Enhancing	
  Produc.vity	
  and	
  Livelihoods	
  Among	
  Smallholder	
  
Irrigators	
  through	
  Biochar	
  and	
  Fer....
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   2	
  
OUTLINE	
  
	
  
I.  	
  RESEARCH	
  OBJECTIVES	
  &	
  CONTEXT	
  
	
  
II.  	
  HYPOTHESES	
  
	...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   3	
  
RESEARCH	
  OBJECTIVES	
  
1.  	
  To	
  assess	
  whether	
  or	
  not	
  rice	
  
husk	
  biocha...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   4	
  
CONTEXT	
  OF	
  THE	
  STUDY	
  
	
  
²  	
  VariaRons	
  in	
  rainfall,	
  increased	
  surfac...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   5	
  
	
  
Research	
  Ques.on	
  
HYPOTHESES	
   	
  
Tests	
  
	
  
Parameters	
  
	
  
Null	
  
	
  
...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   6	
  
EXPERIMENTAL	
  PROTOCOL	
  
Experimental	
  Units	
  
	
  
² 	
  The	
  Randomized	
  Complete	
...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   7	
  
Ban	
  Ek	
  Xang	
  Land	
  Use	
  Map	
  &	
  Sites	
  Loca.on	
  	
  
Source:	
  IWMI-­‐GWP-­‐U...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   8	
  
Source:	
  Geological	
  and	
  Mineral	
  map	
  of	
  Ekxang	
  Village	
  area,	
  Scale:	
  1:...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   9	
  
TREATMENT	
  SPECIFICATION	
  
	
  
Num	
  
	
  
Treatment	
  Regimes	
  
	
  
Rates	
  of	
  Appl...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   10	
  
PYROLYSIS	
  PROCESSES	
  FOR	
  BIOCHAR	
  PRODUCTION	
  
A.	
  Metal-­‐Drum	
  Method	
  
2	
  ...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   11	
  
1	
   2	
  
3	
  
4	
  
B.	
  THE	
  EARTH-­‐Method	
  
1.  	
  Pile	
  the	
  biomass	
  into	
 ...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   12	
  
Farmers’	
  Approach	
   Modified	
  Approach	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   13	
  
Descrip.on	
   Metal	
  Drum	
  Method	
   Earth	
  Method	
   Comment	
  
	
  
Materials	
  
1. ...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   14	
  
Rice	
  Husk	
  Biomass	
   Rice	
  Husk	
  Ash	
  Rice	
  Husk	
  Biochar	
  
BIOMASS,	
  BIOCHA...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   15	
  
PROCESSING	
  BIOCHAR	
  POST	
  PYROLYSIS	
  
Removing	
  the	
  soil	
   Wevng	
  Biochar	
  to...
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF BIOCHAR
Source: UK Biochar Research Center, 2013
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   17	
  
THE ESSENTIAL STABILITY OF BIOCHAR
Source: Lehmann et al. 2006. Mitigation & Adaptation
Strategie...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   18	
  
Trial	
  Crops	
  
Both	
  crops	
  tolerate	
  poor	
  soil	
  
condiRons,	
  can	
  be	
  grown...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   19	
  
Legend:
RH + RS = Rice Husk plus Rice Straw RHB = Rice Husk Biochar RHB + CM = Rice Husk Biochar ...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   20	
  
SITE	
  B	
  TREATMENTS	
  &	
  CROP	
  LAYOUT	
  
Legend:
RH + RS = Rice Husk plus Rice Straw RH...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   21	
  
SOIL	
  CHEMICAL	
  &	
  PHYSICAL	
  ANALYSES	
  
1.  	
  Soil	
  Chemical	
  Analysis	
  (QuanRt...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   22	
  
Visual	
  Soil	
  Assessment	
  (VSA)-­‐PHYSICAL	
  (Semi-­‐Quan.ta.ve	
  Analysis)	
  
	
  
	
  ...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   23	
  
IRRIGATION,	
  WEATHER	
  STATION	
  &	
  	
  
SOIL	
  MOISTURE	
  MONITORING	
  
1.  Sprinklers	...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   24	
  
Hanna	
  92198	
  EC/TDS/TEMP/pH	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   25	
  
WEATHER	
  STATION	
  
Rainfall	
  measured	
  
HT20	
  RH/TEM/GPP/DPT/SR/WS-­‐WD	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   26	
  
Source:	
  IWMI-­‐GWP-­‐Updated,	
  2014	
  
MAP	
  of	
  Ban	
  Ekxang	
  Wells	
  and	
  Waters...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   27	
  
