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  • i think its base on Stephen P. Robbins book,, seems to be helpful for gripping that book
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  • 1. Robbins & JudgeOrganizational Behavior13th Edition<br />Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior?<br />Student Study Slideshow<br />Bob Stretch<br />Southwestern College<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-0<br />
  • 2. Chapter Learning Objectives<br /><ul><li>After studying this chapter you should be able to:
  • 3. Demonstrate the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace.
  • 4. Describe the manager’s functions, roles, and skills.
  • 5. Define organizational behavior (OB).
  • 6. Show the value to OB of systematic study.
  • 7. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB.
  • 8. Demonstrate why there are few absolutes in OB.
  • 9. Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts.
  • 10. Compare the three levels of analysis in this book’s OB model.</li></ul>© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-1<br />
  • 11. The Importance of Interpersonal Skills<br />Understanding OB helps determine manager effectiveness<br />Technical and quantitative skills important <br />But leadership and communication skills are CRITICAL<br />Organizational benefits of skilled managers<br />Lower turnover of quality employees<br />Higher quality applications for recruitment<br />Better financial performance<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-2<br />
  • 12. What Managers Do<br />They get things done through other people.<br />Management Activities:<br />Make decisions<br />Allocate resources<br />Direct activities of others to attain goals<br />Work in an organization<br />A consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-3<br />
  • 13. Four Management Functions<br />PLAN<br />A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.<br />ORGANIZE<br />Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-4<br />
  • 14. Four Management Functions<br />LEAD<br />A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.<br />CONTROL<br />Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-5<br />
  • 15. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles<br />Ten roles in three groups (Exhibit 1-1)<br />Interpersonal<br />Figurehead, Leader, and Liaison<br />Informational<br />Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson<br />Decisional<br />Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, and Negotiator.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-6<br />
  • 16. Katz’s Essential Management Skills<br />Technical Skills<br />The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise<br />Human Skills<br />The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups<br />Conceptual Skills<br />The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-7<br />
  • 17. Luthans’ Study of Managerial Activities<br />Four types of managerial activity:<br />Traditional Management<br />Decision-making, planning, and controlling.<br />Communication<br />Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork<br />Human Resource Management<br />Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and training.<br />Networking<br />Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others.<br />Managers who promoted faster (were successful) did different things than did effective managers (those who did their jobs well) – see Exhibit 1-2.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-8<br />
  • 18. Organizational Behavior<br />A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-9<br />
  • 19. Intuition and Systematic Study<br />Intuition<br /> Gut feelings<br /> Individual observation<br /> Common sense<br />Systematic Study<br />Looks at relationships<br />Scientific evidence<br />Predicts behaviors<br />The two are complementary means of predicting behavior.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-10<br />
  • 20. An Outgrowth of Systematic Study…<br />Evidence-Based Management (EBM)<br />Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence.<br />Must think like scientists:<br />Pose a managerial question<br />Search for best available evidence<br />Apply relevant information to case<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-11<br />
  • 21. Managers Should Use All Three Approaches<br />The trick is to know when to go with your gut. <br />– Jack Welsh<br />Intuition is often based on inaccurate information<br />Faddism is prevalent in management<br />Systematic study can be time-consuming<br />Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience. That is the promise of OB.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-12<br />
  • 22. Four Contributing Disciplines<br />Psychology<br />The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.<br />Unit of Analysis:<br />Individual<br />Contributions to OB:<br />Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception<br />Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction<br />Individual decision making, performance appraisal, attitude measurement<br />Employee selection, work design, and work stress<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-13<br />
  • 23. Four Contributing Disciplines<br />Social Psychology<br />An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.<br />Unit of Analysis:<br />Group<br />Contributions to OB:<br />Behavioral change<br />Attitude change<br />Communication<br />Group processes<br />Group decision making<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-14<br />
