TRANSITIVITY™




                                ARGUMENT
                             VISUALIZATION
                    ...
This tutorial uses a dialogue as a vehicle to illustrate
  the fundamentals of argument visualization.
  The argument sche...
“Aristotle states the transitivity of predication in his
  Categoriae: quot;for all we affirm of the predicate will also b...
TRANSITIVITY™   Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
I contend that “Harry
                is a British subject.”




TRANSITIVITY™                            Copyright © 2007...
I contend that “Harry
                is a British subject.”




                                    main contention
     ...
What is the
                                                          support for your
                                   ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                                           “nexus...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                  main contention
               ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                  main contention
               ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                    main contention
             ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                    main contention
             ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                    main contention
             ...
Because “Harry
                was born in Bermuda.”




                                    main contention
             ...
I don’t see the
                                                              connection.




                            ...
I don’t see the
                                                                       connection.




                   ...
I don’t see the
                                                       connection.




                              main ...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
Because “one born in Bermuda is
                covered by the Citizenship Act.”




                                    m...
OK. I see it now. I’ll
                                                      remove my objection.




                    ...
OK. I see it now. I’ll
                                                      remove my objection.




                    ...
But I don’t see how you
                                               know “Harry was born in
                           ...
But I don’t see how you
                                                             know “Harry was born in
             ...
But I don’t see how you
                                                           know “Harry was born in
               ...
Because “Harry said he
                 was born in Bermuda.”




                                        main contention
...
Because “Harry said he
                    was born in Bermuda.”




                                         main content...
Because “Harry said he
                    was born in Bermuda.”




                                         main content...
Because “Harry said he
                    was born in Bermuda.”




                                         main content...
Because “Harry said he
                    was born in Bermuda.”




                                         main content...
OK. I see it now. I’ll
                                                                remove my objection.




          ...
OK. I see it now. I’ll
                                                               remove my objection.




           ...
But are you making any
                                                      assumptions when you rely
                   ...
But are you making any
                                                      assumptions when you rely
                   ...
Yes. I am assuming that
                    “Harry is truthful.”




                                         main content...
Yes. I am assuming that
                    “Harry is truthful.”




                                                main ...
OK. I see it now. I will
                                                                     remove my objection.




   ...
OK. I see it now. I will
                                                                     remove my objection.




   ...
And I know because
                    Harry has always told me
                    the truth in the past.




           ...
And I know because
                        Harry has always told me
                        the truth in the past.




   ...
And I know because
                        Harry has always told me
                        the truth in the past.




   ...
And I know because
                        Harry has always told me
                        the truth in the past.




   ...
And I know because
                        Harry has always told me
                        the truth in the past.




   ...
Do you have any other reasons why
                                             “Harry is a British subject?




          ...
Because “Harry has a
                    British passport.”




                                         main contention
 ...
Because “Harry has a
                     British passport.”




                                           main contentio...
Because “Harry has a
                    British passport.”




                                          main contention
...
Because “Harry has a
                     British passport.”




                                           main contentio...
Because “Harry has a
                    British passport.”




                                          main contention
...
Because “Harry has a
                    British passport.”




                                          main contention
...
Because “Harry has a
                        British passport.”




                                              main con...
My contention is that
                                                       “Harry is not a British subject.”




       ...
My contention is that
                                                       “Harry is not a British subject.”




       ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.


    ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.

     ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.

     ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.

     ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.

     ...
And the reason is that he gave up
                                                         his British citizenship.

     ...
I accept your contention.




                                   Harry...
                                   …is not a Bri...
I accept your contention.




                                   Harry...
                                   …is not a Bri...
Thank you.




                Harry...
                …is not a British
                subject.

                main c...
TRANSITIVITY™




                      APPENDIX




                Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
Is there a way to condense this
                                                         argument map and still retain
   ...
Yes! You just have to cross-
                            out the redundant phrases.




                                  ...
Yes! You just have to cross-
                            out the redundant phrases.




                                  ...
And this is what is left.




                                       main contention
                                     ...
Is there a way to visualize an
                    argument that has conditional
                    elements as exists fo...
Sure.




                    main contention
                    Harry...
                    …is eligible for citizenshi...
Sure.




                                       main contention
                                       Harry...
         ...
Please show me how you would
                map different objections.




TRANSITIVITY™                             Copyr...
The object…                      An object that looks red to Rudy…
                 …looks red to Rudy.              ...is...
TRANSITIVITY™




                    argument visualization/
           educational and business training
               ...
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Inference Path Flash 20 Letter

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Transcript of "Inference Path Flash 20 Letter"