	
  Collectors	
  Layout	
  for	
  Monitoring	
  Sprinkler	
  Spray	
  Distribu.on	
  	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   28	
  
Irriga.on	
  Layout:	
  Site	
  A	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   29	
  
Irriga.on	
  Layout:	
  Site	
  B	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   30	
  
CROP	
  GROWTH	
  &	
  YIELD	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   31	
  
Cost-­‐Benefit	
  Evalua.on	
  of	
  Farming	
  Produc.vity	
  
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   32	
  
CHALLENGES	
  
Ø Cows	
  threaRng	
  to	
  
graze	
  on	
  the	
  
vegetables	
  
Ø 	
  Increas...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   33	
  
NEXT	
  STEP	
  
Ø 	
  Complete	
  applying	
  
treatments	
  at	
  both	
  sites.	
  
Ø 	
  Wo...
24-­‐Apr-­‐14	
   34	
  
This	
  is	
  a	
  work	
  in	
  progress.	
  
Thank	
  you!	
  
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Enhancing Productivity and Livelihoods Among Smallholder Irrigators through Biochar and Fertilizer Amendments at Ekxang Village, Vientiane Province, Lao PR

743 views
655 views

Published on

This is a research project in progress. A full report with results will be available at the end of the year [2014] and after the thesis has being defended at Clark University. This research is funded by Purdue University Center for Global Food Security through a grant funded by the USAID.

Published in: Environment, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
743
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
144
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
75
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Enhancing Productivity and Livelihoods Among Smallholder Irrigators through Biochar and Fertilizer Amendments at Ekxang Village, Vientiane Province, Lao PR

