The ‘argument’ (your point) is supported by ‘the literature’: academic journal articles, books, similar research studies, theoretical writing
This literature is used strategically to build your argument—you are always showing why you are using this literature
The literature is ‘quoted’ and/or paraphrased
The literature is referenced inside the essay (Wellington, 2000) and on a ‘References’ page at the end of the essay
The writing is presented in conventional formats: essay, journal articles, books, oral presentations
These formats follow conventions in style, structure, formatting and content
Check your Rubric: ‘ Critical appraisal of the literature’
What is this?
Intro Body Paragraph 1 Body Paragraph2 Body Paragraph3 Conclusion The classic ‘ 5 paragraph essay.’
What goes here? What goes here? What goes here? What goes here? What goes here? . . . and how do they all work together? Conclusion Section 3 Section 2 Section 1 Intro Essay ‘flow’ . . .
In summary: ‘S.S.S.’
Intro Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Conclusion S ay what you will say. (State your writing purpose/thesis.) S ay it! (Develop your argument, step-by-step, and use the literature.) S ay what you said. (Conclude with short summary, restating main point.)
The introduction introduces the topic
The introduction tells us the purpose of the essay: the ‘Thesis Statement’:
‘ This paper will argue that . . .
‘ In this paper I will discuss my philosophy of education, one based in my view that . . .. I will also consider how my experiences as a teacher, as a parent of an elementary school child, and as a student have contributed to this philosophy.’
The introduction previews the essay structure:
‘ First I will describe my philosophy of education.
Next, I will explore how my experiences as a science teacher in a Chinese secondary school contributed to . . .
Following that . . .
Imagine that you are asked to write an essay.
Here is the topic:
These days, many students are travelling to other countries to study at university. There are many reasons for this. Why do you think students would study for a master’s degree in a foreign country?
Write a purpose statement for this essay:
‘ In this essay, I will . . .’ There are many possible reasons for . . .’
Write the essay structure preview:
‘ First, I will consider
Next, . . .
Finally, . . .’
Section 1 Conclusion ‘ In this section of the essay, I described . . . This discussion was important to my argument because . . .’ Section 1 Introduction In this section I will present . . .’ Section 2 Introduction ‘ In the previous section we saw . . . This section will present . . .’
Look at the paragraph example.
Can you think of a topic sentence that would fit this paragraph?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
In European universities, students are not required to attend classes. In fact, professors in Germany generally do not know the names of the students enrolled in their courses. In the United States, however, students are required to attend all classes and may be penalized if they do not. Furthermore, in the European system, there is usually just one comprehension examination at the end of the student’s entire four or five years of study. In the American system, on the other hand, there are usually numerous quizzes, tests, and homework assignments, and there is almost always a final examination in each course at the end of the semester.
Get help, advice, suggestions from each other
Ask MAEPP staff (Try to have specific questions!)
Go to the bookstore, look at several writing books, and pick one that you like:
One that is easy to locate information in
One that is easy to follow, both visual layout and writing
Find 2 or 3 articles or essays that you think are good and follow their models
Use the Sheffield resources (English Language Support Center; MAEPP Handbook III)
Find two or three websites with examples: grammar; academic writing; referencing.
What was new to you today about writing?
What seems easy?
What seems hard?
What do you think you need to work on?
What advice do you have for the class to assure their success in their MAEPP writing?
How can you help each other?
How can Chris, Tim and I be of use to you?
As we work in the Programme, we will be coming to understand the meaning of the following (from the criteria rubric, ‘Critical appraisal of the literature’):
‘a critical appraisal of the literature’
a ‘persuasive and original use of relevant quotation’
an ‘impressive and original use of a wide range of relevant and current sources’
a ‘convincing synthesis of evidence, analysis and understanding in argumentation
an ‘impressive and original depth of understanding of topic’