Values education personhood development lecture 2Presentation Transcript
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT THE PERCEIVED SELFIs composed of a set of self-cognitions regarding one’s traits, competencies and values. It is reinforced through feedback. The type of feedback, which an individual receives, determines the standard to measure the ideal self. The three categories of self- perception are traits, competencies and values. THE IDEAL SELF Represents the set of traits, competencies and values an individual would like topossess. Internalized competencies and values have been suggested as the basis of the ideal self and as an internal standard for behavior. (Bandura, 1986)
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL IDENTITIESAre those aspects of the individual’s self-concept that are derived from the socialcategories to which he or she perceives him/herself as belonging to. Social identities linkindividuals to reference groups, which establish a set of role expectations and norms thatguide the individual’s behavior within each of the social identities. For example: theidentity of a Principal may be associated with leadership and order (traits), analyticalability and competence (competencies), service and commitment (values). These aspiredtraits, competencies and values associated, serve as the basis for the ideal self onceestablished the attributes then reinforced the identity. SELF-ESTEEMIs the evaluative component of the self-concept (Rosenberg 1998). It is the function of thedistance between the ideal self perceived self. When the perceived self matches the idealself, self-esteem is relatively high. Low self-esteem occurs when the perceived self issignificantly lower than the ideal self.
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT So how does one achieve Self-Esteem?You must be competent to live: which means, be rational. You must deserve tolive: which means, be virtuous. Which denies from rationality? Thus, the key to self-esteem is a life of unbreached rationality. Then you can trust your mind,because your use of reason is uncompromised. Then you are virtuous, because all of the virtues are expressions of rationality. BECOMING MORE SELF-AWARE:1. Understanding one’s attitude and emotions.2. Explaining and disclosing your feelings3. Request for feedback from others.
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT II. VALUES EDUCATION a. Values Values are the beliefs, which we hold to be true - those noble ideals we struggle to attain and implement in our daily lives. Derived from the natural and moral laws and not from an individuals opinions and feelings They are based on objective, eternal and universal truths (e.g., freedom, justice, peace, love family solidarity…) Also rooted in a personal view of what works and does not work; they may beaccepted practices and ways of acting of a given people during a given period of time. Are an integral part of human existence; as such they relate to every aspect of life?Values can be viewed as priorities that relate to a person’s behavior. Specifically, they are the priorities one is motivated to act upon.
b. Values Education1. Academic formation – human intellect (to know the truth)2. Personal formation - human will (to act, to choose good)3. As part of the school curriculum – is the process values are formed in the learnerunder the guidance of the teacher.4. As a subject – values education has direct and immediate relevance to thepersonal life of the learner5. It is holistic because it involves all faculties of the learner. c. DECS (DEPED) Values Education Program (1988) This program was motivated by the 1986 EDSA Revolution. It was also inspired by the 1987 Constitution that envisions a “just and humane society” for the Filipinos. This vision calls for a shared culture and commonly held values such as “ truth, justice, love, equality and peace.”
d. Philosophy of Values Education Program: Values Education is based on a rational understanding of the humanperson, specifically on understanding of the Filipino as a human being in society andhis/her role in the shaping of society and the environment. The task of education isto help the Filipino know themselves better, develop his/her potential, contribute tothe growth of the Philippine culture, and must be able to bind together human andnon-human resources for the attainment of a just and humane society. Forces that Shape Contemporary Values A. Foundation of the Filipinos’ Oriental Nature (Pre-colonial Filipino Values) Aeta, Indonesian, Malayan, Hindu, Arabian, Chinese Interpersonal and social relationships revolve around blood ties, marriage and ritual kinship.