  1. 1. Enhancing  Produc.vity  and  Livelihoods  Among  Smallholder   Irrigators  through  Biochar  and  Fer.lizer  Amendments  at    Ekxang  Village,  Vien.ane  Province,  Lao  PDR     Jenkins  Macedo,  Lead  Researcher   Msc.,  14  Environmental  Engineering  &  Policy/Clark  University   MA.,  12  Interna?onal  Development  &  Social  Change/Clark  University     Mixay  Souvanhnachit     Bsc.,  15  Irriga?on  Engineering  at  DWRE/NUOL     Advisors   Dr.  Paul  Pavelic,  Hydrogeologist/IWMI   Dr.  Timothy  Downs,  Environmental  Engineer/Clark  University   Dr.  Marianne  Sarkis,  Sociocultural  Anthropologist/Clark  University   The  Na.onal  Agriculture  &  Forestry  Research  Ins.tute  (NAFRI)     15th  Anniversary  Symposium  on     Agriculture  and  Forestry  Research  for  Development   April  10,  2014    
  2. 2. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   2   OUTLINE     I.   RESEARCH  OBJECTIVES  &  CONTEXT     II.   HYPOTHESES     III.   EXPERIMENTAL  PROTOCOL   i.  Experimental  Units     IV.   DATA  COLLECTION  &  ANALYSES   i.  Soil  Samples   ii.  IrrigaRon,  Weather  StaRon  &  Soil   Moisture  Assessment   iii.  Crop  Growth  &  Yields  Record   iv.  Cost-­‐Benefit  EvaluaRon  of  Farming   ProducRvity     V.   NEXT  STEP  
  3. 3. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   3   RESEARCH  OBJECTIVES   1.   To  assess  whether  or  not  rice   husk  biochar  inoculated  with   cow  manure  and  manure  tea   plus  NPK  amended  in  soil     increase  soil  nutrient  status   and  improve  crop  yields   relaRve  to  the  tradiRonal   farming  pracRce.     2.  To  assess  the  potenRal  of   biochar  to  improve  soil  water   availability.     3.  To  evaluate  the  costs,  benefits   and  constraints  of  agricultural   producRvity  of  smallholder   irrigators  at  Ekxang  village.        
  4. 4. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   4   CONTEXT  OF  THE  STUDY     ²   VariaRons  in  rainfall,  increased  surface   temperature,  persistent  drought,   reduced  soil  moisture  and  crop  failures   have  all  been  linked  to  climate  change.     ²  These  changes  influence  shis  in   ecosystem  regimes  inducing  regional   and  global  food  insecurity  issues.     ²  Water  scarcity  for  agricultural   producRvity  during  the  dry  season  in  the   VienRane  Province  conRnues  to  be  a   major  challenge.       ²  Sustainable  groundwater  irrigaRon  has  a   potenRal  role  to  contribute  to  the  water   scarcity  needs  of  farmers.    
  5. 5. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   5     Research  Ques.on   HYPOTHESES     Tests     Parameters     Null     Alterna.ve   1.  Does  the  applicaRon  of   rice  husk  biochar   inoculated  with  cow   manure  and  manure  tea   plus  NPK  amended  in  soil   increase  nutrient  status   and  improve  crop  yields   relaRve  to  the  tradiRonal   farming  pracRce?     HO  :    As  a  result  of  the   applicaRon  of  biochar  of  rice   husk  inoculated  with  cow   manure  and  manure  tea  plus   NPK  amended  in  soil,  there   will  be  no  significant   difference  in  soil  nutrient   status  and  improve  crop  yields   relaRve  to  the  tradiRonal   farming  pracRce.   HA:  As  a  result  of  the  applicaRon  of   biochar  of  rice  husk  inoculated   with  cow  manure  and  manure  tea   plus  NPK  amended  in  soil,  there   will  be  significant  difference  in  soil   nutrient  status  and  improve  crop   yields  relaRve  to  the  tradiRonal   farming  pracRce.     Analysis  of  Variance   (ANOVA)     Soil  pH  (pH  (H2O,  KCl),  %(NPK),   CEC,   %   Organic   Maeer,   Bulk   density,   %   (CaCO3),   Al+,   soil   temperature  (°F),  Fresh  weight   (g/plt),   Dry   weight   (mg/plt),   Root   mass   (%),   Root-­‐Shoot-­‐ RaRo,   Plant   Height   (cm/plt),   Leave   count/plt,   Whole   Plot   Harvest  (kg/m2).     2.    Does  rice  husk  biochar   improves  soil  water   availability?   HO  :    As  a  result  of  the   applicaRon  of  rice  husk   biochar,  there  will  be  no   significant  difference  in  soil   water  availability.     HA:  As  a  result  of  the  applicaRon  of   rice  husk  biochar,  there  will  be   significant  difference  in  soil  water   availability.     Analysis  of   Variance   (ANOVA)       Soil   pH   (pH   (H2O,   KCl),   Soil   Moisture,   EC,   SAR,   TDS,   ETc,   temperature   (°F),   H20   %   by   Mass,  %TAW,  WP%,  FC%   3.  What  are  the  costs,   benefits  and  challenges  of   agricultural  producRvity  of   the  experiment  relaRve  to   the  tradiRonal  farming   pracRce  of  smallholder   irrigators  in  Ekxang   village?     HO  :    As  a  result  of  the  costs,   benefits  and  challenges  of   agricultural  producRvity  of   the  experiment  relaRve  to   the  tradiRonal  farming   pracRce  of  smallholder   irrigators  in  Ekxang  village,   there  are  no  significant   increases  in  agricultural   producRvity.     HA:  As  a  result  of  the  costs,   benefits  and  challenges  of   agricultural  producRvity  of  the   experiment  relaRve  to  the   tradiRonal  farming  pracRce  of   smallholder  irrigators  in  Ekxang   village,  there  are  significant   increases  in  agricultural   producRvity.     Costs  &  Benefits  Analysis   Total   Area   (m2),   crop   type,   water   source   type,   irrigaRon   scheme,  water  quality,  depth  of   well,   depth   of   groundwater,   age  of  well,  total  area  irrigated,   setup   cost,   labor,   crop   yield,   selling   price,   total   input   costs,   gross   revenue,   net   revenue,   normalized   revenue,   #   of   crop   per   year,   months   of   cropping   per  year.      
