1865-1895 Timeline Jessica Dotson 1850 1857 1859 1860 Frederick Law Social Darwinism- Monopolies-Bessemer Process An idea that stated The idea thatintroduced- Olmsted- that the social order complete controlA process Landscape architect is accounted as the over an industrysdeveloped by Henry that spearheaded the movement for product of natural production, wages,Bessemer; Involved selection of those and prices can beinjecting air into planned urban persons best suited achieved by a firmmolten iron to parks; planned Central Park, to existing living that has bought outremove the carbon conditions; based off all it’s competitors.and other impurities. Washington D.C. of Darwin’s idea of and St. Louis biological evolution. BEFORE
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/ http://www.mnhs.org/places/sites/ohkf/articleok.html 1862 1862 1864 1867 Homesteaders-Homestead Act- Sand Creek Massacre- Oliver Kelley- Someone whoAn act that was One of the most tragic Started an settles lawfully onpassed by congress events in which many organization for government landthat offered 160 inhabitants of Sand farmers called the granted by theacres of land free to Creek were killed due to Patrons of Homestead Act withany citizen or John Chivington and his Husbandry. the intent to acquireintended citizen who troops descending on the title to it.was the head of the Cheyanne and Arapahohousehold. This act people.was takenadvantage of upuntil 1900. BEFORE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroadhttp://www.ebay.com/itm/New-Boss-TWEED-and-Tammany-Hall-Notorious-Americans-and-Their-Times-Homeschool-/200726216380 Jan. 1, 1868 1869 1869 1867 Grandfather Clause- Transcontinental Tammany Hall- Tweed Ring- Railroad- Stated that if a man New York’s powerful A group of corrupt Continuous network failed the literacy democratic political politicians led by of railroads that test or could not machine ran by Boss Tweed and afford the poll tax, opened; links the Boss Tweed. began defrauding Atlantic and Pacific he was still entitled New York City; Coasts. This helped to vote if his father Schemed the or grandfather had open up construction of the unpopulated interior been eligible by New York Court regions of continents January 1, 1867. House involving a to settlement. major graft.
http://ncpedia.org/farmers-alliancehttp://theragblog.blogspot.com/2012/01/bob-feldman-populism-labor-organizing.html 1870 National Farmer’s Southern Farmer’s Colored Farmer’s Grange- Alliance- An organization for Alliance- Alliance- An alliance that sent farmers of which it’s One branch of the Second branch of lecturers from town original purpose was farmers alliance that the alliance that to town to educate to social outlet and was the largest included over people about topics educational forum alliance. It included 250,000 African such as lower for isolated farm white southern American’s. They interest rates on farmers. Their goal worked to help it’s families. This loans, and organization gave was to end adverse members government control rise to the following effects of the crop- economically by over railroads and Farmers Alliances. linen system on setting up banks. farmers. cooperatives. Organizations that Improved Farming
http://blog.eogn.com/eastmans_onl ine_genealogy/2012/04/no-family- names-were-not-changed-at-ellis- island.html http://www.pbs.org/marktwain/scra pbook/05_gilded_age/index.html 1870 1870 1871 1873Ellis Island- Gilded Age- Civil Service- Patronage-Inspection The period in the Government Giving ofImmigration station United States which administration; government jobs toin New York Harbor. was characterized believed the jobs people who hadDetermined by a greatly should go to the helped get aadmission into the expanding economy most qualified candidate elected;United States; about and the rapid growth persons, and it policy was known as2% were denied of the population. shouldn’t matter the spoils system.entry. They were what political viewsinspected physically, they held or whogovernmentally, and recommended them.economically. Established in 1871.
http://www.manataka.org/page1134.ht ml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitting_Bull 1876Sitting Bull- Nez Perce- Chief Joseph- The Battle of Little Big Horn-Leader of Hunkpapa An Indian tribe that When the Nez Perce The battle that resulted in SittingSiox, as well as a was forced off of were forced off of Bull’s determination to have thewarrior, spiritual their tribal lands in their land, he tried to whites leave Siox territory. Sitting Bullleader, and Wallowa County, resist peacefully but refused to sign the Treaty of Fortmedicine man. He Oregon. They lived eventually began Laramie which led to a lot of tension.was determined that in the Pacific fighting. Later, Sitting Bull had a vision ofthe whites should Northwest region of being attacked during a Siox Sunleave Siox territory. the United States. dance so he readied his men andHe led his people by Led by Chief outflanked Custard, killing them all.the strength of his Joseph. Yet, Sitting Bull ended upcharacter and surrendering to the Federalpurpose. government.