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT B. Filipinos’ Occidentalism a. Spanish influence Spanish influence is manifested in our religious, political, economic, educationallife, language, dress and diet. Most of the population was converted to HispanicCatholicism, and the visible aspects of culture (e.g., personal names, vocabulary, urbanarchitecture, fine arts, dress, cuisine, and customs) were profoundly influenced ormodified. (Harper and Fullerton, 1994)Centuries of Spanish rule also imposed a severe colonial mentality and left Filipinos with“a legacy of attitudes that are firmly embedded in society such as, equating light skinwith beauty and high status, the identification of anything foreign with superiority andindigenous with inferiority, and a conception of officialdom as a system serving its ownends, not those of the people” (Gochenour, 1990, p. 6)
VALUES EDUCATION SELF DEVELOPMENT b. Americanization of Filipinos American influences manifested in our political and social outlook. With theintroduction of a democratic system of government we became aware of our rights andprivileges. The popularization of education gave us the opportunity for –social mobility.Americans in the presumed spirit of white paternalism and benevolence saw themselves asbest owners of education, religion, public health, development , and democracy to their “littlebrown brothers” (Gochenour, 1990). In fact, the American educational system wasadopted, and English (which children were required to speak in school) was made the officiallanguage (Kang, 1996). c. Japanese Occupation Japanese influences manifested our love of work. Dignity of labor and working hardwere one of the values that Filipinos were widely known. This is evident because manyFilipinos nowadays are working abroad. Almost everywhere Filipinos are at hand working hardto earn more to support their family. Many countries choose Filipinos to work in their countrybecause they know of Filipinos’ perseverance and hard work.
A. Family Values The typical Filipino individual exist first and foremost as a member of afamily and looks to the family as the only reliable protection against theuncertainties of life. (Gochenour, 1990, p. 18) Reliance on the family for love, support, and refuge has historically been asmuch an economic necessity as it is a cultural tradition. The family is the source ofone’s personal identity and of emotional and material support. It also is the focus ofone’s primary duty and commitment. Dependence on, loyalty to, and solidarity withthe family and kin group are of the highest priority (Okamura and Agbayani, 1991).Family loyalty also might dictate that a young parent temporarily leave his or herfamily and children in order to pursue better educational, training, or employmentopportunities in other countries (Santos, 1983). This sense of family obligationbegins early on when children are conditioned to be grateful to their parents fortheir birth. A lifelong debt of gratitude or utang na loob (“debt from within”) therebycreates binding relationships of love, respect, and obedience (PAPEP), 1982).
Alternative Concepts and Other Values Critics of the 1960s values studies maintain that concepts such aspakikisama, hiya, Amor propio, and utang na loob have beeninappropriately generalized from vernacular terms associated withspecific behaviors and situations into all pervading, organizing valuesand trait complexes (Lawless, 1969). They have been perceived as acentral core of fundamental culture traits that create and define analmost stereotypic Filipino character and have further been accepted asvalid by scholars, foreigners, and Filipino in general (Okamura andAgbayani, 1991).Studies of Filipino values have focused on significantly less abstractconcepts. A Philippine Senate commissioned task force in 1988conducted one of the most comprehensive of the Filipino character:pakikipagkapwa-tao (having a regard for the dignity and being ofothers), family orientation, joy and humor, flexibility, adaptability andcreativity, hard work and industry, faith and religiosity and ability tosurvive (Licuanan, 1988).
Each of these characteristic strengthens the Filipinos ability to surviveand endure despite difficult times and often little resources.Moreover, these characteristic cluster around distinctly religious beliefsand a deep faith in God. This faith is evident in Filipinos’ ability toaccept reality (including failure and defeat) in terms of God’s will andto adopt a philosophical/religious attitude that cushions them fromdisappointments. Filipino faith is related to the concept of bahala na(“it’s up to God” or “Leave it to God”), which has tended to beincorrectly equated with an expression of fatalism and a passiveacceptance or resignation to fate. Bahala na can instead be viewed morepositively as determination in the face of uncertainty orstressful, problematic conditions. Although it is an indication of anacceptance of the nature of things, including one’s own inherentlimitations, bahala na operates psychologically to elevate one’s courageand conviction to persist in the face of adversity and to improve one’ssituation (Enriquez, 1987; Okamura and Agbayani, 1991).
