Advances in IPv6 Mobile Access


Published on

In this presentation I give an overview of IPv6 status in mobile networks.

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Advances in IPv6 Mobile Access

  1. 1. Advances in IPv6 Mobile AccessJohn Loughney, help from Teemu Savolainen, Nokia) Company Confidential
  2. 2. OverviewMotivations for IPv6 in mobile networksMain IPv6 Deployment options in mobile networksHandset support for IPv6Network support for IPv6Key challengesPractical advice Company Confidential
  3. 3. Motivations• 5.3 billion mobile subscribers, ITU-T figures for 2010.• Large percentage are IP capable −Trend toward Always-On applications (details next slide)• LTE is happening now, will be soon doing voice over IP only.• Operators run both a circuit switched and IP networks, causing higher CAPEX and OPEX.• In the future, services will migrate to IP.• Carrier grade NATs are a misnomer.• So the choice is between −IPv4 with NAT frequent keep-alives & additional investments −IPv6 and long lived connections Company Confidential
  4. 4. NATs with keep alive messages • IPv4 Mobile Devices are usually behind IPv4 NATs −Always on application are becoming more prevalent −Applications that want to be reachable need to send periodic keep-alives to keep NAT state active − Current NATs require keep-alives from 40 seconds to 5 minutes − Need to implement for minimum (~30 seconds) • Sending of NAT periodic keep-alive messages decreases mobile device standby time by several days • Not a problem for devices with power cords, but for mobile devices it is a big problem There should be NO The UDP inactivity timer in NATs causes the public Client, Private IPv4 address 1 NATs between the UDP port 6538 to be assigned to a different terminal and the mobile, if the mobile does not send any data within server! a certain amount of time, about every 40 seconds …Client, PrivateIPv4 address 2 UDP port = 6538 Server, Public IPv4 address 3 Company Confidential
  5. 5. IPv6 Trial Checklist• IPv6 enabled routers and switches• IPv6 transit provider and peering• IPv6 enabled hosts• IPv6 enabled apps• Address planning, address config, DNS• Transition mechanism(s) selection• Fallback planning• Middlebox support (firewalls, proxies, etc.) 5 © Nokia 2011 Filename.pptx v. 0.1 YYYY-MM-DD Author Document ID [Edit via Insert > Header & Footer] Company Confidential
  6. 6. Deployment approaches Dual-stack approach is the most customer-friendly solution for transitioning to IPv6 Dual-stack is also the standard approach (3GPP) and appears to be the most favored approach IPv6-only transition solution based on protocol translation can cause service discontinuity, and is only an option for specific cases due to discrete reasons6 Company Confidential
  7. 7. Details of dual-stack 3GPP release-8 introduced a new bearer type: IPv4v6 IPv4 and IPv6 bearers can be used in parallel when IPv4v6 is not supported (since 3GPP release-99) Various fallback scenarios are involved that are not present with IPv4-only devices, e.g. IPv4v6 -> IPv4 & IPv6 References: 3GPP release-8 23.060, 23.4017 draft-ietf-v6ops-3gpp-eps Company Confidential
  8. 8. Details of IPv6-only Everything, including applications, MUST BE IPv6 enabled – otherwise solutions such as NAT46 on a host (aka BIH) may be needed IPv6 is not always available: no support on visited network, blocked on purpose due lack of roaming agreements.. Fallback support to IPv4-only mode is mandatory This is pretty much the end-scenario world is transitioning towards8 Company Confidential
  9. 9. IPv6 impacts at all levelsServices & Content Google, YouTube, Akamai, Facebook, Bing, ... Browsers, E-mail, IM, VoIP, Games, Utilities,Applications Middleware entities like HTTP, ...API Qt, Java, Posix, Symbian & other OS APIs, ... Symbian, iOS, Android, Windows Phone, variousTCP/IP Stack flavors of Linux, Series 40, RIM,Modem Renesas, Qualcomm, ST-E, GCT, Broadcom, Icera (Nvidia), Marvell, Infineon, MediaTek, ... Company Confidential
  10. 10. IPv6 on handsets IPv6 support required at different levels IPv6 support on the applications IPv6 support on APIs IPv6 support on the connection manager IPv6 support on the TCP/IP stack IPv6 support on the modem10 Company Confidential
  11. 11. Status of terminals IPv6 support required by the business IPv6 support on the applications IPv6 support on APIs IPv6 support on the connection manager IPv6 support on the TCP/IP stack IPv6 support on the modem11 Company Confidential
  12. 12. Phone support for IPv6 LG VL600 CDMA/LTE dongle Nokia 21M-02 2G/3G /3.5G USB dongleAndroid iPhone 4S Windows Phone 7 Symbian Nokia N9 Supports IPv6 andMotorola Droid Bionic IPv6 for WLAN Mango Has supported IPv6 IPv6 add-on IPv4v6 PDP typeshandset for Verizon only IPv4 only as no IPv6 since 2004, and used enables dual-Reportedly has have yet on WP OS; in trials. Apps can use stack in 3G andIPv6 for cellular. coming in Apollo IPv4 or IPv6 cellular WiFi accesses.Samsung Nexus S access but not bothHas IPv6 for WLAN simultaneously. Thisonly. works normally when using WiFi access. Company Confidential
  13. 13. High level cellular requirements• Dual-stack with single PDP (IPv6v4) is the most common solution• Some network operators are considering dual-stack with parallel PDPs (IPv6 & IPv4). − It is required for a 3GPP fallback scenario.• IPv6-only solution is also required by a few• Other solutions are also queried and investigated, but not required yet − PNAT, DS-Lite, DSMIP6, A+P & DS-Lite, 6rd.• Configurability to single PDP (IPv4v6), parallel PDPs (IPv6 & IPv4), or only IPv6 − OMA DM (operator configuration) for APN setting• Gradual fallback in roaming and error cases for improved user experience − IPv4v6 ► IPv4 & IPv6 ► IPv4 or IPv6 − IPv6 ► IPv4 Company Confidential
