Child exploitation is theuse for economicpurposes of minors byadults and affects as aresult, personal andemotionaldevelopment ofchildren and theenjoyment of theirrights.
Child protection from violenceand abuseIn sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 1 in 3children work, representing a figure of 69 millionchildren.In South Asia there are another 44 million workingchildren.The most recent estimates of this indicator arereported in Child Protection UNICEFs annualpublication State of the Worlds Children.
It is estimated that worldwide there are 158 millionchildren between 5 and 14 years of age,equivalent to 1 in 6 children. Millions of childrenwork in hazardous conditions.Children living in the poorest households and inrural areas are more likely to be victims of childlabor. Generally, domestic work falls mostly ingirls. Millions of girls who work as domesticworkers are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.The work often interferes with the education ofchildren. Ensure that all children attend schooland receive a quality education are the keys topreventing child labor.
A girl works on aplot of a coal minenear thesouthwestern cityof San Pedro.Workers areexposed all day toa carbonaceoussmoke anddangerous gases.
U.N.I.C.E.F.UNICEF works in 193 countries and territories tohelp guarantee children the right to survive andthrive, from early childhood through adolescence.UNICEF is the largest provider of vaccines fordeveloping countries, works to improve the healthand nutrition of children, the water quality andsanitation, quality basic education for all childrenand protection from violence, exploitation and HIV/ AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by thevoluntary contributions of individuals, businesses,foundations and governments.
EducationEmbark endorsedinterventions to improvethe lives of all people,including children. Theeducation of girls andwomen resulting insignificant benefits forpresent and futuregenerations.The objective ofUNICEF in education, isto bring more girlsschool, ensuring theirstay and that they haveadequate basicequipment needed forlater life.
Child labor refers to work of children in the productioneconomic system of a country or a region, and the economiclivelihood of a family unit.It is more correct to use the term"child labor" instead of the genericterm "child labor"because there are ways to workinvolving children and adolescents,do not necessarily imply forms ofexploitation or abuse, such as worktraining specific to the ancestralcultures or temporary work duringholiday periods of schoolboys inurban societies.
The Labour Ministry continues carrying outactions against child labor in variousregions of the country. Faced with thisproblem in the department of Nariño, thecompany participated for the thirdconsecutive year.In a cultural mobilization, where attendees,through different artistic and culturalexpressions such as dance, theater, music,and others, gave their voice of refusal to alltypes of mistreatment, abuse, exploitationand slavery against children andadolescents.Significantly accompaniment and linkingdifferent personalities at the departmentaland local levels as well as institutions andorganizations both state and private. Ithighlights the relationship and leadership ofthe Regional Directorate of the Ministry ofLabour Nariño.
What is child labor?It is the job of preventing childrens education, threatens theirphysical or mental health and prevent them from playing,days exceeding twelve hours, very low pay and work affectingthe dignity or self-esteem.Girls suffer a double discrimination: as women, and are morevulnerable to all forms of exploitation, especially sexual abuseand prostitution.Excluded from education and trapped in the vicious circle ofpoverty, these child laborers are undermined their basicrights, their health and even their lives.Child exploitation is assumed within the family as a source ofincome accepted by all its members.On the other hand a child is more profitable than an adultbecause of his helplessness, submission, and the fact thatperforms the same job as an adult, without any complaint andremuneration very less.
Types of operation:· "400 million children / as work being exploitedworldwide"· "1 million children / as prostitutes in Asia"· "Between 10% and 15% of children / as inindustrialized countries are victims of sexualabuse"
Characteristics of child labor:Always is of operating conditions and has the following features:full time jobvery long working hourswork and life on the streets in bad conditionslow paywork that hampers access to educationworks that undermine the dignity and self-esteem of children such asslavery or bonded labor and sexual exploitationwork that is detrimental to full social and psychological developmentAspects of child development that may be adversely affected by the workare:Physical development, covering general health.Cognitive development, covering literacy, numeracy and theacquisition of skills needed for life.Emotional development, covering esteem, affection, etc..Social and moral development, which includes the sense of groupidentity and the ability to distinguish right from wrong.
How many children in the world are victimsof child exploitation?No one knows exactly. Globally, the overall picture canconsist only in broad strokes. The vast majority live in Asia,Africa and Latin America. 50% are found only in Asia. In Africaworks one in three children and Latin America the ratio is onein five children. Child labor has increased in the countries ofCentral and Eastern Europe as a result of the incorporation ofthese countries into the capitalist economy. In industrializedcountries like the United Kingdom and the United States,seeking greater flexibility in the labor force has contributed tothe expansion of child labor. In USA, a survey conducted in1990 on Hispanic children working on farms in the State ofNew York found that nearly half doing their jobs in fields stillwet with pesticides, and over a third had been sprayeddirectly.
The roots of child labor:The most powerful force that leads children to dangerous and exhaustingwork is the exploitation of poverty. Parents of children are often unemployedand desperate for a job. However, not them but their children who receivejob offers. Moral: children are employed because they are easier to exploit.The international economic development in recent decades has contributedto increase the reserve of poor children that can be exploited. Structuraladjustment programs imposed on the economies of the industrializedcountries by the World Bank and IMF led social spending cuts brutally beatthe poor. In Zimbabwe, for example, an ILO report has linked the explosionof child labor directly to the impact of the structural adjustment program inthe country "advised" by the IMF.This is, in short, the situation of most of the children in the world. A world thatlive the telecommunications boom, consumption, waste ... A world where thetaste for frivolity and money prevent capture the expression of the eyes ofmillions of children who suffer the consequences of a system of which theynot even aware.It is unconscionable that we so clearly and constantly attacked the rights ofchildren and not be able to defend them. It is inexcusable that theexploitation, assault, violate, murder children, and not stir our conscienceand feel that our dignity is challenged to oppose frontally, most criminal inthe face of a system that is, at bottom, infanticidal .
Solutions to the problem of childlabor:We have seen the complexity of the causesof child labor, poverty, economic exploitation,social values and cultural circumstances ...So múltiplesestrategias are required to address,proposing alternatives and participation at alllevels of society, to ensure that newgenerations of children to enjoy their basic rights.
Rights of the child:1. - Equal rights regardless of race, creed or nationality.Two. - Right to special protection for physical, mental andsocial.Three. - The right to a name and nationality.April. - The right to food, housing and medical care for thechild and the mother.May. - Right to education and care for the physically ormentally handicapped child.June. - Right to understanding and love from parents andsociety.July. - Right to free education and enjoy the games.August. - Right to be the first to receive disaster assistance.9. - Right to be protected from neglect and exploitation atwork.10. - Right to form in a spirit of solidarity, understanding,friendship and justice among all the peoples.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child wasadopted by the UN General Assembly and ratified bymore than 20 states on November 20, 1989.The Convention follows the outline of anyinternational treaty in both its internal structure andcontent.There are only 6 countries for universal ratification,these are: USA, Switzerland Somalia, Oman, UnitedArab Emirates and the Cook Islands. This makes theConvention on the Rights of the Child Human rightstreaty ratified by as many States Parties.On November 20 de1959, The General Assembly ofthe United Nations unanimously adopted theDeclaration on 10 points Rights of the Child.
Creado por:Noemi Carabias Batanás 4ºBJuan Luis Mañas 4ºA