Apart from the more fundamental Filipino personality characteristics andvalues are those related to physical appearance. Spanish and Americancolonial rule reinforced the Filipino tendency to equate light complexion withhigh social status. “White” meant everything associated with the rulingclasses: worth, beauty, desirability, and power. The lighter skinned Filipinousually has either Chinese or Spanish blood in the family line, but havingSpanish ancestors is likely to be appoint of pride (Gochenour, 1990).Status is further integrally linked to education. Filipinos view education as a“passport to good jobs, economic security, social acceptance, and as a wayout of cycle of poverty and lower class status, not only for their children, butalso for the whole family” (Santos, 1983, p.146). Education, then, is not anindividual but a family concern and considered to be an economicinvestment toward which family members must contribute significant effortand often personal sacrifice. Once successfully graduated and employed, theindividual is expected to assume the responsibility of helping his or herparents fiancé the education of the next child. The next child is thenresponsible for the next, and so on.
VALUES EDUCATIONThis practice reflects the value of utang na loob in which the debt ofgratitude incurred to the whole family ensures the graduate’scontribution to the family welfare, which takes precedence overindividual economic and social mobility (Santos, 1983).Thus, degree, diplomas, certificates, good grades, and academic honorare much sought after symbols. Such achievements are typicallyrecognized with great pride and significant attention by extendedfamily, friends, and the larger community. Moreover, if one is welleducated, Filipinos expect that person to talk, act, and dress the part(Gochenour, 1990).
D. Theories of Values Formation1. Psycho-Analytic Theory (Sigmund Freud) suggest that unconscious forces act todetermine personality and behavior. To Freud, the unconscious is that part of thepersonality about which a person is unaware. It contains infantilewishes, desires, demands and needs that are hidden, because of their disturbingnature, from conscious awareness. Freud suggested that the unconscious isresponsible for a good part of our everyday behavior.2. Behaviorist View (John B. Watson) The behavioral perspective suggest that thekeys to understanding developing are observable behavior and outside stimuli in theenvironment. If we know the stimuli, we can predict the behavior. Behavioraltheories reject the notion that individuals universally pass through a series of stages.Instead, people are assumed to be affected by the environmental stimuli to whichthey happen to be exposed. Developmental patterns, then, are personal, reflecting aparticular set of environmental stimuli, and development is the result of continuingexposure to specific factors in the environment.
VALUES EDUCATION3. Social-cognitive learning theorist Albert Bandura, when we see the behavior of amodel being rewarded, we are likely to imitate that behavior. Behavior is learned throughobservation and imitation, not conditioning through reinforcement or punishment.4. Cognitive Theory. The cognitive perspective focuses on the processes that allow peopleto know, understand and think about the world. The cognitive perspective emphasizes howpeople internally represent and think about the world. There are two major theories: No single person has had a greater impact on the study of cognitive developmentthat Jean Piaget. He proposed that all people pass is a fixed sequence through a series ofuniversal stages of cognitive development. In each stage, he suggested that not only didthe quantity of information increase, but so did the quality of knowledge andunderstanding. Piaget suggests that the growth in children’s understanding of the worldcan be explained by two basic principles. Assimilation is the process in which peopleunderstand an experience in terms of their current state of cognitive development and wayof thinking. In contrast, accommodation refers to changes in existing ways of thinking inresponse to encounters with new stimuli or events.
VALUES EDUCATION5. Socio-cultural theory (Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky) proposes that a fullunderstanding of development is impossible without taking into account the culturein which children develop. Socio-cultural theory proposes that children’sunderstanding of the world is acquired through their problem-solving interactionswith adults and other children. As children play and cooperate with others, theylearn what is important in their society, and at the same time, advance cognitively intheir understanding of the world.6. Ecological Theory. The Ecological model, the major proponent of which is UrieBronfenbrenner, seeks to explain individual knowledge, development, andcompetencies in terms of the guidance, support, and structure provided by societyand to explain social change over time in terms of the cumulative effect of individualchoices (Berger, 2000).
VALUES EDUCATIONAccording to Urie Bronfenbrenner, each person is significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems. At the center of the model is the individual. Microsystems are the systems that intimately and immediately shape human development. The primary microsystems for children include the family, peer group, classroom, neighborhood, and sometimes a church, temple, or mosque as well.Interactions among the microsystems, as when parents and teachers coordinate their efforts to educate the child, take place through the mesosystem. Surrounding the microsystems is the exosystem, which includes all the externalnetworks, such as community structures and local educational, medical, employment, and communications systems that influence the microsystems. And influencing all other systems is the macrosystem, which includes cultural values, political philosophies, economic patterns, and social conditions. Together, these systems are termed the social context of human development.
