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  • 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 22C:145 CLASS NOTES Cesare Tinelli Department of Computer Science University of Iowa Fall 2001
  • 2. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Acknowledgments Most of the figures are from the class textbook: S. Russell and P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Prentice Hall, 1995.Cesare Tinelli 1
  • 3. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Lectures: 2:30–3:45pm, TuTh, 110 MLH Instructor: Cesare Tinelli TA: Shravan Kumar Sheela Web Site: Check the class web site and related bulletin board daily!Cesare Tinelli 2
  • 4. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Textbooks S. Russell and P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Prentice Hall, 1995 Larry C. Paulson. ML for the Working Programmer (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press, 1996. Other AI texts Title Authors Publisher Year AI: A New Synthesis Nilsson Morgan Kaufmann 1998 Computational Intelligence Poole, Mackworth, Goebel Oxford 1998 Artificial Intelligence (3rd ed.) Winston Addison-Wesley 1992 Artificial Intelligence (2nd ed.) Rich, Knight McGraw-Hill 1991 AI: Theory and Practice Dean, Allen, Aloimonos Benjamin Cummings 1995 Mathematical Methods in AI Bender IEEE Comp. Press 1996 Logical Foundations of AI Genesereth, Nilsson Morgan Kaufmann 1987Cesare Tinelli 3
  • 5. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Course Overview Topic Chapters Intelligent Agents 1, 2 Search and Problem Solving 3, 4 Knowledge Representation and Reasoning 6, 7 Logical Inference 9, 10 Reasoning under Uncertainty 14, 15 Decision Making 16 Learning and Neural Networks 18, 19Cesare Tinelli 4
  • 6. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Prerequisites • The course will be self-contained, but an elementary background in CS and Math is required. • Expect the class material to become a little technical at times. • You will implement some of the techniques seen in class. Programming assignments will be in SML. • A couple of classes will be dedicated to the basics of SML. • Pointers to SML handouts and tutorials will be provided.Cesare Tinelli 5
  • 7. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction What is Artificial Intelligence? A scientific and engineering discipline devoted to: • understanding principles that make intelligent behavior possible in natural or artificial systems; • developing methods for the design and implementation of useful, intelligent artifacts. [Poole, Mackworth, Goebel]Cesare Tinelli 6
  • 8. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction What is intelligence then? • Fast thinking? • Knowledge? • Ability to pass as a human? • Ability to reason logically? • Ability to learn? • Ability to perceive and act upon one’s environment? • Ability to play chess at grand-master’s level? • • •Cesare Tinelli 7
  • 9. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Operational Definition of AI “The exciting new effort to make computers “The study of mental faculties through the think . . . machines with minds, in the full use of computational models” and literal sense” (Haugeland, 1985) (Charniak and McDermott, 1985) “[The automation of] activities that we asso- “The study of the computations that make ciate with human thinking, activities such as it possible to perceive, reason, and act” decision-making, problem solving, learning (Winston, 1992) . . .” (Bellman, 1978) “The art of creating machines that perform “A field of study that seeks to explain and functions that require intelligence when per- emulate intelligent behavior in terms of formed by people” (Kurzweil, 1990) computational processes” (Schalkoff, 1990) “The study of how to make computers do “The branch of computer science that is con- things at which, at the moment, people are cerned with the automation of intelligent better” (Rich and Knight, 1991) behavior” (Luger and Stubblefield, 1993) Systems that think like humans Systems that think rationally Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationallyCesare Tinelli 8
  • 10. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Operational Definition of AISystems that act like humans Turing test.Systems that think like humans Cognitive ScienceSystems that think rationally Logic-based AISystems that act rationally Rational AgentsCesare Tinelli 9
  • 11. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction Why Study AI? AI helps • computer scientists and engineers build more useful and user-friendly computers, • psychologists, linguists, and philosophers understand the principles that constitute what we call intelligence. AI is an interdisciplinary field of study. Many ideas and techniques now standard in CS (symbolic computation, time sharing, objects, declarative programming, . . . ) were pioneered by AI-related research.Cesare Tinelli 10
  • 12. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction AI is among us! Recent applications using AI techniques: • Sony Aibo Entertainment robot with pet-like behaviour ( • Dragon NaturallySpeaking (Dictation and voice recognition software) ( • Ananova Virtual newscaster on the web ( Tinelli 11
  • 13. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction AI is among us! More applications using AI techniques: • Honda Humanoid Robot Demo walking robot ( • Deep Blue Chess program that beat chess grand-grand-master Kasparov ( • Mars Pathfinder Autonomous land vehicle sent to Mars ( • Marvel Real-time expert system for monitoring data sent by Voyager spacecraft.Cesare Tinelli 12
  • 14. 22c145-Fall’01: Introduction AI is pretty hard stuffI went to the grocery store, I saw the milk on the shelf and I bought it. What did I buy? • The milk? • The shelf? • The store? An awful lot of knowledge of the world is needed to answer simple questions like this one.Cesare Tinelli 13