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蹿至屏幕中央,齐声大喊:啊!可以吸的火腿肠! …


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  • 1. Build a Balanced Speech
    • Introduction-10% of the speech
      • Gain audience attention via an example, quote, statistics or a visual aid
      • State the Central Thesis (the main idea)
      • Establish your credibility
      • Identify with the audience and recognize the occasion
      • Preview the main points, in the same order they will appear in the speech
  • 2. Build a Balanced Speech (continued)
    • Body-80% of the speech
      • Use 3-5 main points
      • Give balanced attention to each section
    • Conclusion-10% of the speech
      • This is a mirror image of introduction, with a review
      • Refer back to the attention-getter in the introduction (e.g., a vivid example)
      • Don’t introduce new information
      • End with authority, and always on time
  • 3. Employ Frequent Transitions
    • Transitions help adult learners know what to expect
    • Transitions link the main parts of the speech, and create a smooth flow
    • Transitions can review, and then preview main points
    • Transitions can be long or short
      • Single words, phrases or sentences
      • Numbers
  • 4. Examples of Transitions
    • “Now that we have reviewed the problem of homelessness, let’s examine three main causes…”
    • “The second major problem is…”
    • “Next, we will consider..”
    • “That brings us to…”
    • “The final point…”
  • 5. Employ Humor With Care
    • Where humor is concerned, there are no standards - no one can say what is good or bad, although you can be sure that everyone will!
    • John Kenneth Galbraith
  • 6. Use Varied and Multiple Types of Evidence and Support
    • Examples
      • Vivid success stories or brief scenarios
    • Visual aids or models
    • Expert testimony
      • Quotes attributed to an expert enhance the speaker’s credibility
    • Statistics
      • Be sure to round off and interpret
  • 7. There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies and statistics . Benjamin Disraeli
  • 8. Statistics always remind me of the fellow who drowned in a river whose average depth was three feet. Woody Hayes Coach, Ohio State Football
  • 9. Always provide people with a context to help them understand. Richard E. Moran
  • 10. A talk is a voyage with a purpose, and it must be charted. The man who starts out going nowhere, generally gets there. Dale Carnegie
  • 11. Strategically Choose Your Organizational Pattern(s)
    • Chronological (in order of occurrence, as in a historical perspective)
    • Topical (by subject)
    • Spatial (by physical position, as in geographic)
    • Problem-Cause-Solution
    • Problem-Solution
    • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  • 12. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
    • Attention
      • Create interest in the problem
    • Need
      • Analyze problem characteristics and relate these to the audience needs
    • Satisfaction
      • Propose a course of action that eliminates the problem and satisfies audience needs, desires and wants
  • 13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (continued)
    • Visualization
      • Verbally depict the world as it will exist if the plan is or is not instituted, and contrast these possibilities
    • Action
      • Call for audience commitment and action
      • Be specific
      • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is commonly used in advertising to persuade…
  • 14. Delivery Tips
    • A speaker is always “on stage”
      • They are “on” from moment they are announced, to the time they return to their place in the audience
    • Pause before beginning
    • Vary intonation
    • A slightly faster pace increases audience comprehension
    • Maintain good eye contact
    • Assume a relaxed, open posture, with few self-adaptors/touch
  • 15. (Sometimes, “less” is “more”) Talk low, talk slow and don’t say too much. John Wayne
  • 16. The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause. Mark Twain
  • 17. To Minimize Anxiety
    • Convert anxiety to presentational energy
      • Recognize that mild arousal is normal
    • Seek public speaking opportunities
      • More speaking experience=less anxiety
    • Avoid stimulants
    • Eat and sleep enough
    • Deep breathing, activity and relaxation may help
  • 18. Practice the Presentation
    • Rehearse
      • Your emotional state
      • Transitions (this is where many speakers experience the most difficulty)
      • Introduction and Conclusion
  • 19. Become Familiar With the Room
    • Messages are perceived better in an attractive room
    • Check-out the sound system and lighting
    • Become familiar with audiovisual (AV) technologies
    • Plan for water, pointer, etc.
  • 20. Always Have A Back-Up Plan
    • What if the AV fails?
      • Have a lo-tech back-up
    • What if your available time is diminished?
      • Eliminate sub-points
      • Don’t speed rate
    • What if you misplace your speech?
      • Keep an extra copy, or quickly construct an outline
  • 21. FAQ’s
    • What if I make a mistake?
      • Remember that most speakers make them
      • Correct it; humor is ok
      • Move ahead
      • Don’t apologize profusely or start over
    • How can I avoid saying “Um?”
      • Employ speaking transitions
      • Tolerate silence
  • 22. FAQ’s
    • How can I slow down?
      • Pause between sections. Stop at the end of sentences. Underline key words.
      • Tape record your practice sessions and count the words per minute. Then, practice speaking at a deliberately slower rate to gain conscious control over rate.
  • 23. FAQ’s
    • What about eye contact?
      • Don’t bob your head up and down
      • Don’t fix your gaze at one person
      • Look up at the end of a section, rather than lose your place, or train of thought
      • Face the audience, not your slides
      • Look more at friendly, supportive people
      • Don’t favor one side of the room
      • Increased eye contact increases audience learning
  • 24. FAQ’s
    • What do I do with my hands?
      • Don’t play with your hair, clothes, objects or jingle money in your pockets
      • Don’t worry about your gestures--they will emerge naturally
      • Keep your hands on or near the podium, or at your sides. Don’t cross your arms, or clasp your hands in front of your body.
  • 25. Audience Q&As
    • Anticipate potential questions
      • Draft answers
    • Listen to the question
      • Read the emotion
    • Don’t get defensive and never embarrass an audience member
    • Maintain an open and relaxed posture
    • Admit to not having an answer
      • “I really can’t speak to that; I will refer that concern to….”
  • 26. I’m glad this question came up, in a way, because there are so many ways to answer it that one if them is bound to be right. Robert Benchley I was gratified to be able to answer promptly. I said, “I don’t know.” Mark Twain
  • 27. In Closing
    • Speaking in public represents an opportunity to enhance knowledge, change attitudes, and promote action
    • Most importantly, strive to communicate with your audience and to meet their unique needs
    • The speaker has a responsibility to communicate publicly in an informed and ethical manner
  • 28. Source: Cohn, E. Public Speaking, University of Pittsburgh Center for Instructional Development & Distance Education, Fifth Edition, January 2001.