Knowing what we know3

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Knowing what we know3

  1. 1. Knowing What We Know An Ethnographer Looks at SNA John McCreery Sunbelt, March 2012
  2. 2. The Goal• To better understand the relationship between social network analysis (SNA) and historical and ethnographic research (HER)
  3. 3. A Work in ProgressArchival Credits from the Tokyo Copywriters Club Advertising Copy Annual (1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006), manually entered Data into a Filemaker Pro Database The starting point is a set of six 2-mode multiple edge affiliation networks that contain a total of 7018 creators SNA connected by 27, 314 roles to 3,634 award-winning ads, analyzed using Pajek Many of the high-centrality creators are authors or frequently Desk interviewed in a large and active trade press—several hundredResearch pages per month of coverage in monthly magazines, numerous new books each year, and now Websites and blogs as well. Interviews with high-centrality creators using results of SNAInterviews and Desk Research as stimulus material
  4. 4. Super Network 81-06 p-Core DistributionArithmetic mean: 2.3027Median: 1.0000Standard deviation: 3.1723 2.5% Quantile: 1.0000 5.0% Quantile: 1.000095.0% Quantile: 7.000097.5% Quantile: 10.0000 Vector Values Frequency Freq% CumFreq CumFreq%---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ( ... 0.000] 28 0.3990 28 0.3990 ( 0.000 ... 8.778] 6752 96.2097 6780 96.6087 ( 8.778 ... 17.556] 193 2.7501 6973 99.3588 ( 17.556 ... 26.333] 33 0.4702 7006 99.8290 ( 26.333 ... 35.111] 6 0.0855 7012 99.9145 ( 35.111 ... 43.889] 1 0.0142 7013 99.9288 ( 43.889 ... 52.667] 1 0.0142 7014 99.9430 ( 52.667 ... 61.444] 2 0.0285 7016 99.9715 ( 61.444 ... 70.222] 0 0.0000 7016 99.9715 ( 70.222 ... 79.000] 2 0.0285 7018 100.0000---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 7018 100.0000 Produced by combining six 2-mode networks, simplifying the result, projecting the 1-mode creators network in which line values are the numbers of projects on which pairs of creators have both worked, and then performing p-Core analysis. (See Appendix 1 for details).
  5. 5. The Super Stars (0.064%)Subnetwork of top 45 vertices. Extracted from partition based on p-Core Vector
  6. 6. The Super Super Stars (But what does HER see?)
  7. 7. The Ethnographer’s Eye (The circles indicate where my eye turns) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato (1948) Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  8. 8. Founders Generation Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku (1963) Tada Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  9. 9. Akiyama Sho (Autobiographical Statement Found Online)• Born in Tokyo in 1936, he graduated from the Rikkyo University Faculty of Economics in 1958, and joined the Kodansha advertising department the same year. He joined Light Publicity Ltd. in 1964, and he is currently president of that firm. His work involves advertising production, including both graphic and film direction, and copywriting. He cherishes the words of Takashi Nakahata, "The bullet has a beautiful form because it speeds to its target." 
  10. 10. The Copywriter Boom (“Hitmen” as celebrities) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) (1936) Light Publicity Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Oka Yasumichi (1956) Taku (1963) Tada Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  11. 11. The Miyazaki Group (Once they were the brightest stars) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  12. 12. The Sasaki Team (Dominant in the Late 1990s) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  13. 13. Tugboat (The Rebel Angels) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  14. 14. Lessons Learned
  15. 15. Time Matters (It Really Does)• Age Matters Most super stars have had long successful careers. Except for the occasional supernova—Tada Taku, who burst on the scene with an unprecedented triple Grand Prix is an example, Itoi Shigesato was another — it takes time to become a super star.• Sampling Matters To appear in our network, our stars’ glory days had to have been within the years our sample spans (1981-2006). Many historically famous names do not appear because their glory days were in the 1960s and 70s.
  16. 16. Two Surprises