VALUES EDUCATION7. Humanism Theory. The humanistic perspective contends that people have anatural tendency to make decisions about their lives and control behavior. Thehumanistic perspective emphasizes free will, the ability of humans to make choicesand come to decisions about their lives. Carl Rogers suggested that all people have a need for positive regard thatresults from an underlying wish to be loved and respected. Because it is otherpeople who provide this positive regard, we become dependent on them.Consequently, our view of our self-worth and ourselves is a reflection of how wethink others view us.8. Evolutionary Theory. The Evolutionary Theory stresses that behavior is stronglyinfluenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitiveperiods (Santrock, 1999). Evolutionary approaches grow out of the groundbreakingwork of Charles Darwin. The evolutionary perspective is also referred to asEthological or Biological.
VALUES EDUCATIONKonrad Lorenz discovered that newborn geese are genetically preprogrammed tobecome attached to the first moving object they see after birth. His work, whichdemonstrated the importance of biological determinants in influencing behaviorpatterns, ultimately led mentalists to consider the ways in which human behaviormight reflect inborn genetic patterns. The evolutionary perspective encompasses one of the fastest growing areaswithin the field of lifespan development, behavioral genetics. Behavioral geneticsstudies the effects of heredity and genetics on behavior. As technology improves, andresearchers continue to map the human genome, there is an increasing understandingof the role and function of the genetic codes and their influence on development.9. Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg) There exist structural bases that determine the process of perceiving value.This series of progression depends on the person’s interaction with the environment.Moral reasoning is related to moral behavior.
VALUES EDUCATIONIII. Ethics and Moral Educationa. Ethics – comes from the Greek word ethos, meaning character or custom. According toRobert C. Solomon, the etymology of ethics suggest its basic concern: (1) individualcharacter, what is meant by ‘good person’, and (2) the social rules that govern and limit ourconduct, especially the ultimate rules concerning right and wrong, which we call morality.b. Morality The term morality can be used either: 1. Descriptively to refer to a code of conduct put forward by a society and that it is used as a guide to behavior by the members of that society , a. some other group, such as religion, or b. accepted by an individual for her/his own behavior 2. Normatively to refer to a code of conduct that, given specified conditions, would be put forward by alL rational persons for governing the behavior of all moral agents.
VALUES EDUCATION Morality as a public system.Public system refers to guide to conduct such that (1) all persons to whom it appliesall those whose behavior is to be guided and judged by that system, know whatbehavior the system prohibits, requires, discourages, encourages, and allows; and (2)it is not irrational for any of these persons to accept being guided and judged by thatsystem.- refers to a code of conduct put forward by a society or some other group, such asreligion, or accepted by an individual for his/her own behavior.- also refers to a code of conduct that, given specified conditions would be putforward by all rational persons.- refers to a doctrine or system of conduct relative to principles of right and wrong. Itencompasses the ideas of moral judgment, moral obligation, and a moral agent.
VALUES EDUCATIONc. Nature of morality 1. Moral talk is normative – meant to guide action it is often manifested by words like should, ought, permitted, right and wrong when the action is prescribe and proscribe, exhort and discourage, judge, praise and condemn actions. 2. Moral talk is evaluative – it refers to moral value of things, what mattersmorally and why. It is manifested by words likegood, valuable, important, fundamental, precious, sacred and meaningful.Morality as it relates to our behavior is important on three levels: (CS. Lewis)1. To ensure fair play and harmony between individuals2. To help make us good people in order to have a good society3. To keep us in good relationship with the power that created us.
VALUES EDUCATION Morality and our ConscienceMorality affects our daily choices, and those decisions are guided byour conscience.Many people believe that our conscience is matter of the heart, andthe basic concepts of right; wrong and fairness are inherent in all of us.The purpose of morality is to provide a frame work of optimum humansurvival. The standard of morality, however, is absolute and immutable– long-term optimum human survival.
