Inference Path Flash 20 Letter

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  • 1. TRANSITIVITY™ ARGUMENT VISUALIZATION TUTORIAL ...a transitive inference path of reasoning Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge 06-14-07
  • 2. This tutorial uses a dialogue as a vehicle to illustrate the fundamentals of argument visualization. The argument schema and visual language are based on the transitivity of predication. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 3. “Aristotle states the transitivity of predication in his Categoriae: quot;for all we affirm of the predicate will also be affirmed of the subjectquot; (1949, 5, 3b, 5). To be fair, in the first quot;antepredicamental rulequot; the transitivity is stated with a qualification: quot;When you predicate this thing or that of another thing as of a subject the predicates of the predicate will also hold good of the subjectquot; (1949, l, l1b, 10, emphasis mine).” Angelelli, I. (2004). Predication theory: classical vs modern. In H. Hochberg & K. Mulligan (Eds.), In Relations and predicates. New Jersey: Transaction Books. http://traumstadt.org/angelelli.pdf TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 4. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 5. I contend that “Harry is a British subject.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 6. I contend that “Harry is a British subject.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. Every sentence  is divided into  its subject and  predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 7. What is the support for your contention? main contention Harry... This dotted line between  the subject and predicate is  …is a British subject. the “nexus of predication.” If the connection across this  nexus is not self‐evident to  .This contention… the reader, then it must be  …has no support. created with a path of  transitive premises that are  Red is making an objection  acceptable to some degree  to the green dotted nexus. to the reader. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the  dialogue,  “I do not accept that ‘Harry  is a British subject.’” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 8. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” “nexus of predication” main contention line between the subject  Harry... and predicate …is a British subject. 1 . . . These two boxes represent  transitive premises that  join the subject of the main  contention to its predicate  across the nexus situated  between them. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 9. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... . TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 10. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... . …is a British subject.. The subject of the first  premise and the predicate  of the last premise always  form the main contention. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 11. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 . Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 12. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Premises are  transitively matched with the  predicate of one premise to the subject of  its adjoining premise. This transitive pattern continues along the  inference path. Any type of reasoning can  be translated into this transitive pattern. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 13. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. The transitive premises are linked along  the bottom string of predicates. These predicates are the proverbial “dots” in “connecting the dots”. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 14. Because “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. This second premise was implicit in  this inference path of reasoning. Notice that every individual path of  reasoning has at least two premises  since it takes at least two premises to  join the halves of the contention. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 15. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. This link is not self‐ evident to Red. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 16. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Red is making an  The connection… objection to the link. …is not evident to me. In effect, Red is  saying, “I do not  accept that ‘One who  was born in Bermuda  is a British subject.’” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 17. I don’t see the connection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. The connection… In effect, Red perceives a gap  …is not evident to me. between the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 18. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is revealing a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 19. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda… was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 20. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who Bermuda… was born in Bermuda… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 21. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 22. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap  that Red perceived between  the two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 23. Because “one born in Bermuda is covered by the Citizenship Act.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… …is not evident to me. Green is giving a premise  that will bridge this gap that  Red perceived between the  two predicates. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 24. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. The connection… Red now sees that “was born  in Bermuda” can be connected  …is not evident to me. to “is a British subject” with  this new predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 25. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red now sees that “was born  in Bermuda” can be connected  to “is a British subject” with  this new predicate. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 26. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 27. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 28. But I don’t see how you know “Harry was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. The premise… …has no support. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 29. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in One who is covered by Bermuda… the Citizenship Act… Harry... ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Citizenship Act. Red is making an objection  to this nexus. The premise… …has no support. In effect, Red is saying that  at this point in the dialogue,  “I do not accept that “Harry  was born in Bermuda.” TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 30. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… Green separates the  subject and predicate to  …has no support. show how they are  connected. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 31. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 32. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 33. Because “Harry said he was born in Bermuda.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 34. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The premise… …has no support. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 35. OK. I see it now. I’ll remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 36. But are you making any assumptions when you rely on Harry’s statement? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 37. But are you making any assumptions when you rely on Harry’s statement? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The assumptions… …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 38. Yes. I am assuming that “Harry is truthful.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. The assumptions… …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 39. Yes. I am assuming that “Harry is truthful.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… The assumptions… …is truthful. …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 40. OK. I see it now. I will remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… The assumptions… …is truthful. …are not revealed.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 41. OK. I see it now. I will remove my objection. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 42. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 43. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 44. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 45. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 46. And I know because Harry has always told me the truth in the past. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. Harry… …is truthful. Harry… Having always told me the truth indicates he… …has always told me the truth. …is truthful. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 47. Do you have any other reasons why “Harry is a British subject? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 48. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 49. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… …has a British passport. Notice again that at least two  transitive premises are needed to  join this second path of reasoning. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 50. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 51. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Again the subject and predicate are  separated into a transitive pattern. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 52. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 53. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 54. Because “Harry has a British passport.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 55. My contention is that “Harry is not a British subject.” main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 56. My contention is that “Harry is not a British subject.” Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 57. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. ddddddddddddddddddd d …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 58. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 59. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 60. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 61. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 62. And the reason is that he gave up his British citizenship. One who gave up his Harry... British citizenship... …gave up his British …is a not British citizenship. subject. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 63. I accept your contention. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 64. I accept your contention. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 65. Thank you. Harry... …is not a British subject. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 66. TRANSITIVITY™ APPENDIX Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 67. Is there a way to condense this argument map and still retain the essential information? main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 68. Yes! You just have to cross- out the redundant phrases. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 69. Yes! You just have to cross- out the redundant phrases. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 One who was born in Saying he was born in One who is covered by Harry... Bermuda… Bermuda, means he… the Citizenship Act… ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. …is a British subject.. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 One who has a British passport… Harry... TRANSITIVITY™ …has a British passport. …is a British subject.. Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 70. And this is what is left. main contention Harry... …is a British subject. 1 ….said he was born in ….is covered by the ….was born in Bermuda. Bermuda. Citizenship Act. 2 …has a British passport. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 71. Is there a way to visualize an argument that has conditional elements as exists for a statute? main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 72. Sure. main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 73. Sure. main contention Harry... …is eligible for citizenship. 1 One who meets the two Harry… required elements of the Citizenship Act… ….meets the two required elements of the ….is eligible for citizenship.. Citizenship Act. Harry… Harry... …has been a resident …is job compliant. for five year. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 74. Please show me how you would map different objections. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 75. The object… An object that looks red to Rudy… …looks red to Rudy. ...is red. The object... ...is red. main contention The object... ...is green. The object... An object that looks green to Gary… …looks green to Gary. ...is green. An object that looks green to Gary… Gary… ...could be illuminated by a green light. …is color blind. The object... …was illuminated by a white light. TRANSITIVITY™ Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge
  • 76. TRANSITIVITY™ argument visualization/ educational and business training and consulting: transitivity@comcast.net Copyright © 2007 Joseph A. Laronge