  6. 6. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   6   EXPERIMENTAL  PROTOCOL   Experimental  Units     ²   The  Randomized  Complete  Block   Design  was  used   ² Two  sites  located  in  paddy  rice  fields   were  selected  for  biochar  trials  on   two  crops  (Morning  Glory  &  Leeuce)   for  one  growing  season  (April-­‐June,   2014).     ²   5  treatment  by  4  replicaRons  by  2   crops  (5  by  4  by  2  =  40)  factorial   structure  is  being  used.   Site  B  features  (area  =  1104m2);  LocaRon:  18°   21.549'  (N)  to  102°  27.751'  (E)  about  800  meters  from   site  A.     Site  A  features  (area  =  480m2);  LocaRon:  18°  21.172'  (N)   to  102°  27.471'  (E).    
  7. 7. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   7   Ban  Ek  Xang  Land  Use  Map  &  Sites  Loca.on     Source:  IWMI-­‐GWP-­‐Updated,  2014  
  8. 8. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   8   Source:  Geological  and  Mineral  map  of  Ekxang  Village  area,  Scale:  1:200,000.  Department  of  Geology  and  Mineral,  MoNRE   Geological  Map  of  Ekxang  Village    
  9. 9. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   9   TREATMENT  SPECIFICATION     Num     Treatment  Regimes     Rates  of  Applica.on   Irriga.on  Requirement  (mm/day)   Morning  Glory   Leuce   1   Control  +  IrrigaRon   1.5  kg/m2  rice  husk  +  1.5kg/ m2  rice  straw  (RH+RS)   4mm/day   4mm/day   2   Rice  Husk  Biochar  (RHB)  +  IrrigaRon     3kg/m²RHB     4mm/day   4mm/day   3   Rice  Husk  Biochar  (RHB)  +  Cow   Manure  (CM)  +  IrrigaRon     1.5kg/m²RHB  +  1.5kg/m²CM     4mm/day   4mm/day   4   Rice  Husk  Biochar  (RHB)  +  Manure   Tea  (MT)  +  IrrigaRon     3kg/m²RHB  +  4L/m²MT     4mm/day   4mm/day   5   Rice  Husk  Biochar  +  Cow  Manure  +   NPK     1.5kg/m²RHB  +  1.5kg/m²CM   +  0.23kg/m²NPK   4mm/day   4mm/day  
  10. 10. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   10   PYROLYSIS  PROCESSES  FOR  BIOCHAR  PRODUCTION   A.  Metal-­‐Drum  Method   2  1   3   4   5   6  7   1.   50kg  metal  drums  for   internal  system  (Retort).  It   provided  extra  combusRon   2.   Rice  husk  and  rice  straw   biomasses   3.   Fill  retort  with  biomass   4.   Close  the  lid   5.   Put  sealed  retort  into  the   Kiln  (external  system  200gal   drum).     6.  Fill  surrounding  kiln  with   biomass/fuel  and  add  fire.   7.   Remove  biochar  from  the   retort  aer  5-­‐7  hours  and   cool  with  water.  
  11. 11. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   11   1   2   3   4   B.  THE  EARTH-­‐Method   1.   Pile  the  biomass  into  a  cone  liked   shape  and  create  a  crater  for  fire   in  the  middle.   2.   Completely  cover  the  biomass   with  either  fresh  grass/dry  grass   to  enhance  burning  and  to  serve   as  a  protecRve  layer  between  the   biomass  and  soil.   3.   Cover  the  cone  with  soil  at  about   1  inch  Rck  without  completely   covering  the  top  where  the  fire   will  be  placed.  Start  the  fire  and   make  sure  that  It  burning.  Cover   with  extra  biomass  and  cover  the   top  of  the  cone  with  soil.   4.   Depending  on  the  quanRty  of   rice  husk,  let  it  burn  for  about   8-­‐12  hours,  remove  the  soil  with   a  shovel/rake  and  apply  water  to   cool  the  biochar.  
  12. 12. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   12   Farmers’  Approach   Modified  Approach  
  13. 13. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   13   Descrip.on   Metal  Drum  Method   Earth  Method   Comment     Materials   1.  90,000  kip/200gal  drum  (6)  =  540,000.00kip   2.  50,000  kip/50kg  drum  (6)  =  300,000.00kip   3.  Other  (25,000.00  x  6)  =  150,000  kip     Grand  Total:  990,000.00kip       Not  Require   Time   Each  15kg  retort  filled  with  rice  husk  biomass   burned  for  8  hours  and  produced  10kg  biochar  on   average.   A  tractor  load  of  rice  husk  biomass   (≈1000kg)  burned  for  48  hours   produced  800kg  of  biochar.   Labor   Requires  about  15  minutes  to  prepare  each  retort   and  kiln  to  be  stocked  with  rice  husk  biomass.  All   six  systems  take  about  1hour  30  minutes.   Piling  the  rice  husk  biomass  into  a   cone-­‐like  shape,  adding  rice  straw  (if   available)  and  covering  with  soil   takes  about  an  hour.   Extra   biomass  for   fuel?   Yes,  the  external  kiln  system  requires  addiRonal   biomass  to  burned  to  generate  the  require  heat   energy/temperature  for  the  retort  usually  we   used  30kg  of  rice  husk  and  about  5kg  of  rice   straw.  