Education in Emergency in Ghana: A Review of the Evidence of Protracted Displacement of Liberian Refugees in Ghana
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Education in Emergency in Ghana: A Review of the Evidence of Protracted Displacement of Liberian Refugees in Ghana

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Education in Emergency in Ghana: A Review of the Evidence of Protracted Displacement of Liberian Refugees in Ghana Education in Emergency in Ghana: A Review of the Evidence of Protracted Displacement of Liberian Refugees in Ghana Presentation Transcript

  • Education in Emergency: A Review of the Evidence of the Protracted Displacement of Liberan Refugees In Ghana A Category of Analysis from my MA Thesis on the Human and Environmental Security Implications of the Protracted Displacement of Liberian Refugees in Ghana Jenkins Divo MacedoMonday, December 12, 11
  • Monday, December 12, 11
  • Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Opening Quotations 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.3. Guiding Principles and Values of EIE 2. Education in Emergency at the Buduburam Refugee Settlement 2.1. The Role of State and Non-State Actors 2.2. Targets of Education 3. Narratives Results and Issues from Field Research 4. What Next? 5. ReferenceMonday, December 12, 11
  • Opening Quotations “The lack of funds prevent us from reaching as many children as possible in getting them to school” (An interview response from a staff of a UNHCR partnering agency in Ghana). “About half of the total Liberian Refugee population at the settlement are children and most of them are out of school, because parents cannot pay their tuition in local schools. The UNHCR said refugees should consider repatriation” (An interview response from a staff of Point Hope, a Non- Governmental Organization providing scholarship for about 300 children at the refugee settlement). “If education is basic human right, the UNHCR has violated that right”(An interview response refugee activist group, Ghana).Monday, December 12, 11
  • Statement of the Problem Education in Emergency and the Global Refugee Crisis 1. 43.7 Million Forced Migrants 2. 25.2 million receive UNHCR protection 3. 7.2 million refugees are in protracted situation 4. 10.4 million refugees are warehoused in camps. 5. 12 million people are stateless. 6. 49 LDC host four-fifth of the global refugee population The Case of Liberian Refugees in Ghana 1. Refugee influx in 1990 led to the establishment of the Buduburam Refugee Settlement. 2. 1990-2005 the camp hosted 38,000 Liberian refugees 3. Current population 11,000 ✴(protracted refugee situations) 4. In 2005 UNHCR terminated all humanitarian assistance to the refugee population at the Buduburam Refugee Settlement. ✴Protracted refugee situations describe refugees living in camps or settlements for more than 5 years without access to education, health care, proper sanitation facilities, etc...(UNHCR 2009 Global Trends in Refugees, Displacement and IDPs).Monday, December 12, 11
  • Monday, December 12, 11
  • Source: US Department of StateMonday, December 12, 11
  • Guiding Principles and Values of EIE 1 Education is a basic human right of all people affected by crisis and instability 2 Education protects during crises and lays a sustainable foundation for recovery, peace and development 3 Education should be included in all humanitarian responses 4 Education policy and services must be actively sustained and coordinated across the humanitarian – development continuum before, during and in recovery from crises 5 Crises which destabilize education can be approached not only as urgent situations of immediate need but also as opportunities for positive change. Source: INEEMonday, December 12, 11
  • Education in Emergency at Buduburam 1991-2005: UNHCR established the Buduburam Refugee Community School System Target: Providing free primary and secondary education to Liberian refugees in an effort to produce a new generation of Liberians who upon leaving the camp can contribute meaningfully to the socioeconomic development of their communities.Monday, December 12, 11