  1. 1. TRANSITIVITY™ ARGUMENT VISUALIZATION TUTORIAL ...a transitive inference path of reasoning Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge 06-14-07
  2. 2. This tutorial uses a dialogue as a vehicle to illustrate the fundamentals of argument visualization. The argument schema and visual language are based on the transitivity of predication. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  3. 3. “Aristotle states the transitivity of predication in his Categoriae: quot;for all we affirm of the predicate will also be affirmed of the subjectquot; (1949, 5, 3b, 5). To be fair, in the first quot;antepredicamental rulequot; the transitivity is stated with a qualification: quot;When you predicate this thing or that of another thing as of a subject the predicates of the predicate will also hold good of the subjectquot; (1949, l, l1b, 10, emphasis mine).” Angelelli, I. (2004). Predication theory: classical vs modern. In H. Hochberg & K. Mulligan (Eds.), In Relations and predicates. New Jersey: Transaction Books. http://traumstadt.org/angelelli.pdf TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  4. 4. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  5. 5. I contend that “Harry is a British subject.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  6. 6. I contend that “Harry is a British subject.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. Every sentence  is divided into  its subject and  predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  7. 7. What is the support for your contention? main contention Harry... This dotted line between  the subject and predicate is  …is a British subject. the “nexus of predication.” If the connection across this  nexus is not self‐evident to  .This contention… the reader, then it must be  …has no support. created with a path of  transitive premises that are  Red is making an objection  acceptable to some degree  to the green dotted nexus. to the reader. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the  dialogue,  “I do not accept that ‘Harry  is a British subject.’” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  8. 8. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” “nexus of predication” main contention line between the subject  Harry... and predicate …is a British subject. 1 . . . These two boxes represent  transitive premises that  join the subject of the main  contention to its predicate  across the nexus situated  between them. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  9. 9. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... . TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  10. 10. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... . …is a British subject.. The subject of the first  premise and the predicate  of the last premise always  form the main contention. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  11. 11. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  12. 12. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Premises are  transitively matched with the  predicate of one premise to the subject of  its adjoining premise. This transitive pattern continues along the  inference path. Any type of reasoning can  be translated into this transitive pattern. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  13. 13. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. The transitive premises are linked along  the bottom string of predicates. These predicates are the proverbial “dots” in “connecting the dots”. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  14. 14. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. This second premise was implicit in  this inference path of reasoning. Notice that every individual path of  reasoning has at least two premises  since it takes at least two premises to  join the halves of the contention. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  15. 15. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. This link is not self‐ evident to Red. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  16. 16. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Red is making an  The connection… objection to the link. …is not evident to me. In effect, Red is  saying, “I do not  accept that ‘One who  was born in Bermuda  is a British subject.’” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  17. 17. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. The connection… In effect, Red perceives a gap  …is not evident to me. between the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  18. 18. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is revealing a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  19. 19. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda… was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  20. 20. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda… was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  21. 21. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  22. 22. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  23. 23. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap that  Red perceived between the  two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  24. 24. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… Red now sees that “was born  in Bermuda” can be connected  …is not evident to me. to “is a British subject” with  this new predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  25. 25. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red now sees that “was born  in Bermuda” can be connected  to “is a British subject” with  this new predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  26. 26. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  27. 27. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  28. 28. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. The premise… …has no support. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  29. 29. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. The premise… …has no support. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  30. 30. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… Green separates the  subject and predicate to  …has no support. show how they are  connected. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  31. 31. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  32. 32. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  33. 33. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  34. 34. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  35. 35. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  36. 36. But are you making any assumptions when you rely on Harry’s statement? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  37. 37. But are you making any assumptions when you rely on Harry’s statement? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The assumptions… …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  38. 38. Yes. I am assuming that “Harry is truthful.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The assumptions… …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  39. 39. Yes. I am assuming that “Harry is truthful.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… The assumptions… …is truthful. …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  40. 40. OK. I see it now. I will remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… The assumptions… …is truthful. …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  41. 41. OK. I see it now. I will remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  42. 42. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  43. 43. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  44. 44. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  45. 45. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  46. 46. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  47. 47. Do you have any other reasons why “Harry is a British subject? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  48. 48. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  49. 49. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… …has a British passport. Notice again that at least two  transitive premises are needed to  join this second path of reasoning. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  50. 50. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  51. 51. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Again the subject and predicate are  separated into a transitive pattern. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  52. 52. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  53. 53. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  54. 54. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  55. 55. My contention is that “Harry is not a British subject.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  56. 56. My contention is that “Harry is not a British subject.” Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  57. 57. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. ddddddddddddddddddd d …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  58. 58. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  59. 59. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  60. 60. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  61. 61. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  62. 62. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  63. 63. I accept your contention. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  64. 64. I accept your contention. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  65. 65. Thank you. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  66. 66. TRANSITIVITY™ APPENDIX Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  67. 67. Is there a way to condense this argument map and still retain the essential information? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  68. 68. Yes! You just have to cross- out the redundant phrases. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  69. 69. Yes! You just have to cross- out the redundant phrases. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  70. 70. And this is what is left. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 …has a British passport. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  71. 71. Is there a way to visualize an argument that has conditional elements as exists for a statute? main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  72. 72. Sure. main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  73. 73. Sure. main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. 1 One who meets the two Harry… required elements of the Citizenship Act… ….meets the two required elements of the ….is eligible for citizenship.. Citizenship Act. Harry… Harry... …has been a resident …is job compliant. for five year. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  74. 74. Please show me how you would map different objections. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  75. 75. The object… An object that looks red to Rudy… …looks red to Rudy. ...is red. The object... ...is red. main contention The object... ...is green. The object... An object that looks green to Gary… …looks green to Gary. ...is green. An object that looks green to Gary… Gary… ...could be illuminated by a green light. …is color blind. The object... …was illuminated by a white light. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  76. 76. TRANSITIVITY™ argument visualization/ educational and business training and consulting: transitivity@comcast.net Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge

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