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Social network analysis and historical and ethnographic research
 

Social network analysis and historical and ethnographic research

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Presented at SUNBELT XXXIV

Presented at SUNBELT XXXIV

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    Social network analysis and historical and ethnographic research Social network analysis and historical and ethnographic research Presentation Transcript

    • SNA & HER More than a marriage of convenience John McCreery, The Word Works, Ltd
    • DEFINITIONS • SNA: Social Network Analysis • HER: Historical and Ethnographic Research
    • LITERATURE REVIEW A burgeoning literature spanning sociologies of culture and social network methods has for the past several decades sought to explicate the relationships between culture and connectivity. A number of promising recent moves toward integration are worthy of review, comparison, critique, and synthesis. Network thinking provides powerful techniques for specifying cultural concepts ranging from narrative networks to classification systems, tastes, and cultural repertoires. At the same time, we see theoretical advances by sociologists of culture as providing a corrective to network analysis as it is often portrayed, as a mere collection of methods. Cultural thinking complements and sets a new agenda for moving beyond predominant forms of structural analysis that ignore action, agency, and intersubjective meaning. Abstract from Mark A. Pachucki and Ronald L. Breiger ,“Cultural Holes: Beyond Relationality in Social Networks and Culture.” Annual Review of Sociology, 2010, 36: 205
    • A CLASSIC PROBLEM • The world is divided into things comprehended by mathematics and things for which, if the mathematics exists, it hasn’t been discovered yet. • Difficulties arise when only the things comprehended by mathematics are taken to be real and everything else only epiphenomenal.
    • A BIFURCATED WORLD • Naturwissenschaft v Geisteswissenschaft • Science v Humanities • Quants v Quals • Modelers vs Interpreters
    • TODAY’S PROPOSITION USING REAL DATA FROM AN ON-GOING PROJECT
    • THE RESEARCH PLAN • Credits data from Tokyo Copywriters Club Advertising Copy Annual: 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006 • Social Network Analysis with Pajek (SNA) • Historical and Ethnographic Research (HER), Trade Press and Interviews
    • THE DATA 1981-2006 Ads Creators Roles 3634 7018 22907
    • WHO IS IMPORTANT HERE? Top 10 by Participation Rate Rank Value Id Top 10 by Co-Creators Rank Value Id 1 244.0000 Nak190 1 421.0000 Sas3 2 172.0000 Sas3 2 345.0000 Nak190 3 139.0000 Soe903 3 332.0000 Oka258 4 126.0000 Aki264 4 289.0000 Iwa101 5 90.0000 Oka258 5 254.0000 Oos113 6 89.0000 Iwa101 6 210.0000 Tad27 7 84.0000 Mak65 7 206.0000 Sig283 8 84.0000 Kas90 8 199.0000 Aki264 9 71.0000 Oka1165 9 198.0000 Saw8 10 67.0000 Oos113 10 173.0000 Soe903 1. Participation rate:=2-mode actor degree; number of ads 2. Co-Creators=1-mode actor degree; have worked together
    • WHY DOES THE ORDER CHANGE? Top 10 by Participation Rate Rank Value Id Top 10 by Co-Creators Rank Value Id 1 244 Nak190 1 421 Sas3 2 172 Sas3 2 345 Nak190 3 139 Soe903 3 332 Oka258 4 126 Aki264 4 289 Iwa101 5 90 Oka258 5 254 Oos113 6 89 Iwa101 6 210 Tad27 7 84 Mak65 7 206 Sig283 8 84 Kas90 8 199 Aki264 9 71 Oka1165 9 198 Saw8 10 67 Oos113 10 1. Nak190 (Nakahata Takahashi) 2. Sas3 (Sasaki Hiroshi) 173 Soe903
    • K-NEIGHBOR DISTRIBUTIONS K-neighbors of Nak190 Cluster Freq Mode at K3 Freq% 0 0 1 0.0142 1 345 4.9159 2 2519 35.8934 3 3172 45.1981 4 4 610 8.6919 5 5 69 0.9832 6 6 6 0.0855 1 2 3 0 12.5 25 37.5 50 K-neighbors of Sas3 Mode at K2 Cluster Freq Freq% 0 0 1 0.0142 1 421 5.9989 2 3246 46.2525 3 2489 35.4659 4 506 7.2100 5 5 52 0.7410 6 6 5 0.0712 7 7 2 0.0285 1 2 3 4 0 12.5 25 37.5 50 1. K-neighbor distribution from 1-mode network projected from 2-mode network 1. Total ego-networks are same size (6722 of 7018 creators, with 296 unknown)
