Describe how she should set up her experiment for
• the 100 subjects without considerations of age and
• gender. A graphic is an acceptable answer.
• 17. Experimental Design
•
• Describe how she should set up her experiment for
• the 100 subjects without considerations of age and
• gender. A graphic is an acceptable answer.
• 18. Experimental Design
• A medical researcher is interested in testing a new
• medicine for migraine headaches. She decides to
• conduct a clinical trial on 100 randomly selected
• per week or more. Although age and gender are not
• of primary interest in the trials, the researcher is
• concerned that these factors may impact the
• effectiveness of the drug.
•
• Describe how she should set up her experiment for the 100
• subjects if she wishes to control for gender.
•
• 19. Experimental Design
• Describe how she should set up her experiment for
• the 100 subjects if she wishes to control for gender.
• -It is believed that males and females will respond differently to the drug, so we block by gender.
Male Female New drug Old drug New drug New drug Measure number of headaches & compare Measure number of headaches & compare
• 20. Barron’s Problems
• P. 369 #12, 18, 25, 33, 34
• P. 377 #3
• P. 430 #1