All  these  extra  biomass  burned  to  ashes.     Not  Require   Biochar   1500kg  of  rice  husk  biomass  produced  750kg   ≈1000kg  rice  husk  biomass  produced   800kg  of  biochar.   Char  Quality   Very  good,  but  small  quanRty.  Could  contain  ash  if   allow  to  overstay.   Very  good,  but  could  contain  ash  if   overstay.   Farmers’   feedbacks   Labor  intensive,  expensive,  biomass  takes  longer   to  burn,  needs  to  burn  too  much  biomass  to   produce  small  quanRty  of  char,  but  the  system   controls  smoke  and  char  quality  are  very  good.   Not  expensive,  no  extra  biomass   needs  to  be  burned,  faster  to   produce  more  biochar,  not  Rme   consuming,  needs  to  be  monitored   to  prevent  air  penetraRon.   COMPARISONS  OF  BOTH  PYROLYSIS  METHODS  
  14. 14. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   14   Rice  Husk  Biomass   Rice  Husk  Ash  Rice  Husk  Biochar   BIOMASS,  BIOCHAR  &  ASH  
  15. 15. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   15   PROCESSING  BIOCHAR  POST  PYROLYSIS   Removing  the  soil   Wevng  Biochar  to  quench  the  fire   Always  keep  biochar  wet   InoculaRng  biochar  with  manure   InoculaRng  biochar  with  manure  tea   Manure  Tea  
  16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF BIOCHAR Source: UK Biochar Research Center, 2013
  17. 17. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   17   THE ESSENTIAL STABILITY OF BIOCHAR Source: Lehmann et al. 2006. Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Climate Change 11, 403-427.
  18. 18. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   18   Trial  Crops   Both  crops  tolerate  poor  soil   condiRons,  can  be  grown  quickly   and  during  this  Rme  of  the  year,   and  form  part  of  the  local  diet.   Leuce  (Lactuca  sa?va):     Loose-­‐leaf  variety   Pak  Bong  (Ipomoea  aqua?ca)   Morning  Glory  
  19. 19. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   19   Legend: RH + RS = Rice Husk plus Rice Straw RHB = Rice Husk Biochar RHB + CM = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Cow Manure RHB + MT = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Manure Tea RHB + CM + NPK = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Cow Manure + NPK SITE  A  TREATMENTS  &  CROP  LAYOUT  
  20. 20. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   20   SITE  B  TREATMENTS  &  CROP  LAYOUT   Legend: RH + RS = Rice Husk plus Rice Straw RHB = Rice Husk Biochar RHB + CM = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Cow Manure RHB + MT = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Manure Tea RHB + CM + NPK = Rice Husk Biochar inoculated with Cow Manure + NPK
  21. 21. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   21   SOIL  CHEMICAL  &  PHYSICAL  ANALYSES   1.   Soil  Chemical  Analysis  (QuanRtaRve  Analysis)        
  22. 22. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   22   Visual  Soil  Assessment  (VSA)-­‐PHYSICAL  (Semi-­‐Quan.ta.ve  Analysis)        
  23. 23. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   23   IRRIGATION,  WEATHER  STATION  &     SOIL  MOISTURE  MONITORING   1.  Sprinklers  IrrigaRon  Systems     ²   Installed  Overhead  sprinkler  with  360°   spray  angles  with  5m  spray  radius  5m   apart  and  2m  height.   ²   Installed  series  of  collectors  at  2m  to   monitor  spray  coverage.   ²   Monitor  cumulaRve  water  use  with  water   meters.   ²   Used  mobile  applicaRon  “Wind  Free”  to   monitor  wind  speed  and  direcRon.   ²   IrrigaRon  applicaRon  rate  for  both  crop   4mm/day.    
  24. 24. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   24   Hanna  92198  EC/TDS/TEMP/pH  
  25. 25. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   25   WEATHER  STATION   Rainfall  measured   HT20  RH/TEM/GPP/DPT/SR/WS-­‐WD  
  26. 26. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   26   Source:  IWMI-­‐GWP-­‐Updated,  2014   MAP  of  Ban  Ekxang  Wells  and  Watersheds    
  27. 27. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   27    Collectors  Layout  for  Monitoring  Sprinkler  Spray  Distribu.on    
  28. 28. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   28   Irriga.on  Layout:  Site  A  
  29. 29. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   29   Irriga.on  Layout:  Site  B  
  30. 30. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   30   CROP  GROWTH  &  YIELD  
  31. 31. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   31   Cost-­‐Benefit  Evalua.on  of  Farming  Produc.vity  
  32. 32. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   32   CHALLENGES   Ø Cows  threaRng  to   graze  on  the   vegetables   Ø   Increasing   temperature   •   >90°F    
  33. 33. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   33   NEXT  STEP   Ø   Complete  applying   treatments  at  both  sites.   Ø   Work  with  farmers  on   how  to  collect  and   record  field  data   accurately.   Ø   Implement  the  field   monitoring  plan.  
  34. 34. 24-­‐Apr-­‐14   34   This  is  a  work  in  progress.   Thank  you!  

×