TotalitarianRegimes:TowardsGodthroughEmpire (Franco’sSpain) Juan Manuel Acero 3rd. FormEnglish CeRP del Sur – October 2011
After a steady, three-centurylong decline, Spain hit rock bottom in the 19th Century… Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), TheFamily of Charles IV
… a time full of trouble, bothdomestic and foreign… Internally: Externally: Loss of American Colonies (1810-1820) Loss of Predominance in European and WorldAffairs Spanish-American War of 1898 Napoleon’sInvasion (1808) ThreeDinastic Civil Wars (CarlistWars) Change of Regime (FirstRepublic , 1873-1874) and subsequentrestoration
… resulting in a country divided in twomajorfactions… … thosewhowantedto open SpainouttotheWorld… … and thosewhowantedtokeepitclosedintoitself.
… Spainwassoundlydefeatedbythe USA both at theCaribbean and thePacific.
1898: a Winter of Discontent
Thedawn of the 20th Centurywill show thatSpain’sdownfallisnotto stop soon… 1921’s Disaster of Annual: over 10000 Spanishsoldierskilled in Morocco. 1929’s World Crisis hits Spainevenharder. 1912: current Head of Government José Canalejas killedbyanallegedanarchist.
… and radical ways are proposedtoavoiddecay. 1923: King Alfonso XIII appoints Miguel Primo de Rivera as dictator.
Theplatform of Falange Española Spainmustremainone. Separatismis“a crimewewillnotforgive”. The 1931 Constitution, as it condones separatism, mustdisappear. SpainisentitledtoanEmpire of itsown, withpreponderanceoverLatinAmerica and a privileged place in Europeanaffairs. TheStatewillbe a “totalitarianinstrument at theservice of nationalintegrity”. Politicalparties, Parliament and elections are tobeabolished. A “rigorous discipline” willfalluponthosewho try to “poison, createdivisionsamongSpaniardsormovethemawayagainsttheDestiny of theirMotherland” José Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of Falange Española
Meanwhile…. Francisco Franco pursues a succesfulmilitarycarreer, and seemstostayawayfrompoliticalturmoil.
In fiveyears, from 1931 to 1936, Spainslidesdowntowards Civil War 1931: Proclamation of theSecondRepublic 1931 - 1933: ruledby a coalition of Center-LefttoLeftparties, the new Republicpasses a Constitution, new laws of PublicEducation, AgrarianReformation, Vote for women. 1932: General Sanjurjo and otherhigh-rankofficersattempt a coupd’étatknown as “Sanjurjada”. 1933 -1936: CEDA (SpanishConfederation of Autonomous Rights): the Black / SterileBiennial. 1934: Anarchist and CommunistUnionsunleashthefailed “Red October” revolution in Asturias (North-Western Spain). Catalonia declares itself “sovereignstatewithintheRepublic”
OnJuly 18th 1936, tensionsbetween radical left and extreme right lead up torebellionfromConservativeArmyofficers.
Franco seemstobedisconnectedfromtheheads of therising, but… ... by June 1937 thetwo top insurrectionistofficershavedied, both at planecrashes.
The “Movement” leads to a warthatwilllastforthreehard, bloodyyears. November 1936 February 1939 November 1938 October 1937 July 1936
Personalitycult: Franco “Leader of Spainbythe Grace of God”
Hitler madehismoveto try togetFranco’sSpainintothewar. WorldWar II broke up fivemonthsaftertheSpanish Civil Warhadended.
… Franco didnotenterthewar, buthissupport of the Axis … … increasedSpain’sisolationfromthe Western World. In 1941, Spainsentthe “Blue Squadron” and “Blue Division”, volunteerpilots and soldierswhofoughtagainst Stalin in theRussian Front.
1940’s: post-CivilWarhardships, addedtotheinternationalsituation, bringfamine, shortages and rationing.
1946: thenewlyborn UN putsSpain in quarantine. Hugecrowdssupport Franco at Madrid’s Plaza de Oriente.
1946-52: theyears of autarchybring a slighteconomicrecovery,based in the re-building of Spanishinfrastructure.
1953: Pacts of Madrid paveSpain’sway back totheinternationalcommunity. Economicrestrictionsslowlygive in.
As thealliancewiththe USA growsstronger, politicalchangesfollow: … and a boomingeconomywillgiverisetothe so-called “SpanishMiracle”. Farewell “OldShirts”
Throughoutthe 1960’s a new, generation of younger, college-educatedtechnicians and politicianswillinjectfreshbloodintoFrancoism….
But, in spite of the “miracle”, social and politicalunrest set in…
TheagedGeneralisimoseeksforcontinuity of hispoliticalregime... 1969 1973
Juan Carlos de Borboncrowned as King of Spain, Monarchyisthusrestoredafter 46 years.
Legalization of theSpanishCommunistParty.
A new Constitution, introducingParliamentaryDemocracy, isswornbythe King.
TheSocialistWorkersParty of Spainwins General Elections. Felipe Gonzalezisthe new Prime Minister.
Franco’sLegacy No convictionsnorchargesnorenquirieshaveeverbeenmadeforthecrimescommitedeitherduringorafterthe Civil War. Francoistmonuments and streetnamesstillexist in manyparts of Spain. Former Franco minister Fraga Iribarne foundedthe Popular Party (PP), which has severalstrongholds in someSpanishregions, and isabouttowinthe 2012 General Election.