  17. 17. Who is this? (The SNA Surprise) Iwasaki Shunichi (1947) Itoi Shigesato Nakahata Takahashi (1947) Maki Jun (1948)Akiyama Sho (1936) Light Publicity Oka Yasumichi (1956) Tada Taku (1963) Sasaki Team Sasaki Hiroshi (1954) Tugboat Miyazaki Group Miyazaki Susumu (1944) Okada Naoya (1955) Ohnuki Takuya (1958) Taniyama Masakazu (1961)
  18. 18. What are we not seeing here? (The HER Surprise)
  19. 19. A Special Relationship Sasaki Hiroshi Anzai Toshio
  20. 20. そうだ京都、いこう That’s It, Kyoto. Let’s go.• One of the most successful and longest-running campaigns in Japan’s advertising history.• Sasaki and Anzai worked together on this campaign. Sasaki was younger and a copywriter, Anzai older and a CM planner.• Anzai tells me a story about this collaboration...
  21. 21. In Conclusion• SNA makes it possible to focus quickly and precisely on key players in a network too large to grasp with the naked eye alone.• SNA can surprise us, identifying key players who were off our radar, Iwasaki Shunichi (1947), for example.• Historical and ethnographic research (HER) adds depth to our understanding of important relationships and reminds us that time matters when examining archival data.• HER can also surprise us, by identifying relationships that may not seem so important in purely SNA terms but may be very important, indeed, in how the actors we study perceive their networks.*
  22. 22. Thank You
  23. 23. Appendices
  24. 24. Appendix 1How the Subnetwork was Selected• Combine six primary networks into one super network• Simplify super network • Net>Transform>Remove>Multiple Lines>Single Line• Project 1-mode creator network • Net>Transform>2-Mode to 1-Mode>Rows• p-Core analysis • Net>Vector>PCore>Max>All• Extract top p-cores • Vector>Make Partition>By Intervals>Selected Thresholds>#10 • Operations>Extract from Network>Partition>4-10
  25. 25. Appendix 2 p-Core 81-06 (3-*), Top 238Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator Rank Creator1 Soe903 51 Ter536 101 Kit214 151 Saw8 201 Ooy12502 Nak190 52 Kan821 102 Tsu1919 152 Tan924 202 Hor69383 Aki264 53 Yok747 103 Ood1258 153 Tak7009 203 Mae7494 Hos265 54 Wat1242 104 Azu155 154 Yon37 204 Yas9235 Yos6391 55 Ish680 105 Izu5654 155 Sai36 205 Tsu13976 Yas268 56 Mun763 106 Oka1165 156 Nak593 206 Ino11827 Ina8015 57 Abu5717 107 Miy267 157 Kaw3317 207 Kom12898 Mun401 58 Mor1489 108 Aso467 158 Ino629 208 Ish3709 Mak65 59 Miy1417 109 Mae6378 159 Koi6345 209 Sak184810 Oku6805 60 Sat1271 110 Shi137 160 Tom392 210 Mar115211 Kiz1178 61 Tak3987 111 Yor136 161 Tak1713 211 Fuc314912 Tod695 62 Uch7027 112 Aiz134 162 Tam3147 212 Kam124413 And297 63 Mur6598 113 Yam129 163 Uts287 213 Iwa171414 Nis1181 64 Ima6400 114 Aso6376 164 Sek282 214 Nag114515 Asa4361 65 Tsu5836 115 Yam6495 165 Dom2 215 Yan106116 Ono79 66 Kur1998 116 Saw123 166 Nun1712 216 Ebi95517 Sas3 67 Shi5571 117 Kam122 167 Kin481 217 Mat124818 Sug6917 68 Yan486 118 Uch7072 168 Yod68 218 Kon115319 Has6 69 Hir5682 119 Sek109 169 Tak6878 219 Nak170820 Tak1144 70 Kaz1985 120 Ues5603 170 Yag350 220 Har592121 Nak1 71 Yon1982 121 Sak1349 171 Kus755 221 Sus577822 Tan418 72 Uch1981 122 Fuk240 172 Sat1871 222 Nag65823 Ito6226 73 Har600 123 Hyo305 173 Sig283 223 Kaj64824 Iwa101 74 Hir688 124 Tak107 174 Nag88 224 Tom63425 Sas1520 75 Suz1259 125 Shi935 175 Mat150 225 Wad726 Oot558 76 Kad641 126 Kar6970 176 Fuj76 226 Yam682827 Hos1888 77 Sai1735 127 Ued85 177 Sei3881 227 Ton268428 Fuk7576 78 Sek503 128 Has5607 178 Koj74 228 Mis367929 Hay725 79 Nak746 129 Nis1415 179 Nak39 229 Sek367830 Oon1719 80 Tor652 130 Shi5569 180 Kim7588 230 Ish234131 Miy952 81 Kan3450 131 Nom5568 181 Miu2992 231 Yos118932 Oka6907 82 Kai1940 132 Nag5567 182 Kas20 232 Meg694133 Ooh5602 83 Uru5732 133 Koj108 183 Yum5726 233 Ui34 Tsu6310 84 Tak266 134 Nak686 184 Sat3041 234 Sak303035 Kas90 85 Fuk6515 135 Kaw304 185 Ish6781 235 Ook233436 Ino5617 86 Nak4941 136 Shi6949 186 Shu1257 236 Fuk213537 Tai6939 87 Sat261 137 Shi2316 187 Mat1148 237 Hig556638 Miz4 88 Tak6396 138 Sug5587 188 Oka5585 238 Sai800339 Ish98 89 Oot7867 139 Kaw54 189 Yos31340 Anz1143 90 Ich674 140 Sak118 190 Kim46241 Suz1207 91 Tak6990 141 Yan6924 191 Yam264242 Tan31 92 Kit1916 142 Jum193 192 Mur264143 Tad27 93 Ike444 143 Tak412 193 Saw544 Oka258 94 Yan231 144 Nak6594 194 Yok314845 Oka362 95 Mor230 145 Mae445 195 Oos11346 Nak601 96 Mot202 146 Koi5578 196 Oga814347 Tan598 97 Kos962 147 Ato51 197 Kan557748 Kob7985 98 Ook5611 148 Fuj112 198 Yat59049 Tak5570 99 Kad1282 149 Ish7872 199 Iku732750 Oka1889 100 Suz1281 150 Osa11 200 Yam344

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