Level of Morality True FreedomThe way forward involves liberation from both false freedom and moralism. Moralaction is possible only for a being that is free. Freedom let the will to choose givesspace for creativity, and implies release from determining factor. Nevertheless truefreedom implies not only the power of self-chosen action but also the properorientation power. The power to do whatever he/she wants to do is not a truefreedom because true freedom is oriented to goodness. Freedom includes the powerto choose evil, but freedom is fulfilled and enhanced and sustained only by choosingthe good abusing liberty leads to losing it. Moral IntuitionThe more carefully you think through your great decision, the more spontaneous youwill be in the host of situations covered by those decisions. Though few have anappetite for studying and discussing difficult moral cases, the intellectual dimensionto morality is nonetheless essential. When actions are not governed by our bestthinking we are usually in the current of emotions whose guidance is less reliable.
Human Acts – are actions performed by an agent with conscious knowledge and aresubject to the control of the will.Acts of Man – are actions that are instinctive and involuntary and are not within thecontrol of the will. Classification of Human ActsMoral actions – are those actions that are in conformity with the norm of morality.They are good actions and are permissible.Immoral Actions – are those actions that are not in conformity with the norm ofmorality. They are bad or evil actions and are not permissible.Amoral Actions – are actions, which stand neutral in relation to the norms ofmorality. They are either good or bad in themselves. But certain amoral actions maybecome good or bad because of the circumstances intended to them.Normal of Morality – are the standards that indicate the rightfulness orwrongfulness, the goodness or evilness, the value or disvalue of a thing (R.Agapay, 1991)
Kinds of Law Natural Law – is a moral obligation that arises from human nature, compelling an individual to be true to his nature as tao (R. Agapay, 1991)Eternal Law – reveals the will of God. It contains the divine blueprints which bring order into the universe because they direct all of creation and creatures to their respective end-goals (St. Augustine)Moral Law – contains universal truths and ethical principles that ought to guide the individual conduct of man in matters of right and wrong (E. Esteban). The determinants of morality in any given action 1. The morality of any given action is determined by three elements, a. The end in view b. The means taken c. The CircumstancesWhoever knows this principle, does not thereby know the right and wrong of every action, but he/she knows how to go about the enquiry. It is a rule of diagnosis.
The end of view may be either single, as when you forgive an injurysolely for the love of Christ; or multiple co-ordinate, as when youforgive both for the love of Christ and for the mediation of a friend, andare disposed to forgive on either ground separately; or multiplesubordinate, as when you would not have forgiven on the latter groundalone, but forgive the more easily for its addition, having been ready,however, to forgive on the former alone: or cumulative, as when youforgive on a number of grounds collectively, on no one of which wouldyou have forgiven apart from the rest.Where there are no outward action, but only an internal act, and theobject of that act is some good that is willed for its own sake, there canbe no question of means taken, as the end in view is immediatelyattained.
HUMAN RIGHTSTraditionally, human rights are defined as titles or claims to certain material and spiritualgoods, or to have access to such goods in order or human person to live a dignified life. Kinds of Rights A. Personal Rights1. Right to life- primary condition of all human rights or the obvious reason that only person who are alive that they can exercise their rights and thereby accomplish their mission in life.2. Right to One’s Person- right over our own bodies and bodily faculties and energies. St. Paul emphasized that our body is the temple of the Holy Spirit.3. Right to One’s Personality- persons have the right to develop their own individual character.
B. Religious and Moral Rights1. Right to Education- it is our right to avail of all possible means and opportunities to help us develop physically, intellectually, spiritually and socially. 2. Right to Conscience- when it come to moral decisions, all human persons have the right to act in accordance to their moral conscience.
3. Right to Religion- in so far as person are bound to seek the truth and accordingly worship the Creator, they have the natural right to relate to God and to freely express and develop this relationship within the teachings and practices of their chosen religion. SOCIAL RIGHTS1. Right to Honor/Respect- it refers to thecredibility and esteem persons enjoy in the society.
