End-to-End and IPv6


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IPv6 Summit presentation in Beijing 2002.

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End-to-End and IPv6

  1. 1. End-to-End and IPv6 John Loughney john.loughney@nokia.com IETF AAA WG Chair IETF NSIS WG Chair1 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  2. 2. Technology Evolution from Circuits to Packets Mobile Multimedia Personalised Services Rich call Mobile Internet Location Streaming Services mCommerce Wireless Voice Browsing Messaging Handsets GSM GPRS EDGE/WCDMA Network 13kbps 2mbps Bandwidth Time WLAN 53Mbps2 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  3. 3. New Applications and Services Need IPv6 • Messaging is important - text messages is a good starting point. • 100 billion text messages (SMS) sent per month by the end of 2002 • Use of Multimedia messaging (MMS) is taking off. • Instant Messaging, presence, Java applications, browsing, peer- to-peer applications … • Streaming with several media components, like audio & video. • Location Based Services • These all point for the need for IPv6.3 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  4. 4. Scalability of IPv4 • The current IP version, IPv4, was not designed for as large number of Internet hosts as the Internet is experiencing today - the main problem with IPv4 is its limited address space. • IPv4 address space is being used with increasing speed and the exhaustion of the IPv4 address space is unavoidable - it is difficult to exactly predict when the IPv4 addresses run out • The IPv4 address is 32 bits long and the theoretical maximum for the number of addresses is 4.3 billion • Currently, ~57% of the total address space is allocated • Big portion of the allocated address space is used by the US • Approximately 28% of the total IPv4 address space is advertised (visible in the routing tables of Internet)4 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  5. 5. Drivers for IPv6 • Enough IP-addresses for everyone! • 128 bit vs 32 bit addresses • New always-on, push and person-to-person services •No need for private network address space. •No NATs. • Easier management for users and network managers •IPv6 autoconfiguration capabilites • Enables true end-to-end security. • Optimized mobility between various access networks 2E3D:34A1::129F... 1B3F:34E1::269B... 1F3F:34A1::879R... 1E3F:34D1::7890.. 1E3F:34A1::629B... 1B3F:34B1::639A... 1E3F:34A1::6228... 4E3F:34A1::926F... 6E3C:34C1::639D... 1B3F:34C1::256F...5 © NOKIA IPv6 & Multiaccess / John Loughney
  6. 6. Drivers for China • IPv4 Addresses Currently Allocated (as of March 2003) • China ~29.4 Million • India ~ 2.6 Million • Thailand ~ 1.7 Million • Other Legacy Allocations (minimum) • MIT ~17 Million • IBM ~33 Million • US Government ~168 Million • UK Government ~33 Million • Number of Chinese mobile subscribers • 240 million (CDMA & GSM)6 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  7. 7. IPv6 in Mobile Networks UMS GGSN IMS CSCF• Phase 1: • IPv6 based User layer. This is visible to the services and end-users. It is the biggest IPv6 driver by the operators as this phase solves the end-user terminal IP-address problems. HLR MGW BSC MSC SGSN Server• Phase 2: RNC GGSN IPv6 This is not visible to end-users, more just an operator internal network implementation/arrangement issue7 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  8. 8. Introduction of IPv6 in a Nutshell UMS GGSN IMS CSCF • IPv6/IPv4 dual-stack as well as multiple PDP-context support in terminals • IPv6 capable APNs + tunneling mechanisms in the GGSN (including provisioning) • IPv6 support in the IMS as mandated in the 3GPP R5 standards as well as optionally in other application servers (Web, email, streaming, etc.) • Tunneling from GGSN to IMS possible with all types of IP-backbone architectures (IPoverSDH, IPoverATM, with/without MPLS) All the other IPv6 changes in the network are optional and related to phase 28 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  9. 9. When can we expect 1st phase IPv6 ? UMS GGSN IMS CSCF Application Servers • Symbian 7.0 operating system supports IPv6 • Nokia packet core supporting 1st phase IPv6 already today • Nokia IMS supports IPv6 already today in the pilot systems • IPv6-stack support coming for services such as SIP, browsing, streaming, email, etc.9 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  10. 10. Where IPv6 is deployed today ? • Carriers, several commercial IPv6 networks exists today (NTT, Yusen, JCN…) • Major initiative announced by US Department of Defense. • Operating systems: Symbian, Microsoft XP, Linux, AIX, SUN, HP, MAC, Java • Wireless: Nokia, Ericsson, J-Phone, Sharp, DoCoMo • Games: Playstation, Xbox • Europe, China, major investments in test networks (6NET, Euro6IX, and RITT) See: http://www.ipv6forum.com/10 © NOKIA IPv6 & Multiaccess / John Loughney
  11. 11. IPv6 Deployment Policy Phase II Phase Phase II Phase II Phase III Phase III Phase IV Phase IV (~2001) (~2001) (2003~2007) (2003~2007) (2008~2013) (2008~2013) (2014~) (2014~) IPv4 Only IPv4 Ocean IPv4 Island IPv6 Mainly IPv4/IPv6 Transition Required Experimental IPv6 Network IPv6 Ocean IPv6 Island • Validation Commercial • IMT2000 Service • Operation IPv6 Service Complete native IPv6 • Translation Service • Promotion (fixed/wireless)11 © NOKIA IPv6 & Multiaccess / John Loughney