  • SHIFT IN EDUCATIONAL GOALS 2005-2011: UNHCR’s terminated ALL humanitarian aid to refugees led to: 1. Creation of schools by CBOs 2. Vocational Institutions by NGOs Target: Workforce development through vocational skills training, gender empowerment and social justice.Monday, December 12, 11
  • State Actors Ghana Eduction Service (GES) 1. Professional Development for Teachers 2. Education for Empowerment (EfE) Out of school - children gets a second chance of education in the EfE Program. 3. Administering the West African Examination Council (WAEC) ★ Junior and Senior Secondary levelsMonday, December 12, 11
  • Non-State Actors UNHCR 1990-2005 ★ Construction of School Buildings ★Funds Primary and Secondary Education ★ Provides Educational Materials ★ Provides minimum professional development activities. Partner Organizations ★ Accra Teachers Training College ★ Winneba University College of Education ★ Christian Council of Ghana (CCG) ★ Point Hope (PH) ★ United National Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) ★ Unite For SightMonday, December 12, 11
  • UNHCR 2011 Education Facts of Ghana Ghana Total people of concern: 14,577 refugees and asylum seekers Main origin of refugees: Liberia, Togo, Sudan, Sierra Leone Implementing partners: National Media Commission, Ghana Education Service, Ghana Health Service and Ghana Police Service Education program setting: Urban (Accra) and camps Overall education needs budget 2012: Refugees and asylum seekers in urban areas: USD 387,860 Refugees in rural areas: USD 471,142 Source: UNHCR Education 2011: GhanaMonday, December 12, 11
  • implementing partners implementing partners 0% 40% Secondary Secondary Secondary %o % Primar Primar Primar % of childr % of c (8) 40% Male Primary Primary PrimaryEconomic difficulties ofof refugee parents area areason for the Economic difficulties refugee parents are Secondary Secondary Secondary reason for the 20% (6) (8) (3) (6) 20% 20%high drop out high drop out (3) 0% 0% Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary 0% 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 2008 2009 2010 Situationrefugeeeducation in camps of Refugee Education in Camp Settings Situation of refugee education in camps Situation of 2008 2009 2010 Enrolment of refugee youth in training Challenges Objectives Enrolment of refugee youth in training 100% Enrolment rate in in primary and secondary Enrolment rate primary and secondary Enrolment of children with specific needs Enrolment of children with specific Enrolment of refugee youth in training 100% education education 80% High dropout rate, especially in secondary school numbers in parentheses Presence of a local education refugee owned schools to meet • Number ofof parentheses Number Absolute numbers in Absolute Upgrade the Presence of•a local education in primary education in primary education 80% 100% 100% 100% Most of the schools78% 79%privately owned and students per • are79% 100% 100% students per are costly national standards by transferring responsibility of committee with implementing committee with implementing% of youth 87%87% % of children % of children 78% % of youth 78%78% (4) (4) 60% 80%80% 80% 60% 60% • 80% More than 3,000 childrenFemale private schools teacher receive in Female Female Female 80% 80% (6) (6) teacher do not partner/government participation these schools to the Ghanaian (3) (3) partner/government participation 80% supervision of % of youth 60% % of children % of children Male 2008 13 Yes 80% % Female education service 60% 40% 40% 40% 40% quality education Male MaleMale 2008 60% 60% 13 Yes Female Female 20%20% 2009 18 No •Male Assure access of refugee children to Male % Male No 2 universal 20% 20%0% • 0% Most teachers in30%30% private schools are not18 7% 7% the 2009 40% 40% professional 40% Primary Primary Primary 4% 4% 4% 4% Yesprimary education, secondary30% and tertiary teachers and have inadequate teaching and (3) 1616 materials 2010 Secondary Secondary Secondary 