2. Right to Free expression- refers to right to speak and right of assembly.3.Right to organize- we have the right to organize like organizations, that makes up an essential ingredient of a free society. ECONOMIC RIGHTS 1. Right to Livelihood- the best and easiest way for persons to acquire
VALUES EDUCATION CHRISTIAN ETHICSEthics has something to do with the nourishment of right doings and the rejection of wrong doings. instinctinstinct emotions morality emotions
Christian Ethics• Man is motivated to survive and to be good always because of mortality and the promise of everlasting happiness after death.• It is a Humanistic Ethics in the sense that it requires a unique ethical obligations or unique ethical source. Obligation in the sense that we need and we must do good always for us to reach heaven.
Christian Ethics• Ethical courses in the sense that Scripture and church teaching make things right or wrong(legalism) It has two- fold sense:a. Christian meaning -we are gifted with a profound Christian vision of the meaning of the world, deeper understanding of the human person’s dignity as God’s image, and a clearer sense of their final destiny.b. Christian motivation -it focuses on behaviour motivated by natural law, usually the law of Christ.(suffered , died, arose out of love to mankind)
Filipino Ethics • Filipinos have moral obligationsmotivated by a “must principle". if Ido that what are the consequences. If I don’t, again what are the possible consequences.
Moral obligation Value protected ConsequencesTo respect my parents The value of honour and I do afraid of the golden being caring. rule.To be honest in the The value of fairness and Hurt one’s self worth andexamination justice. violates the communitys justice system.To go to mass on Sunday The intrinsic nature of man Diminishes one’s basic as related to God and relationship with God and others. others.To avoid going to sex Value of chastity of being Abuse of the God –givenparlors true to one’s sexual gift of sexuality. integrity as a person.To protect the secrets of a The value of confidentiality Destroys the reputation offriend another and violates the core of friendship.
Filipino Ethics 1. We share on Universal Ethics and Morality but with a distinct Filipino flavor. • Idea of moderation such as in Greek; “meden agan”, and in Roman “ in medio stat virtus” with Filipino equivalent ; “Hindi labis, hindi kulang, katamtaman lamang.” • The golden rule of Confucious is categorically imperative with Emilio Jacinto’s, “ Ang di mo ibig na gawin sa asawa mo, anak at kapatid, ay huwag mong gagawin sa asawa, anak at kapatid ng iba”.
Filipino Ethics Another, is the eastern concept of “ Harmony in Opposites” e.g. “Ang buhay ng tao’y gulong ang kahambing:sa ibabaw ngayon, bukas sa ilalim” or “ malapit ma’t di lakarin,ay hindi mo mararating” 2. When we speak of Filipino values – it does not mean it cannot be found to other cultures and people. It is with a rank or priority depending on the culture.
Filipino Ethicsa) China and Japan- great value in propriety and beautyb) America – in promptness and efficiencyc) Filipinos- pakikisama and pagkatao3. Due to different contexts, filipino values like Family centeredness, authoritarianism, smooth interpersonal relations, hiya, kinship system, utang na loob, awa,
Filipino EthicsWith five principles on:i. Pagsasariliii. Pagkakaisaiii. Pakikisamaiv. Pakikipagkapwa-taov. Pagkabayani4. Historical consciousness- on which moral values has evolved among our peoplee.g. moral value of justice is universal and fundamental.
Personhood and the Conception Event 1 The Person-whole individual being that has the natural potential to know, love , desire, and relate to self and others in a reflective way.
Personhood and the Conception Event A person is a natural being and not afunctional being. Natural in the sense that hehas the functional ability to know and love in a trans-sensible or immaterial way. So abortion is the destruction of an important and valuable form of human life.
Personhood and the Conception Event Person is not an individual With a developed capacity forreasoning, willing, desiring and relating to others. But he/she is an individual with a natural capacity for these activities and relationships.
Personhood and the Conception Event 2. Conception Is the moment when the so called “fertilization” process is complete.The sperm and ovum are not potential life. They are the potential causes of individual human life.
BEHAVIOURS OF MANHuman behavior -is the population of behaviors exhibited by humans and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, e thics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, pe rsuasion, coercion and/or genetics.
BEHAVIOURS OF MAN
BEHAVIOURS OF MAN• The behavior of people (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. In sociology, behavior is considered as having social behavior, which is more advanced action, as social behavior is behavior specifically directed at other people. The acceptability of behavior is evaluated relative to social norms and regulated by various means of social control.• The behavior of people is studied by the academic disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology, economics, and anthropology.