  12. 12. Private IPv4 addresses, NATs & related problems • In an attempt to get more IPv4 addresses, private address space schemes have been deployed • Increasing the effective usage and life of the IPv4 address space • Transport layer identifiers (TCP port numbers) are used to extend the address space • In a private network, hosts may have only occasionally use of global addresses => public address is shared between multiple nodes • NAT limitations and problems include: • NATs break the end-to-end model of IP • Nodes behind a NAT are not reachable from the global Internet • NATs don’t fix everything, Application Level Gateways are needed. • Not good for always on services such as instant messaging. • Private address space and NATs force the use of a client-server model; peer-to- peer applications are not feasible. • NATs also increase the cost of customer service and add complexity • deploying NATs can be costly, and harmful for operators business12 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  13. 13. IPv6 Specifications • IPv6 is specified by the IETF IPv6 (used to be IPng) Working Group • IPv6 consists of numerous IETF RFCs and the basic specification is RFC 2460 • RFC 3316 "IPv6 for Some Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts" defines the minimum requirements for the 3GPP User Equipment (UE) IPv6 stack. • 3GPP Release 99 is the first release where the IPv6 type of PDP context is completely defined • IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) is specified in the 3GPP Release 5 • 3GPP decided to have IPv6 as the only IP version in the IMS to avoid IPv4-IPv6 transition and interworking problems inside the IMS.13 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  14. 14. IPv6 in Standardization • IPv6 Forum takes the lead in bringing the IPv6 message to businesses and industry. • 3GPP specifies use of IPv6 in 3rd Generation Networks. 3GPP Release 5 IMS is: • based on IPv6 and SIP, with work being done in the IETF. • “Cellular Hosts” use IPv6 for services provided by IMS. • IPv4/IPv6 interworking principles is under study. • Support for IPv6 since Release 99 (GPRS) • 3GPP2 also supports IPv6. • 3GPP, 3GPP2 both have official liasons with the IETF. They both take IETF standards and reference them.14 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  15. 15. 3GPP transition scenarios • Cellular networks have different requirements and scenarios of transition than general Internet nodes would have • 3GPP cellular networks IPv6 transition / interoperability has been analyzed in the IETF v6ops Working Group • Transition Scenarios for 3GPP Networks - RFC 3574 • 3GPP Analysis - draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-analysis-06.txt • Main GPRS transition scenarios 1. Dual Stack UE connecting to IPv4 and IPv6 nodes 2. IPv6 UE connecting to an IPv6 node through an IPv4 network • IMS transition scenarios: 1. UE connecting to a node in an IPv4 network through IMS 2. Two IPv6 IMS connected via an IPv4 network15 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  16. 16. Scenarios 1 and 21. Dual stack UE connecting to •Dual stack UE IPv4 and IPv6 nodes •IPv4 PDP context to (Peer) communicate with IPv4 IPv4 Node peers network •IPv6 PDP context to communicate with IPv6 GGSN IP peers (Peer) •(Configured) IPv6-in-IPv4 2G / 3G Edge IPv6 Node mobile network Router network tunneling in the network UE •IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling from the UE in the case the nw does not support IPv62. IPv6 UE connecting to IPv6 node through an IPv4 network (Peer) Node •(Configured) IPv6-in- IPv6 IPv4 tunneling in the IPv4 network network GGSN IP network IPv6 2G / 3G Edge PDP mobile network RouterUE context 16 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  17. 17. IMS Scenarios 1 and 21. UE connecting to a node in an •"Interworking unit" IPv4 network through IMS (Peer) consisting of SIP ALG Node S-CSCF IPv4 for signaling traffic SIP-ALG network and a protocol IPv6 PDP context P-CSCF IMS translator for the user (IPv6-only) Translator data GGSN •Solution is for limited 2G / 3G cases mobile network UE2. Two IMS islands connected via an IPv4 network (Peer) •(Configured) IPv6-in- Node IPv4 IPv4 tunneling in the IMS IMS (IPv6- network to connect (IPv6- network only) the IMS islands GGSN only) IPv6 2G / 3G PDP mobile network UE context 17 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  18. 18. From client-server to peer-to-peer services • Most Internet services today rely on the client-server model • Peer-to-peer services are of end-to-end in nature • There is no server between two end-hosts. • Direct communication between two end nodes. • More robust and flexible than client-server based services. • Important requirement: the nodes involved in the peer-to-peer communication have to be visible for the other nodes • Examples of peer-to-peer services • Content sharing applications & conferencing tools • Voice over IP applications • Peer-to-peer gaming18 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  19. 19. IPv6 enabling IMS and other peer-to-peer services • IPv6 with large enough address space assures a future-proof environment to build peer-to-peer communication systems • The 3GPP IMS is such a peer-to-peer application that requires persistent, long-lived addressing • IMS also relies on other protocols, such as SIP and Diameter • SIP imposes an end-to-end architecture making the case for IPv6 even stronger • For having peer-to-peer connectivity the end-nodes of the communication have to share the same IP version • By selecting IPv6 from the beginning, misalignments caused by the IP version are avoided • This also facilitates interoperability in inter-operator cases • IPv6 in 3GPP IMS simplifies the interworking between 3GPP IMS operators19 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  20. 20. Global SMS Growth USA (AWS, Cingular, T-Mobile, Verizon) 1Q2002: 820 Million SMS’s 2Q2002: 1,600 Million SMSs The main reason behind the numbers is interoperability.20 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney
  21. 21. Conclusions • IPv4 has acute address shortage problems, especially in the cellular networks • IPv4 NATs are a temporary relief to the IPv4 address exhaustion - not the final solution • NAT deployment is costly and harmful for operator business • IPv6 with its large IP address space is a feasible solution to the IP address exhaustion problem • Peer-to-peer applications need to have global identifiers to enable routing to the other peer • In phone networks, this is the phone number, in IP networks it is the IP address • The IPv6 address space assures a future-proof platform to build peer-to-peer communication systems - such as the 3GPP specified IMS.21 © NOKIA End-to-end and IPv6 / John Loughney