2 Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary 1% 1% (8) Yes 0% 0% 2010 learning 20% 20% (3) (6) (6) (8) 20% 7% 4% 4% 1% 2 20082008due to limited funding 20092009 2010 2010 0% 0% education 0% 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2008 2009 2010 • Schools in the settlements do not meet the Ghanaian • Enhance job opportunities of refugees education service standards Teacher gender parity Teacher gender parity •Enrolment refugee youth in training afford secondary Percentage of ofand teachers Very few refugees can Enrolment of of refugee youth in training educationrefugee not Percentage refugee teachers Overall education needs budget 2012: Teacher gender parity USD 859 000 100%100% 100% 100% many who qualify for tertiary education 7% able to afford the 100% 100% are 100% 7% 8% 100 80% 80% 80% fees 8% Number of 38% 38% 46% of a local education Number of 38% Presence of a local education Presence 38% 46% 80% 80%80% students 80% 64% 64%64% 64%61% 61% do not speak English, the per language of with implementing committee with implementing 80 73% 73%Refugee children • 76% 76% students per committee % of youth 61% % of teachers of teachers % of teachers % of teachers %% of youth 64% 64% % of teachers % of teachers 60% 80% 73% 76% teacher UNHCR 60% 60% 60% 80% instruction in Ghana Male teachers Female Female Male teachers 60%60% teacher partner/government participation 60% partner/government participation Local teachers approved Male teachers 60 40% Male Male Female teachers Female teachers 2008 93% 13 91% 2008 93% 13 91% Yes teachers Local Yes teachers 50% budget Female teachers 40% Refugee teachers Refugee 40% 40%• 20% Lack of funding for post secondary 2009 tertiary education 30% and 40% 200940% 18 18 No No 40% 50% 40 20% 7%36% 30% 62% 62% 62% 62% 54% 39% 7% 4% 36%39% 39% 4% 1% 54% 36% 20% 20% 4% 1% 36% 36% 4% 2010 16 Yes Yes 36% 0% 27% 27% 2010 20%20% 16 20% 27% 24% 20 0% 24% 24% 2008 2009 2010 0 2008 2009 2010 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008200820092009 20102010 2006 2007 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 Source: UNHCR Ghana: Education Statistics 2011 Teacher gender parity Percentage of refugee teachers Teacher gender parity Percentage of refugee teachers 100% 100% 100% 7% 100% 7% 8% 80% 8% 38% 38% 46% 80% 80% 38% 38% 46% 64% 61% 64% 80% % of teachers % of teachers 73% 76% 64% 61% 64% % of teachers % of teachers 60% 73% 76% Male teachers 60% 60% Local teachers Male teachers 60% 93% Female teachers 91% Local teachers 40% 93% Refugee teachers Female teachers 40% 91% 40% Refugee teachers 40% 36% 39% 62% 62% 54% 36% 20% 36% 39% 20% 62% 62% 54% 27% 36% 20% 24% 20% 27% 24% 0% 0% 0% 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 0% 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2010 2 22Monday, December 12, 11
  • Descriptive Statistics from Field Research ! !! Monday, December 12, 11
  • Women Empowerment Vocational Skills Training SKILLS “UNIDO is one of the organizations on the Baking, Block Laying/Masonry, Beauty Care, Dressmaking, Batik Tie & Dye, ICT Computer camp that is actively assisting refugee women Hardware, Soap Science, Carpentry& Joinery, groups with skills development and upon Draughtsmanship and Electrical. completion of the six month intensive training, UNIDO provides each woman with a start-up 447 Women at Budumburam benefits from package of materials in the skills they learned UNIDO, UNHCR and FAO Programme in allowing them to start their own micro- Ghana business as well as put to practice what they have learned” http://africabusiness.com/2011/06/20/447- (An interview response from a staff of a community- women-at-budumburam-benefits-from-unido- unhcr-and-fao-programme-in-ghana/ based organization). Underlying Policy Outcomes: develop a skill-based workforce of women for local integration and encourage voluntary repatriationMonday, December 12, 11