BEHAVIOURS OF MAN Factors affecting human behavior• Genetics –study of the function and behavior of genes.• Attitude – the degree to which the person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the behavior in question.• Social norms – the influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual (normative beliefs) to perform or not perform a certain behavior.• Perceived behavioral control – the individual’s belief concerning how easy or difficult performing the behavior will be.
Masculine psychologyMasculine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of male human identity, as well as the issues that men confront during their lives. One stream emphasises gender differences and has a scientific and empirical approach, while the other, more therapeutic in orientation, is more closely aligned to the psychoanalytic tradition. It also relates to concepts such as masculinity and machismo.•
Born of the female bodyJungian analysts Guy Corneau and Eugene Monick- argue that the establishment and maintenance of the male identity is more delicate and fraught with complication than that of the establishment and maintenance of the female identity. Such psychologists suggest that this may be because men are born of the female body, and thus are born from a body that is a different gender from themselves. Women, on the other hand, are born from a body that is the same gender as their own.“A woman simply is, but a man must become. Masculinity is risky and elusive. It is achieved by a revolt from woman, and it is confirmed only by other men.”
Camille Pagliahas commented that she believes that women are born, but men must "become." In other words, masculinity is not something that is granted by birth but is something that must be earned in adult life.
Role of the father• Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung argued that a father is very important to a boys development of identity. In his book Absent Fathers, Lost Sons  Canadian Jungian analyst Guy Corneau writes that the presence of the fathers body during the sons developmental phases is integral in the son developing a positive sense of self as masculine. Corneau also argues that if the son does not develop positively towards the fathers male body, then the son runs the risk of developing negatively towards all bodies. Jacques Lacan argued that in the sons mind, the fathers body represents the law, and that the role of the fathers body is to break the attachment the son feels to the mother and by extension his own.• Freudian analysts claim that all sons feel they are in competition with their father and often feel in a battle against the father. (Sigmund Freud referred to this as Oedipus Complex.) Freudian psychologists claim that the risk the son runs is that in some cases it is more difficult to win the battle against the father than to loose the battle against the father. This is because a common result of winning the battle against the father is that the son suffers tremendous guilt.
ETHICS IN ADVERTISING• . The importance of advertising is “steadily on the increase in modern society.”1 That observation, made by this Pontifical Council a quarter century ago as part of an overview of the state of communications, is even truer now.• Just as the media of social communication themselves have enormous influence everywhere, so advertising, using media as its vehicle, is a pervasive, powerful force shaping attitudes and behavior in today’s world.• Especially since the Second Vatican Council, the Church has frequently addressed the question of the media and their role and responsibilities. She has sought to do so in a fundamentally positive manner, viewing the media as “gifts of God” which, in accordance with his providential design, bring people together and “help them to
ETHICS IN ADVERTISING• We wish to call attention to positive contributions that advertising can and does make; to note ethical and moral problems that advertising can and does raise; to point to moral principles that apply to this field; and, finally, to suggest certain steps for the consideration of those professionally involved in advertising, as well as for others in the private sector, including the churches, and for public officials.
ETHICS IN ADVERTISING• Our reason for addressing these matters is simple. In today’s society, advertising has a profound impact on how people understand life, the world and themselves, especially in regard to their values and their ways of choosing and behaving. These are matters about which the Church is and must be deeply and sincerely concerned.• 2. The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. In general terms, of course, an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. As that suggests, advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade, and -- while these purposes are distinguishable -- both very often are simultaneously present.
ETHICS IN ADVERTISING• Advertising can be very simple -- a local, even ‘neighborhood,’ phenomenon -- or it can be very complex, involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. It differs according to its intended audience, so that, for example, advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults.
ETHICS IN ADVERTISING• We disagree with the assertion that advertising simply mirrors the attitudes and values of the surrounding culture. No doubt advertising, like the media of social communications in general, does act as a mirror. But, also like media in general, it is a mirror that helps shape the reality it reflects, and sometimes it presents a distorted image of reality.• Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged, promoting some while ignoring others. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture. For example, the absence from advertising of certain racial and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies can help to create problems of image and identity, especially among those neglected, and the almost inevitable impression in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions leads to happiness and fulfillment can be both misleading and frustrating.
