Plants
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  • Large surface area collect more light. Leaves are often arranged in patterns to capture the most lightHolds the leaf up to the light and orientates the blade of the light Lets light in but stops water from escaping

Plants Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Photosynthesis
  • 2. Photosynthesis & Life
    Occurs in the chloroplasts
    Uses light energy to combine Water and Carbon dioxide into Starch and Oxygen
    6H2O + 6CO2 + Sunlight = 6O2 + C^H12O6
    Enzymes control the process which is a very complicated step by step process.
    Chlorophyll is what makes the leaves greenwhich absorbs blueand redlight from the sun.
    Total photosynthesis across the globe is about 200,000,000,000 tonnes of glucosea year this is turned into Cellulose
  • 3. internal leaf structure
    chloroplasts
    outer membrane
    inner membrane
    thylakoid
  • 4. Chloroplasts
  • 5. Light, temperature and availability of raw materials all affect the rate of photosynthesis
    Brighterlight increase the rate of photosynthesis. Therefore the rate of photosynthesis changes throughout the day.
    The rate of photosynthesis doubles with 10oC increase of temperature up to a temperature of 40oC.
    Lack of water will cause plants to wilt and stopphotosynthesising.
    The atmosphere is made of 0.03% CO2. If this changes the rate of photosynthesis also changes
    Rate of Photosynthesis
  • 6. Adaptations to cope
    Because of all the environmental factors that affect photosynthesis plants are able to adapt to survive these.
    The most important of these is water
    Mesophytic plants like roses are very adapt at dealing with water shortages.
  • 7. External Leaf adaptations
    Surface area
    Petiole and Veins
    Cuticle
    You fill in the blanks -
  • 8. Internal Leaf adaptations
    Layers
    Upper and Lower epidermis
    Palisade mesophyll
    Spongy mesophyll layer
    Vascular bundles
  • 9. Sunlight
    Glucose
    O2
    CO2
    H2O Water Vapor
  • 10. Gas exchange
    Stomata
    During the day CO2 defuses into the cell and H2O and O2 defuse out
    During the night and when respiration is happening CO2 defuses out and O2 defuses in.
    Guard cells
    If they absorb water they become turgid (swollen) and open the stoma.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Plant Transport
  • 14. Recall
    Transport Mechanism
    Passive vs. Active
    Plant Transport Tissues
    Xylem
    Phloem
  • 15. Transport Mechanisms
    Passive transport
    Passive Diffusion
    Facilitated Diffusion
    Osmosis
    Active transport
    Bulk transport
  • 16. Plant Transport Tissues
    Xylem
    Vessel elements
    Tracheids
    Phloem
    Sieve tube member
    Companion cells
  • 17. Problem of Terrestrial Plants
    Ancestral plants: transport is through diffusion
    Modern plants: transport from roots to shoots
    Long distance transport
    Figure 36.1
  • 18. Transport in Plants
    Three scales of plant transport
    Intracellular
    Epidermal cells
    Short distance: cell-to-cell
    At the levels of tissues and organs
    Long distance: xylem and phloem
  • 19.
  • 20. 4
    3
    2
    1
    Through stomata, leaves take in CO2 and expel O2. The CO2 provides carbon for
    photosynthesis. Some O2produced by photosynthesis is used in cellular respiration.
    Sugars are produced by
    photosynthesis in the leaves.
    Transpiration, the loss of water
    from leaves (mostly through
    stomata), creates a force within
    leaves that pulls xylem sap upward.
    6
    5
    7
    Water and minerals are
    transported upward from
    roots to shoots as xylem sap.
    Roots absorb water
    and dissolved minerals
    from the soil.
    Roots exchange gases
    with the air spaces of soil,
    taking in O2 and discharging
    CO2. In cellular respiration,
    O2 supports the breakdown
    of sugars.
    A variety of physical processes
    Are involved in the different types of transport
    CO2
    O2
    Light
    H2O
    Sugar
    Sugars are transported as
    phloem sap to roots and other
    parts of the plant.
    O2
    H2O
    CO2
    Minerals
    Figure 36.2
  • 21. Effects of Differences in Water Potential
    To survive
    Plants must balance water uptake and loss
    Osmosis
    Determines the net uptake or water loss by a cell
    Is affected by solute concentration and pressure
  • 22. Water potential
    Is a measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure
    Determines the direction of movement of water
    Water
    Flows from regions of high water potential to regions of low water potential
    Both pressure and solute concentrations affect water potential
  • 23. Plasmolyzed cell
    at osmotic equilibrium
    with its surroundings
    Water potential
    Affects uptake and loss of water by plant cells
    If a flaccid cell is placed in an environment with a higher solute concentration
    The cell will lose water and become plasmolyzed
  • 24. Initial flaccid cell:
    Distilled water:
    Turgid cell
    at osmotic equilibrium
    with its surroundings
    Figure 36.6b
    If the same flaccid cell is placed in a solution with a lower solute concentration
    The cell will gain water and become turgid
  • 25. Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport
    In bulk flow
    Movement of fluid in the xylem and phloem is driven by pressure differences at opposite ends of the xylem vessels and sieve tubes
  • 26. The xylem sap and phloem sap
    Xylem sap
    Root pressure
    Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism
    Phloem sap
    Pressure Flow Theory
    Translocation
  • 27. Turgor Pressure
    This is what happens when plants don’t have enough water
    Turgor pressure is when water presses on the cell wall – inflating the cell
    Soft plants have lots of soft tissue that needs a regular supply of water
  • 28. Vascular Bundles
    • The vascular system is made of three sections
    • 29. Phloem
    • 30. Xylem
    • 31. Cambium
  • Root pressure
    Root tip cells have a large number of tiny extensions called root hairs
    Root hairs provide a huge surface area in the soil.
    Water enters the root via osmosis
    ?? – What happens as the water pressure builds up?
  • 32. Transpiration pull
    More than 90% of the water moving up a plant is lost through transpiration as water vapor through the stomata.
    As the water leaves the the plants the concentration of solutes increases within the cells, this draws more water into the cells from the xylem
  • 33. Phloem transport
    Sugar and amino acids are transported from the leaves to pares of the plants requiring food through the phloem
    The pressures gradient that moves this is created via the concentration of sugars
    Dissolved food transport is called translocation