  • Narrative Discussions Between Qua/Quan Results Survey Responses Lack of Humanitarian Aid ! ✴ Education “We pay for our children school fees, hospital care, food, etc. The UNHCR’s budget has funding appropriated for each of these services and yet we don’t receive them” (A focus group response from a female Liberian refugee). “Some refugees are not in school and they are seriously eager to go to school” (An interview response from a member of the Refugee Settlement Management Committee). “Most of these teens are from families who cannot cater to them because of the socioeconomic conditions of the camp. We also have ! scholarship scheme to assist pay the school fees for these teens” (An interview response from a staff of a CBO). “The United Nations as well as the Ghanaian Government needs to specify why have refugees been kept on this camp for so long without access to basic services such as education, healthcare, proper sanitation, housing, etc” (An interview response from a staff of an INGO). So now, if you don’t have money to pay your transportation to and from the camp to Accra you wouldn’t be able to access UNHCR’s services” (Staff interview response from the Ghana Refugee Board).Monday, December 12, 11
  • What Next? ✴ Keep exploring the current information on Education in Emergency at the refugee settlement. ✴ Policy recommendations for education that will promote human security, foster a durable solution and discourage protracted displacement.Monday, December 12, 11
  • Reference Bensalah, Kacem. 2002. "Guidelines for Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: EFA Strategic Planning." COLNOE, Amos G. 2007. "Transition from Emergency Assistance to Self-Reliance Liberian Refugees in GOMOA- BUDUBURAM, GHANA." Master Thesis, Norwegian University of Life Science, Norway. Dick, Shelly. 2002a. "Liberians In Ghana: Living Without Humanitarian Assistance." UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit no. 57. Dick, Shelly. 2002b. "Responding to Protracted Refugee Situations: A Case Study of Liberian Refugees in Ghana." UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit. Geueke, A., D. Doherty, and J. Foy. 2005. "The Call to Return Home: Aspirations and Uncertainties Voices of Refugee Youth of Buduburam." USCRI. Ghana, Government of. 1992. "Refugee Law, 1992." Refugee Law of Ghana of 1992. INEE. 2009. "Summary of the Thematic Dialogue of the U.N. General Assembly on Access to Education in Emergency, Post- Crisis and Transition Situations." Jacobsen, K. 1997. "Refugees Environmental Impact:The Effect of Patterns of Settlement." Journal of Refugee Studies no. 10 (1):19-36. Jacobsen, Karen. 2002. "Can Refugees Benefit the State? Refugee Resources and African Statebuilding." The Journal of Modern African Studies no. 40 (04):557-596. doi: 10.1017/s0022278x02004081. Mensah, Judith Homadi. 2009. "Empowering Protracted Refugees: an assessment of the case of Liberian refugees at Buduburam settlement, Ghana." Oxford Journal:1-57. Morel, Michèle. 2009. "The lack of refugee burden-sharing in Tanzania: tragic effects." Afrika Focus no. 22 (1):107-114. OAU. 1969. "CONVENTION GOVERNING THE SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF REFUGEE PROBLEMS IN AFRICA." Sarfo-Mensah, Abena Gyamfuah. 2009. "Coping Methods and Meaning Making of Liberian Refugees in the Buduburam Refugee Camp of Ghana." DigitalCommons of UCON. Smith, Merrill. 2004. "Warehousing Refugees: A Denial of Rights, a Waste of Humanity." World Refugee Survey no. 2004:38-56. UN. 1950. "Convention and Protocal Relating to the Status of Refugees." un Convention and Protocol. UNHCR. 2003. "UN Education in Emergencies." UNHCR. 2009. "Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons." UNHCR Report on Forced Migrants. UNHCR. 2010. "Global Refugee Trends ". VERDIRAME, GUGLIELMO. 1999. "Human Rights and Refugees: The Case of Kenya1." Journal of Refugee Studies no. 12 (1):54-77. doi: 10.1093/jrs/12.1.54. Westing, Arthur H. 1992. "Environmental Refugees: A Growing Category of Displaced Persons." Environmental Conservation no. 19 (3):201-207. WorldBank. 2011. "The Impacts of Refugees on Neighboring Countries: A Development Challenge." World Development Report.Monday, December 12, 11