Masters Thesis: "Liberian Refugees in Ghana: Environmental Security Implications of the Indiscriminate Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste
Liberian Refugees in Ghana: Environment Security Implications of the Discriminate Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) MA Thesis Defense Jenkins Divo Macedo Presented to Thesis Committee Dr. Marianne Sarkis, Ph.D.Dr. Anita Häusermann Fábos, Ph.D. Dr. Jude Fernando, Ph.D. 26th March, 2012
Problem Statement Municipal solid waste continue to be environmental threat at the BRS in the midst of the UNHCR/NCS’s solid waste collection and disposal system. Research QuestionThis study explores what environmental threats are associated with theindiscriminate disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the localenvironment at the Buduburam Refugee Settlement (BRS).
Background of the Buduburam Refugee Settlement Gomoa-East District, Central Region, Ghana The settlement was established in 1990. Currently hosts about 11,000 Liberian refugees and others. 2000 UNHCR/NCS established the MSW system at the camp UNHCR terminated all humanitarian services in 2003 and this impacted the MSW program.
Methodology Data Collection Mixed Methods Research Quantitative o Survey Qualitative o Free-list o Pile Sorts o Semi-Structure Interviews o Focus Groups Geospatial MSW Digital Photograph
Ethical Consideration and Limitation Ethical Consideration IRB GRB Approval Limitations Time Tensions
Data Analysis Unit of Analysis Environmental threats of MSM disposal Quantitative Data SPSS Version 18Qualitative Data Atlas.ti version 16.0 Anthropac version 1.0 Geospatial Data ArcGIS version 10.0 Municipal Solid Waste IFEU GHG Emissions MS Excel Database System
Result & Discussion1. Land Pollution“The Central Region District Assemblycannot help because the amount of solidwaste that is produced from the camp on adaily basis surpass those that are producedin other towns and as such DA does nothave the capacity to assist” (District Chiefof Gomoa-East, Environment and HealthUnit, Ministry of Environment, Ghana). “Solid waste can be found in all communities on this camp. Some refugees just don’t care where waste is disposed. This is a sign of lack of responsibility of Liberian refugees” (Refugee in Focus Group).
Results & Discussion, Continued....2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Disposed and 250,000 GHG emissions recycled waste emits 200,000 219,604 tonne CO2- eq/yr 150,000 tonne CO2-eq/yr 100,000 Recycled waste saves -6,028 tonne CO2- 50,000 eq/yr last year 0 213,576 tonne of -50,000 Recycled waste Disposed of waste Total MSW Debits CO2-eq/yr from total Credits 2,189 -6,028 217,415 0 219,604 -6,028 MSW Net -3,839 217,415 213,576
Result & Discussion, Continued...3. Water-borne Disease“When it rains human fecalcontaminants get into the nearbyneighborhoods and water sourcescausing the outbreak ofcholera, diarrhea, dysentery and otherwater-borne diseases” (Follow-upInterview with the ChiefAdministrator, St. Gregory CatholicClinic).“The cases of illnesses here at the camp arevery high. So, we do have new incidenceeveryday of the week of sickness such asmalaria, typhoid fever, cholera, diarrheaand measles” (Interview with aNurse, SGCC, Buduburam RefugeeSettlement).
Research Question RevisitedWhat environmental threats are associated with the indiscriminate disposal ofmunicipal solid waste (MSW) in the local environment at the Buduburam Refugee Settlement (BRS).
Conclusions The indiscriminate disposal of municipal solid waste in the local environment atthe refugee camp threatens both refugees and local host communities to increasevulnerability to the outbreak of water-borne diseases, increased emissions of GHGand land pollution. The withdrawal and termination of all humanitarian assistance to the refugeepopulation exacerbates the deteriorating sanitary conditions at the camp.
How does my study relates to IDSC? Work with refugees and forced migrants Environmental threats impact refugees and host relations. Develop programs to address environmental threats in refugee settings
Next Step Sign and submit MA Thesis to Academic Affairs at IDCE Submit for publishing Consider exploring my data to see what next to what about.