THE MAGNA CARTABY: JARRETT MORRIS6 TH P E R I O D
WHAT IS THE MAGNA CARTA?The Magna Carta is a document that King John of England (1166 - 1216) was forced into signing. King John was forced into signing the charter because it greatly reduced the power he held as the King of England and allowed for the formation of a powerful parliament. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizens rights.
WHAT WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE MAGNACARTA? The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws - some copied, some recollected, some old and some new. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
WHO WROTE THE MAGNA CARTA?The content of the Magna Carta was drafted by Archbishop Stephen Langton and the most powerful Barons of England. King John signed the document which was originally called the Articles of the Barons on June 10, 1215. The barons renewed the Oath of Fealty to King John on June 15, 1215. The royal chancery produced a formal royal grant, based on the agreements reached at Runnymede, which became known as Magna Carta. Copies of the Magna Carta were distributed to
IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT THEMAGNA CARTAKey Dates relating to the event: The Magna Carta was signed by King John on June 15, 1215Other names for Magna Carta: It is also referred to as the Magna Charter or the Great CharterWhere was the Magna Carta signed? The Magna Carta was signed by King John in a meadow at Runnymede in Egham, Surrey, South England ( between Windsor and Staines)Key People relating to the event: King John of England, Archbishop Stephen Langton and the BaronsWhy the Magna Carta was famous and important to the history of England? The charter is considered to be the beginning of constitutional government in England. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
SUMMARY OF THE MAGNA CARTAThe Church - The Church was to be free from royal interference, especially in the election of bishopsTaxes - No taxes except the regular feudal dues were to be levied, except by the consent of the Great Council, or ParliamentThe right to due process which led to Trial by JuryWeights and Measures - All weights and measures to be kept uniform throughout the realm
WHY THE MAGNA CARTA WASIMPORTANT TO THE HISTORY OFAMERICAThe Magna Carta is considered the founding document of English liberties and hence American liberties. The influence of Magna Carta can be seen in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights. Article 21 from the Declaration of Rights in the Maryland Constitution of 1776 reads:"That no freeman ought to be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land."
KING JOHN AND THE MAGNA CARTAIn 1205 King John quarreled with the Pope Innocent III about who should be archbishop of Canterbury. The Pope wanted a man named Stephen Langton to be archbishop, but King John swore he should never come to England.In 1209 The pope retaliated, excommunicated King John and banned all church services in all parish churchesKing John gave in, and Pope Innocent made the king and people pay him money whenever he demanded it.Taxes levied by King John were extortionate. His reprisals against defaulters were ruthless and his idea justice was considered avariciousIn 1212 King John imposes taxes on the Barons in his attempts to regain the lost lands of Aquitaine, Poitou and AnjouKing John quarrels with the Barons over his methods of ruling EnglandThe Barons and Stephen Langton decided to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The demands of the Barons were documented in the Articles of the Barons in January 1215The Barons took up arms against King JohnThe Barons captured London in May 1215In June the Barons, in full armor, took King John by surprise at Windsor and he agreed to a meeting at RunnymedeKing John signed and sealed the document on June 10, 1215The barons renewed the Oath of Fealty to King John on June 15, 1215The royal chancery produced a formal royal grant, based on the agreements reached at Runnymede, which became known as Magna CartaCopies of the Magna Carta were distributed to bishops, sheriffs and other important people throughout EnglandKing John had no intention of abiding by the Magna Carta. His duplicity leads to the Barons War between 1215 - 1217. The rebel barons support the son of the king of France, Prince Louis in preference to King John.