http://thepoliticalcarnival.net/2012/07/15/its-the-poll-tax- stupid/ http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/03/dayint ech_0310 1876 1876 1877 1879Alexander Graham Telephone- Poll Tax- Jacob Riis- Invention that largely Annual tax that had Danish-AmericanBell- Invented the improved to be paid before social reformer,telephone with communication. A qualifying to vote. journalist, andThomas Watson,which opened the way to speak to Blacks, as well as photographer; used people over a white share photos andway for a world-wide distance, croppers, were often journalism to helpcommunicationsnetwork. electronically. too poor to pay and New York; Endorsed Affected office work could not vote. “model tenements”. and created new jobs for women in the clerical work force.
https://mstartzman.pbworks .com/w/page/35159542/du mbbell%20tenement %20(first) http://weaselzippers.us/201 2/07/10/holder-compares- voter-id-laws-to-jim-crow- we-call-those-poll-taxes/ 1879 1880 1880 1880Dumbbell Tenements- Segregation- Kickback- Jim Crow Laws-Tenements built in New Laws that were Illegal payments for Supreme CourtYork City after the passed by southern the services of failed to overturn theTenement House Act of states to separate political machines. poll tax and1879 and before the New white and black Enriched the grandfather clause,York State Tenement people in public and machines. even though theyHouse Act of 1901. High private facilities. violated all the rightsrise urban building that blacks were entitledprovided barrack-like to. Southern stateshousing for urban slum passed segregationdwellers. laws to separate blacks and whites in facilities. 1870’s-1880’s
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melting_p ot http://keithmallett.com/cats_in_hats_e tchings 1880 1881 1883 1885Ragtime- Melting Pot- Graft- Ida B. Wells-A blend of African A mixture of people The illegal use of Moved to Memphis in theAmerican spirituals of different cultures political influence for early 1880’s to work as aand European and races who personal gain; once teacher, but became anmusical forms. blended together by a political machine editor for the localOriginated in the abandoning their got its candidates newspaper who focusedsaloons of the south. native language and into office, it could her reports in racial justice.Later led to jazz, cultures. Many take numerous Later 3 of her friends thatrhythm, and native-born opportunities for were African Americanrock’n’roll; emulated Americans thought graft. businessmen were illegallyimage of “loud, this of their country. executed without trial.loose, AmericanRebel”. 1880’s
http://pmpaspeaki ngofprecision.com /2011/02/11/thom as-edison-164- years-and-what- do-you-get/ http://silentcal.com /?tag=samuel- gompers 1880 1884 1884 1886Thomas Alva Mugwumps- Scabs- Samuel Gompers-Eddison- A republican who A strikebreaker, or Led the CigarPerfected and refused to support person who works Markers’patented the the Republican Party despite the will of International Unionincandescent light nominee for other employees. to join with otherbulb; invented an president, James G. Henry Frick hired craft unions;entire system for Blaine, in the 1884 armed guards to president of Theproducing and election. protect steel plants American Federationdistributing electrical so he could hire of Labor.power. Also scabs to keep theestablished world’s plants operating.first researchlaboratory. (1876)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Haymarket_affair http://myona.com/2012/01/ 19/eastman-kodak- company-files-bankruptcy- protection/george-eastman- kodak/ 1886 1887 1887 1888Haymarket Affair- Interstate Commerce Dawes Act- George Eastman-Labor leaders Commission- Act passed by Developed a seriespressed for a Established the right of congress that was of more convenientchange and 3,000 federal government to aiming to alternatives to thepeople gathered at supervise railroad “Americanize” the heavy glass platesChicago’s activities and also Native Americans. It previously used.Haymarket Square established a five broke up the Aimed his productsto protest police member commission. reservations and at the masses.brutality. Riot started gave some to Introduced theand police began to individual Native Kodak camera whichturn against the Americans. prompted manylabor movement. Americans to become amateur photographers.