    • TEAM SIZE BY MEDIA TV No. of Ads Other Media 914 2720 Min 1 1 Max 31 17 9.000 5.00 10.1575 5.0085 4.3250 2.0443 Median Mean Std. Deviation 1. Team size=2-mode event degree; creators per ad 2. On average, TV teams are twice as large as teams 
 for other media
    • BY MEDIUM & AGENCY Nak190 by Medium Cluster Freq 1. TV Sas3 by Medium Freq% Cluster 40 16.3934 2 0.8197 3. Newspapers 92 37.7049 3. Newspapers 4. Magazines 36 14.7541 4. Magazines 5. Posters 68 27.8689 6 2.4590 Freq 2. Radio 6. Other 1. TV 67 38.9535 6 3.4884 31 18.0233 4 2.3256 5. Posters 51 29.6512 6. Other 13 7.5581 2. Radio Sas3 by Agency Nak190 by Agency Cluster 1. Dentsu 2. Hakuhodo 4. Other Freq Freq% Freq% Cluster 43 17.6230 8 3.2787 193 79.0984 1. Dentsu 4. Other Freq Freq% 168 97.6744 4 2.3256
    • BREAKDOWN BY YEARS 1981, 1986,1991,1996, 2001, 2006
    • TWO OVERLAPPING BUT VERY DIFFERENT CAREERS
    • DIFFERENCES BY YEAR & MEDIA Sas3 by Year and Media Nak190 By Year and Media 1981 1981 1986 1986 1991 1991 1996 1996 2001 2001 2006 2006 0 20 TV Radio 40 Newspapers Magazines 60 Posters 80 Other 0 20 TV Radio 40 Newspapers Magazines 60 Posters 80 Other
    • NAK190 (1981) Nakahata Takashi (Nak190) is already an established figure; had won his newcomer prize and become a TCC member in 1970 His winning ads are all for “Other” agencies, primarily Sun Ad, which he joined in 1972 and works with art director Kasai Kaoru (Kas90) The majority are print, primarily newspaper ads; but his TV commercial for Tory's whiskey wins the Grand Prix at Cannes
    • 1986, A Rival Appears Nak190 Sas3 Sasaki Hiroshi (Sas3) is a newcomer, with only three winning ads He works for Dentsu, Japan's largest agency First ads are print ads, one newspaper, two magazine ads; a pattern typical for young copywriters
    • 1991, Sasaki Rising Nak190 Sas3 Sasaki’s network is growing Nakahata is involved in ads produced by Dentsu and Hakuhodo; but most of his work is still for Other agencies Sasaki is now doing TV
    • 1996, The Rivalry Peaks Nak190 Sas3 Sasaki’s network is growing Nakahata continues to work primarily for Other agencies. Sasaki is Dentsu all the way (the blue, I discover, is a coding error) Both are doing more TV
    • 2001, Sasaki Surges Nak190 Sas3 Sasaki’s network is larger than Nakahata’s Nakahata, Other; Sasaki, Dentsu (again the blue is a coding error) Note the diversity of media in Sasaki’s ads. He is now a senior creative director in charge of large campaigns
    • 2006, Nakahata Declining Nak190 Sas3 Nakahata’s network now resembles the one with which Sasaki started out Nakahata’s three winning ads were all done for Dentsu All three of Nakahata’s winning ads are TV commercials
    • WHO DID THEY WORK WITH? Top two quartiles of generalised core distribution
    • NAK190 (1981)
    • NAK190 (1986)
    • NAK190 (1991)
    • NAK190 (1996)
    • NAK190 (2001)
    • SAS3 (1986)
    • SAS3 (1991)
    • SAS3 (1996)
    • ANZAI TOSHIO SASAKI’S BIG BREAKTHROUGH “OF COURSE KYOTO, LET’S GO”
    • SAS3 (2001)
    • SAWAMOTO YOSHIMITSU The Softbank “White Family” Another huge success for Sasaki Another huge topic for cultural analysis Softbank Mobile has topped the CM Popularity rankings for a sixth consecutive year making it the first company to achieve the feat. The 'White Family' series is of course the commercials behind Softbank's success on the chart, which is compiled by CM DATABANK. ! The series, which stars a dog as the father, Kanako Higuchi as the mother, Dante Carver as the brother, and Aya Ueto as the daughter, continued its trend of unusual casting with appearances by comedian Sugi-chan, talento Reina Triendl, pop duo Every Little Thing and Hollywood actor Tommy Lee Jones ! What the success of this commercial says about how Japanese families now see themselves is a very interesting question, indeed.
    • SAS3 (2006)
    • CONCLUSION • From SNA to HER • From HER to SNA • Every turn of the cycle generates new questions that lead to richer descriptions and deeper understanding
    • THANK YOU