  14. 14. IPv6 status on mobile networks • Closed IPv6 trials at least since 2003 • First commercial IPv6 deployments at 2010 − While many operators are conducting internal (lab) trials • Public trials and some commercial deployments occurring during 2011 − Even more operators are trialing − Number of cellular IPv6 capable devices also increasing • And things are getting even better for 2012 ! • But there are some gotchas14 Company Confidential
  15. 15. Gotchas15 Company Confidential
  16. 16. DNS server address discovery• This has been a difficult topic in IETF...• 3GPP cellular access 1. MUST take the address from PDP activation 2. Stateless DHCPv6 can be optionally supported 3. RA based approach can be supported but as not included in 3GPP specs, it is not something that can be depended upon.• WiFi access 1. Stateless DHCPv6 is currently most widely available 2. RA based solution will probably be increasingly available as standard RFC6106 exists (and e.g. RADVD supports this hence Linux based routers can easily have this)• In the dual-stack case, it is just fine to talk to the DNS server over IPv4, but IPv6 should be preferred (as general principle) Company Confidential
  17. 17. DNS query sending procedures• Four possibilities for querying IPv4 and IPv6 addresses: 1) AAAA and A sequentially (Android, Maemo, Ubuntu) 2) A and AAAA sequentially (Windows 7, Symbian) 3) AAAA and A parallel 4) A and AAAA parallel (iOS, OS/X)• Use of 3 or 4 avoids extra RTT in dual-stack networks • The approach of sending A first is due to some legacy DNS servers screwing up if they get AAAA followed by A.. So A first may be slightly safer.• Important to prefer IPv6 when both can be used Company Confidential
  18. 18. ”Happy Eyeballs”Endpoints issue DNS queries for AAAA and A resource Apps can improve the user experience by morerecords and then attempts connections to IPv6 and aggressively making connections on IPv6 and IPv4IPv4 addresses sequentially. If the IPv6 path is broken by using a variety of algorithms.(or slow), it can take a long time before it falls back to In this approach, the application makes itsIPv4 resulting in delays from 20 seconds to several connection attempts more aggressively over bothminutes if the IPv6 path is broken. IPv6 and IPv4. Initially, the connection attempts are made in order to provide a fast user experience DNS Dual-Stack Dual-Stackhost WLAN FW Internet WWW IPv6 1) Silent drop IPv6 2) ICMPv6 no route IPv6 3) ICMPv6 address unreachable Company Confidential
  19. 19. IPv6 changes tethering significantly Traditional dial-up style IPv4 tethering uses dedicated PDP context for the dial-up IPv4 tethering solutions, often use NAT and DHCP to allow sharing of the same mobile connection with Traditional dial-up is possible internal applications also with IPv6 IPv6 does not use NATting, but instead Neighbor Discovery Proxy ”bridging function” that does not require explicit network support, or explicit and more proper DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation as is defined in 3GPP Release-1019 Company Confidential
  20. 20. Bridging and DHCPv6 illustrated ”Bridging” with Neighbor Discovery DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation – support Proxy – no explicit network support is included in 3GPP since Release-10 required! PDN GW PDN GW & DHCPv6 server PDP 2001:0db8:0:1::/64 PDP 2001:0db8:0:1::/64 Same Handset f(”proxy”) prefix on (possibly with DHCPv6 server) f(”router”) both links Delegated e.g. 2001:0db8::/56 2001:0db8:0:C1::/64 2001:0db8:0:1::/64 2001:0db8:0:81::/64 WLAN WLAN WLAN f(”router”)20 Company Confidential
  21. 21. Illustration of basic WiFi Internet offloading technologies under study WiFi access Cellular operator’s services Rules via DHCPv6 DHCPv6 server Routing Cellular access rule DB Provisioning rules with OMA-DM RFC4191 draft-ietf-mif-dhcpv6-route-option Rules via IPv6 Router Advertisements Access Network Discovery draft-ietf-mif-dns-server-selection and Selection Function draft-korhonen-mif-ra-offload 3GPP 24.312 ANDSF (ANDSF)21 Company Confidential PDN GW
  22. 22. IPv6 standards are ready Key specifications and standards are complete and matured for product creation and deployment Additional features and improvements are actively researched, developed, and standardized. Nokia participates, for example, to: IPv6 protocol maintenance, Multi-Interface improvements, IP mobility solutions, protocol translation topics, and Happy Eyeballs22 Company Confidential
  23. 23. Recommendations• Networks are getting deployed – use them• Get a handset that supports IPv6 on both cellular and wifi• Make sure you have apps that can speak both IPv4 and IPv6 −Don’t make address assumptions −Address assignments are handled differently depending what interface is used• Make sure your apps implement a ‘happy eyeballs’ algorithm Company Confidential
  24. 24. Additional reading• Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for Some Second and Third Generation Cellular Hosts −• IPv6 Node Requirements −• Happy Eyeballs: Success with Dual-Stack Hosts −• Dual Stack Hosts Using "Bump-in-the-Host" (BIH) − Company Confidential
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.