READING QUIZ 21. Name 1 event that happened in 1905 in Russia2. What was 1 of the 4 reasons that some Russians wanted a change of government in 1917?3. Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks? (His slogan was “All Power to the Soviets!”)4. What treaty did Russia sign with Germany in 19185. In the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920 France, Britain, Japan and the US helped the (Whites/Reds)
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE RUSSIANREVOLUTION• Background – 1905 Revolution 1. There was a war between Russia and Japan (Russo-Japanese War). Japan won, and Russia looked weak 2. The Russian people demanded changes and started a revolution. Czar Nicholas satisfied the revolutionaries by creating a constitution with a parliament (DUMA)• By 1917, there were many problems in Russia, and there would be another revolution 1. The gap between the rich and poor was enormous 2. The Czar had all power (autocracy), and ordinary people had no control over their lives 3. In the Great War, the Russian Army was losing badly to the Central Powers (especially Germany) 4. Because of the war food was scarce, and workers in the city did not have enough money to live
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE RUSSIANREVOLUTION• The Bolshevik Revolution 1. Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks. They were communist revolutionaries who took over Russia in 1917 2. Vladimir Lenin created slogans and propaganda, like “All power to the Soviets”• Russia after the Revolution 1. Lenin established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in Russia 2. His first decision was to end the war with Germany. Leon Trotsky was sent to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In this treaty, Russia lost a huge territory 3. France, Britain, the US, and even Japan tried to help the “Whites” defeat Lenin in the Russian Civil War, but the Bolshevik “Reds” won the Civil War in 1920
WHAT WE WANT TO LEARN TODAY ABOUT THERUSSIAN REVOLUTION• QUESTION 1 – What were the Long-Term Causes of the Russian Revolution?• QUESTION 2 – What 2 different groups opposed the Tsar?• QUESTION 3 – How did the Revolution end, and specifically who deserves the most blame (or credit) for the Revolution?
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONI. The Role of PeasantsII. The New Working-ClassIII. The Tsar’s Poor Leadership
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONI. The Role of Peasants A. 75% of Russians were poor peasants 1. Before 1861 they were slaves called serfs 2. Since 1861 they were given land, but they had to pay the government for it (DEBT) B. The only rich people in Russia were a few upper-class families and the Russian Orthodox Church
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONI. The Role of Peasants • The peasants made little money from their small farms, and had no voice in their own government • Students protests, peasant revolts, and worker strikes were common
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONII. The New Working-Class A. Russia started building iron refineries, textile factories, and engineering projects like dams in the 1890s B. By 1900, Moscow and St. Petersburg were major cities, and 20% of Russians lived and worked in cities
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONII. The New Working-Class C. Most factories had at least 1000 workers, and conditions were very unsafe. D. When prices rose and wages stayed the same, all the workers joined together to protest
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONIII. The Tsar’s Poor Leadership A. Autocrat – makes all the decisions alone • The Russo-Japanese War - 1905 • Ignoring the Duma – after 1905 • Leading the Russian Army in the Great War – 1915
QUESTIONS – “REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA”,PG 790-91 – 15 MINUTES1. What are 4 reasons for Russia’s failure in WWI?2. Why did Tsar Nicolas take control of the Russian Army?3. On what date did Tsar Nicolas abdicate? What do Russians call this event?
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTION III. The Tsar’s Poor Leadership B. Why was Russia losing the Great War to Germany? 1. Bad/Outdated equipment 2. Poor transportation 3. Low factory production 4. Ineffective military leadership - CRONYISMSo, why did the Tsar take control of the RussianArmy when it was already doing so badly?
LONG-TERM CAUSES, RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONIII.The Tsar’s Poor Leadership C. The Tsar’s Control and Censorship in Russia • Tsar Nicholas II (like his father Alexander III) oppressed the poor and protected the rich • Censorship – controlling what people said and read in the newspapers about the Tsar, his family, and the Great War • Secret police watched schools • Protesters and complainers were sent to Siberia, +25 years • Persecuted Jews • Poor working conditions in the cities and factories And the gap between the poor and the rich INCREASED from 1905 to 1914
OPPOSITION TO THE TSAR,RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONI. Liberal ReformersII. Revolutionaries
OPPOSITION TO THE TSAR,RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONI. Liberal Reformers A. These Russians wanted to change Russia into a parliamentary system (like Britain, France, USA) B. “We want free elections, more education, and no censorship of the press!”
OPPOSITION TO THE TSAR,RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONII. Revolutionaries (led by Vladimir Lenin) A. These Russians wanted to build a brand new system B. They followed the ideas of the German Philosopher Karl Marx 1. History is the story of rich vs poor 2. Capitalism is going to fail because it creates winners and losers (i.e. rich and poor) 3. One day, the poor workers around the world will overthrow ALL THE RICH PEOPLE in the world, and set up a fair system (Communism)
HOW DID THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION END?A. Short-Term causes of the Revolution• Rasputin’s influence over the Royal Family (especially the Czarina) made Nicolas even more unpopular• Food production dropped, because the peasant farmers were fighting in the war against Germany instead of harvesting food• Food prices increased in the cities (affecting the workers)• Soldiers came home from war and told the Russians how badly they were losing to Germany• March 8, 1917 – Russian workers protested in Petrograd, and Russian soldiers refused to shoot them or arrest them
HOW DID THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION END?B. The Unsuccessful Provisional Government• The Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 15 (called “The February Revolution”)• The Liberal Reformers (Kerensky) created a “provisional government” and promised free elections• Kerensky promised to continue fighting with Britain and France against the Central Powers• Food prices remained high
HOW DID THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION END?C. Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)• Said that the real enemy of Russians were the rich landowners and capitalism, not Germany• When he was 17, his older brother was executed for treason• Was living in Switzerland in exile, and returned to Russia in 1917 (on a German train)• Called for no private property, no social classes, and Russia’s surrender to Germany• Took control from Kerensky and the Liberal Reformers October 25, 1917 (October Revolution)
HOW DID THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION END?D. The Russian Civil War• Almost immediately after taking control of Russia, the Bolsheviks had to fight the “Whites” – a group of army leaders, Liberal politicians, and rich Russian families• The US, France, Britain and even Japan helped the Whites fight the Bolsheviks for 3 years• At the same time, the worst famine in the history of Russia occurred and left some 6 million Russians dead
HOW DID THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION END?E. Founding the Soviet Union• Lenin asked Leon Trotsky to lead the Bolshevik “Red Army” to fight the Whites, and the Bolsheviks won in 1920• After the Civil War, Lenin created the New Economic Policy (NEP), to allow farmers to make small profits by selling extra grain (capitalism)• As a result of the NEP, Russia’s supply of food increased and the economy stabilized by 1924• 1922 – Vladimir Lenin founded the new Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
TIMELINE – RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1918 Bolsheviks control 1914 Russia 1924 “Great War” begins Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Vladimir Lenin dies1905 1917 1918-1921Russo-Japanese “February Revolution” Russian Civil WarWar Tsar abdicates Lenin creates NEPCreation of DUMA