TEN BENEFITS OF ADVERTISING 1. Identify• Advertising lets people know you’re in business. It conveys your business name and the type of products or services you offer.
2.Reach outA big example of the benefits of advertising isbringing potential customers to your store who might otherwise never know you exist. Astorefront is only seen by people who walk past your door, but advertising can reach out toothers in the surrounding towns and countries.
3.Special sales and promotions can be advertised that get people’s attention.Perhaps someone has been thinking about getting a new mattress, and when they learn about your store having a sale, it could be just the incentive they need to make a purchase.
4.Hours of operation• Nothing is more frustrating than going to a store to buy something you need and realizing they are closed. The potential customer may just go somewhere else to make their purchase. One of the benefits of advertising the days and hours a store is open is to help prevent a loss of sales. 5. "Word of mouth“• Is said to be one of the best forms of advertising, and it’s true. A satisfied customer will often tell others of their experience, which can result in future sales. Media advertising in newspapers, on radio and TV will help get new customers who will then increase business by their spreading the word to their friends.
6.Seasonal Promotions• There are great benefits of advertising for specialty items or seasonal products. Perhaps you sell products that only your store has locally, such as musical instruments. Advertising special seasonal items, such as selling Christmas trees, can bring additional sales at certain times of the year. 7. Confidence• Business owners often don’t realize that one of the benefits of advertising is making potential customers feel more confident in a business they see advertised. It gives them the sense that the business is professional, stable and reputable.
8. Blitz• Every time you watch a football game on TV, you’ll see beer advertisements. These companies are huge, and they have plenty of customers, but their goal is to keep their products’ names in front of consumers. If you see a commercial for a certain candy bar dozens of times, the next time you’re in a convenience store and see that candy bar, you’re more likely to buy one. 9. Consistency• A business that stops advertising may give the impression that the business is out of business. When people see a business advertise for a long period of time and then stop, they may get the false impression that the business is no longer there, even though it is still open. Consistent advertising yields the best results.
10.InvestAnother of the benefits of advertising that many businesses don’t realize is that it takes money to make money. An old saying in the marketing industry is "Advertising doesn’t cost, it pays." Sometimes you have to invest money to make money, and advertising should be an investment that is included in a business’s annual budget.
The Benefits of Advertising Economic Benefits of Advertising Benefits of Political Advertising• Cultural Benefits of Advertising Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising
Sanctity of life means how life is special and why it is special. There are five components to the idea of sanctity of life – we can see them like the petals of a flower:
Only God Life is can choose sacred when life ends Fill in the details in each petal on your diagram and underline the words that All life Life are in bolddeserves should berespect protected Life is God given
Can you think of a mnemonic to help remind you of the fivepetals?Use the first letter of each of the words in bold- e.g.Sacred – S SweetChoose – C ChildrenProtected – PickGiven – G GreyRespect –R RabbitsYou can do better than me but keep it clean!
People like doctors think about the idea of the Sanctity of life when they make decisions about people every day.For Christians and Muslims, because they believe that God created us, this means that all people are special and important to God. All people deserve respect and to be cared for.
The Sanctity of Human lifeKey questions:What does sanctity mean?What does the Bible teach about thesanctity of human life?Why do Catholics believe thathuman life is sacred?
Why did most the Germans considerthat the lives and suffering of theprisoners were of no real concern?Why did Schindler consider themimportant?
For you created my inmost being you knit me together in my mothers womb I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made your works are wonderful, I know that full well. My frame was not hidden from you when I was made in the secret place.
When I was woven together in the depths of the earth,your eyes saw my unformed bodyAll the days ordained for mewere written in your bookbefore one of them came to be
Genesis 1Exodus 20:13Romans 14:81 Corinthians 6:19Outline the teaching in the Catechism of theCatholic church on the sanctity of life
(c) Question:Explain why Catholicsbelieve that life is sacred?
Key questions:What does sanctity mean?What does the Bible teach about thesanctity of human life?Why do Catholics believe thathuman life is sacred?