http://jwa.org/me dia/settlement- houses-2-still- image http://www.legen dsofamerica.com /na- ghostdance.html 1889 1889 1890 1890Settlement House- Jane Adams- Ghost Dance- John D. Rockefeller-Community centers Very influential Ritual dance that, if Established thein slum women involved in performed by the Standard Oilneighborhoods that the settlement Siox, Native Company andprovided assistance house movements. American lands and Rockefellersto people in the She was also the co- way of life would be Foundation; Gainedarea, especially founder of Chicago’s restored. This total control over oilimmigrants. Hull House in 1889. movement spread industry and among 25,000 Siox produced 2/3 of the on the Dakota country’s crude oil. Reservation.
https://wikispaces.psu.edu/di splay/IST432TEAM16/II. +Background+of+Antitrust+L egislation http://www.crmvet.org/info/lit ques.htm 1890 1890 1891 1892Sherman Antitrust Literacy Test- Collective Socialism-Act- A test that tested a Bargaining- An economic and Act passed that person’s reading Negotiations political systemmade it illegal to skills. Some states between based onform a trust that limited the vote to representatives of government controlinterfered with free people who could labor and of business andtrade between states read and required management, property and equalor with other officials to usually aimed at distribution ofcountries. administer this test. wages, hours, and wealth. Blacks were often working conditions. asked more difficult questions than whites.
http://www.lib.n iu.edu/1994/ihy 941208.html http://www.cult urequest.us/ec omm/annstillm an/Plessy %20VS %20F.html 1894 1894 1895 1896Eugene V. Debs- Pullman Strike- W.E.B. Dubois- Plessy vs. Ferguson-Attempted to form Pullman company The first African Supreme court ruledan industrial union of refused to restore American to receive that separation ofwhich all laborers, wages after an a doctrine from races in publicskilled and unskilled increase in Harvard. Founded accommodations wasalike, are included employee rent, so the Niagara legal and did not(American Railway employees went on Movement which violate the 14thUnion). Won a strike strike. ARU began to insisted that blacks amendment.for higher wages; boycott Pullmans seek a Liberal Arts Established doctrine ofover 150,000 joined. trains. education so that “separate but equal” the African which allowed states to American separate them but community would provide equal service. have well educated leaders (1905).
http://www.politico.com/bl ogs/jonathanmartin/0608 /Obama_could_give_cro ss_of_gold_speech_and _still_lose_too.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/Andrew_Carnegie 1996 1899 1900 1902“Cross of Gold” Andrew Carnegie- Urbanization- Debt Peonage-Speech- Worked for the Pennsylvania Growth of cities A system that boundSpeech delivered by Railroad and reported messages mostly in the regions laborers into slaveryWilliam Jennings that prevented wrecks. This gave of the Northeast and in order to work off aBryan at the 1896 him a chance to buy stock. He Midwest. Had major debt to theDemocratic National was one of the first moguls to rise in 1900. Result employer. MexicansConvention in make their own fortune from rags of growing industrial and AfricanChicago. (June 8) to riches. Established Carnegie strength of the U.S. Americans in theHelped gain him the Steel Company- manufactured which was caused southwest weredemocratic more steel than all the steel by the technological forced to do this. Itpresidential companies in Britain. He gained boom in the 19th wasn’t until 1911nomination. Decried success due to his business century. that the Supremethe Gold Standard. strategies. Court declared in involuntary.
http://celebrating20 0years.noaa.gov/fo undations/aviation_ weather/libr0575.ht ml http://angelisland.or g/history/ 1903 1910Orville and Wilbur Wright- Angel Island-Brothers that were bicycle Inspection immigration station inmanufacturers that began to San Francisco Bay; where Asiansexperiment with engines arriving on the West Coast gainedpowerful enough to make admission. Immigrants enduredsomething heavier than air harsh questioning and longfly.Later made the first detention in filthy buildings. Oversuccessful flight with a biplane 50,000 entered between 1910 andon December 17 in Kitty Hawk, 1940.NC.