Totalitarian regimes franco

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  • 1. TotalitarianRegimes:TowardsGodthroughEmpire (Franco’sSpain)
    Juan Manuel Acero
    3rd. FormEnglish
    CeRP del Sur – October 2011
  • 2. After a steady, three-centurylong decline, Spain hit rock bottom in the 19th Century…
    Francisco de Goya (1746-1828),
    TheFamily of Charles IV
  • 3. … a time full of trouble, bothdomestic and foreign…
    Internally:
    Externally:
    Loss of American Colonies (1810-1820)
    Loss of Predominance in European and WorldAffairs
    Spanish-American War of 1898
    Napoleon’sInvasion (1808)
    ThreeDinastic Civil Wars
    (CarlistWars)
    Change of Regime (FirstRepublic , 1873-1874) and subsequentrestoration
  • 4. … resulting in a country divided in twomajorfactions…
    … thosewhowantedto open SpainouttotheWorld…
    … and thosewhowantedtokeepitclosedintoitself.
  • 5. Francisco Franco wasonlysixyearsoldwhen …
    • … Spainwassoundlydefeatedbythe USA both at theCaribbean and thePacific.
    1898: a Winter of Discontent
  • 6. Thedawn of the 20th Centurywill show thatSpain’sdownfallisnotto stop soon…
    1921’s Disaster of Annual:
    over 10000 Spanishsoldierskilled in Morocco.
    1929’s World Crisis hits Spainevenharder.
    1912: current Head of Government José Canalejas killedbyanallegedanarchist.
  • 7. … and radical ways are proposedtoavoiddecay.
    1923: King Alfonso XIII appoints Miguel Primo de Rivera as dictator.
    • 1933: creationof Falange Española,thefirstopenlyFascistparty inSpain.
  • Theplatform of Falange Española
    Spainmustremainone. Separatismis“a crimewewillnotforgive”. The 1931 Constitution, as it condones separatism, mustdisappear.
    SpainisentitledtoanEmpire of itsown, withpreponderanceoverLatinAmerica and a privileged place in Europeanaffairs.
    TheStatewillbe a “totalitarianinstrument at theservice of nationalintegrity”. Politicalparties, Parliament and elections are tobeabolished.
    A “rigorous discipline” willfalluponthosewho try to “poison, createdivisionsamongSpaniardsormovethemawayagainsttheDestiny of theirMotherland”
    José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange Española
  • 8. Meanwhile….
    Francisco Franco pursues a succesfulmilitarycarreer, and seemstostayawayfrompoliticalturmoil.
  • 9. In fiveyears, from 1931 to 1936, Spainslidesdowntowards Civil War
    1931: Proclamation of theSecondRepublic
    1931 - 1933: ruledby a coalition of Center-LefttoLeftparties,
    the new Republicpasses a Constitution, new laws
    of PublicEducation, AgrarianReformation, Vote for
    women.
    1932: General Sanjurjo and otherhigh-rankofficersattempt a
    coupd’étatknown as “Sanjurjada”.
    1933 -1936: CEDA (SpanishConfederation of Autonomous
    Rights): the Black / SterileBiennial.
    1934: Anarchist and CommunistUnionsunleashthefailed “Red
    October” revolution in Asturias (North-Western Spain).
    Catalonia declares itself “sovereignstatewithintheRepublic”
  • 10. OnJuly 18th 1936, tensionsbetween radical left and extreme right lead up torebellionfromConservativeArmyofficers.
  • 11. Franco seemstobedisconnectedfromtheheads of therising, but…
    ... by June 1937 thetwo top insurrectionistofficershavedied, both at planecrashes.
  • 12. The “Movement” leads to a warthatwilllastforthreehard, bloodyyears.
    November 1936
    February 1939
    November 1938
    October 1937
    July 1936
  • 13. Bothsideshaveexternalhelp
  • 14. Bothsideshaveexternalhelp
  • 15. April 1st 1939: Warisover, says Franco
    AftertheWar, Franco leadershipwillbeuncontestedforthefollowing 40 years...
  • 16. Themaintraits of Francoism
    • Rejection of Parliamentarism, Division of Powers, Civil Liberties.
    • 17. Anti-Communism, Anti-Semitism
    • 18. CatholicNationalism, Centralism, Traditionalism, Militarism
    • 19. Single-Partysystem, Vertical Syndicalism
    • 20. Repression: 50000 deadduringwar, 200000 in 1939-1943
    • 21. Press and peopleunderstrict control.
    • 22. Personalitycult: Franco “Leader of Spainbythe Grace of God”
  • Hitler madehismoveto try togetFranco’sSpainintothewar.
    WorldWar II broke up fivemonthsaftertheSpanish Civil Warhadended.
  • 23. … Franco didnotenterthewar, buthissupport of the Axis …
    … increasedSpain’sisolationfromthe Western World.
    In 1941, Spainsentthe “Blue Squadron” and “Blue Division”, volunteerpilots and soldierswhofoughtagainst Stalin in theRussian Front.
  • 24. The post-warscenariodidnothavemuchtooffertoFranco’sSpain:
    • 1940’s: post-CivilWarhardships, addedtotheinternationalsituation, bringfamine, shortages and rationing.
    1946: thenewlyborn UN putsSpain in quarantine.
    Hugecrowdssupport Franco at Madrid’s Plaza de Oriente.
    • 1946-52: theyears of autarchybring a slighteconomicrecovery,based in the re-building of Spanishinfrastructure.
    • 25. 1953: Pacts of Madrid paveSpain’sway back totheinternationalcommunity. Economicrestrictionsslowlygive in.
  • As thealliancewiththe USA growsstronger, politicalchangesfollow:
    … and a boomingeconomywillgiverisetothe so-called “SpanishMiracle”.
    Farewell “OldShirts”
    • Hello “Technocrats”
    Throughoutthe 1960’s a new, generation of younger, college-educatedtechnicians and politicianswillinjectfreshbloodintoFrancoism….
  • 26. But, in spite of the “miracle”, social and politicalunrest set in…
  • 27. TheagedGeneralisimoseeksforcontinuity of hispoliticalregime...
    1969
    1973
  • 28. 1973: Carrero Blanco killedby ETA bombing
  • 29. Franco’s Funeral wasattendedbyhugecrowds in allmajorSpanishtowns
  • 30. Post Franco Facts
    • 1975:
    Juan Carlos de Borboncrowned as King of Spain, Monarchyisthusrestoredafter 46 years.
    • 1977:
    Legalization of theSpanishCommunistParty.
    • 1978:
    A new Constitution, introducingParliamentaryDemocracy, isswornbythe King.
    • 1982:
    TheSocialistWorkersParty of Spainwins General Elections. Felipe Gonzalezisthe new Prime Minister.
  • 31. Franco’sLegacy
    No convictionsnorchargesnorenquirieshaveeverbeenmadeforthecrimescommitedeitherduringorafterthe Civil War.
    Francoistmonuments and streetnamesstillexist in manyparts of Spain.
    Former Franco minister Fraga Iribarne foundedthe Popular Party (PP), which has severalstrongholds in someSpanishregions, and isabouttowinthe 2012 General Election.