  • 24. Four Contributing Disciplines<br /><ul><li>Sociology</li></ul>The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.<br /><ul><li>Unit of Analysis:
  • 25. Organizational System
  • 26. Group
  • 27. Contributions to OB:</li></ul>Group dynamics<br />Work teams<br />Communication<br />Power<br />Conflict<br />Intergroup behavior<br />Formal organization theory<br />Organizational technology<br />Organizational change<br />Organizational culture<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-15<br />
  • 28. Four Contributing Disciplines<br /><ul><li> Anthropology</li></ul>The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.<br /><ul><li>Unit of Analysis:</li></ul>-- Organizational System<br />-- Group<br />Comparative values<br />Comparative attitudes<br />Cross-cultural analysis<br /><ul><li>Contributions to OB:</li></ul>Organizational culture<br />Organizational environment<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-16<br />
  • 29. Few Absolutes in OB<br />Situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change—e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition but not another.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-17<br />
  • 30. Challenges and Opportunities for OB<br />Responding to Globalization<br />Managing Workforce Diversity<br />Improving Quality and Productivity<br />Improving Customer Service<br />Improving People Skills<br />Stimulating Innovation and Change<br />Coping with “Temporariness”<br />Working in Networked Organizations<br />Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts<br />Creating a Positive Work Environment<br />Improving Ethical Behavior<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-18<br />
  • 31. Challenges and Opportunities for OB<br />Responding to Globalization<br />Increased foreign assignments<br />Working with people from different cultures<br />Coping with anti-capitalism backlash<br />Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor<br />Managing people during the war on terror<br />Managing Workforce Diversity <br />The people in organizations are becoming more heterogeneous demographically (disability, gender, age, national origin, non-Christian, race, and domestic partners) Exhibit 1-4<br />Embracing diversity<br />Changing U.S. demographics<br />Management philosophy changes<br />Recognizing and responding to differences<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-19<br />
  • 32. Developing an OB Model<br />A model is an abstraction of reality: a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.<br />Our OB model has three levels of analysis:<br />Each level is constructed on the prior level<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Organizational Systems (Exhibit 1-5)<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-20<br />
  • 33. Types of Study Variables<br />Independent (X)<br />The presumed cause of the change in the dependent variable (Y).<br />This is the variable that OB researchers manipulate to observe the changes in Y.<br />Dependent (Y)<br />This is the response to X (the independent variable).<br />It is what the OB researchers want to predict or explain. <br />The interesting variable!<br /> X -> Y -> Predictive Ability<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-21<br />
  • 34. Interesting OB Dependent Variables<br />Productivity<br />Transforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost).<br />Absenteeism<br />Failure to report to work – a huge cost to employers.<br />Turnover<br />Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.<br />Deviant Workplace Behavior<br />Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-22<br />
  • 35. © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-23<br />
  • 36. More Interesting OB Dependent Variables<br />Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)<br />Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.<br />Job Satisfaction<br />A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-24<br />
  • 37. The Independent Variables<br />The independent variable (X) can be at any of these three levels in this model:<br />Individual<br />Biographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes, ability, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision making.<br />Group<br />Communication, group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, conflict, power and politics, and work teams.<br />Organization System<br />Organizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-25<br />
  • 38. OB Model<br />See Exhibit 1-6 in the text.<br />This section contains the Dependent Variables (Y)<br />This three-part section contains the Independent Variables (X) in ascending levels: individual, group, and organizational system.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-26<br />
  • 39. Summary and Managerial Implications<br />Managers need to develop their interpersonal skills to be effective.<br />OB focuses on how to improve factors that make organizations more effective.<br />The best predictions of behavior are made from a combination of systematic study and intuition.<br />Situational variables moderate cause-and-effect relationships – which is why OB theories are contingent.<br />There are many OB challenges and opportunities for managers today.<br />The textbook is based on the contingent OB model.<br />© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.<br />1-27<br />
  • 40. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.<br />Copyright ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall<br />

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