Today this would be a violation of the First Amendment because the government was combining church and state. In 1812 Missionary teachers were sent to teach Native Americans. They believed that is was God’s will to do so. The government thought that Christianity was a superior religion and that if Native Americans were to practice it they could become more like the “superior” white race.
Native Americans suffered so many injustices at the hands of the U.S. government that even late into the 20 th century, United States Government was reforming laws concerning Native American restoration.
Because the U.S. government wanted to terminate Native American culture, they were forced to move from their homes and forced to be educated in ways that would help the Europeans prosper. Their children were taken from them and forced to go to boarding schools. The government is trying to make up for what they had done, with acts such as:
Tribally Controlled Schools Act of 1975- provide grants to tribes to support their school operations
In 1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act- give power to run own education and heath programs
Native American Languages Act of 1990- protect their rights to speak and promote their languages
Americans, or newly settled Europeans, hated the way Native Americans lived. America stood for a democracy and they viewed the Native American tribes as a socialist group. Early colonists practiced patriarchal lifestyles. They didn’t like the fact that Native American women had a lot of power over what happened in the tribe community. Europeans wished to replace Native American’s clan lifestyles with nuclear family structures. Europeans thought that the more land and the more food you had the more superior you were while the Native American tribes shared their wealth with each other. They also disagreed on the act of punishing children. Native Americans were permissive while Europeans were harsh.
The Indian Peace Commission was supposed to set up reservations for Native Americans and provide them with schooling in Christianity, English, and American ways. After they were knowledgeable in these categories they were supposed to be allowed to apply for U.S. citizenship. In actuality, Native Americans were denied citizenship until the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924.
Even though the government claimed schools were equal between whites and African Americans, they gave more money to the White schools than the African American schools. African American schools were funded by private investors of their own community. They owned 43% of their schools. This took a toll on African American schools because they didn’t have a great amount of money to donate to their children’s schools. This resulted in poor learning facilities. Funds were set up to help this issue. The Jeanes Fund paid 84% of the salaries of the teachers at the schools and the Rosenwald Fund gave the community enough money to build the school buildings.
Though blacks were considered inferior to whites in all parts of the United States, they were actually treated much differently in the North and South.
North- worked closely with whites
South- worked in plantations (big house surrounded by slave “houses”) slaves rarely interacted with white people. Slave owners were harsh; sometimes even going so far as to take away their identities by giving them new names.
According to our book, “In various northern colonies, freed blacks were barred from voting, attending the militia, sitting in juries, and in many places there were required to carry special passes to travel, trade, and keep a gun or a dog” (Spring, 44). Slaves were emancipated during the Civil War, (1862) but it took years later for them to become free of laws and segregation.
African American’s views spread easily due to the media. Martin Luther King Jr. was in the newspapers and on the television screen. Other influential people were covered by the media, like the group: CORE (The Congress on Racial Equality). Riots and protest were covered as well. African Americans made a statement and their word was spread easily through out the United States. Many Americans looked to presidents in the media so they can determine opinions on the Civil Rights Movement. Lyndon Baines Johnson was a face that was looked to when he signed The Civil Rights Act of 1964, getting rid of all discrimination.
Ending segregation was tough for African Americans. There is still even segregation going on today. African American students still fight stereotypes and cruel judgments in schools today. The Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka helped to make segregation unconstitutional. Oliver Brown’s daughter had to walk 21 blocks to a segregated school when she could have just walked 5 blocks to a school where white children attended. Still after 1954 there were segregation cases just like this one. In 1955 the government claimed that is was hard to ensure desegregation because of the amount of schools that they had to supervise.
The “coolie” image was applied to servile Asian American workers who were willing to work long hours at extremely low wages. White Americans were threatened by “coolies” because they believed they were stealing their jobs and decreasing the standard of living.
The United states felt racially, religiously and culturally superior to Mexicans in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries. This attitude caused them to take over Mexican territory. Mexicans who remained and Mexican immigrants who came later were forced to adhere to unfair conditions such as segregated schools, housing, and discrimination in employment.
In the last half of the nineteenth century, Mexican Americans tried to escape the anti-Mexican attitudes of public school authorities by attending either Catholic schools or nonsectarian private schools.