Indian and chinese philosophy and education


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Indian and chinese philosophy and education

  1. 1. Reporter: Juvy Darian Lao-ing MA English Subject Teacher: Dr. Daisy P. Labadia INDIAN AND CHINESE PHILOSOPHY AND EDUCATION
  2. 2. Indian philosophy and education India has a rich and diverse philosophical tradition dating back to the composition of the Upanisads in the later Vedic period. According toRadhakrishnan, the oldest of these constitute "...the earliest philosophical compositions of the world." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
  3. 3. 5 September 1888 – 17 April 1975) was an Indian philosopher and statesman who was the first Vice President of India (1952–1962) and the second President of India from 1962 to 1967. One of India's best and most influential twentieth-century scholars of comparative religion and philosophy. Radhakrishnan was awarded the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, in 1954.Radhakrishnan believed that "teachers should be the best minds in the country". Since 1962, his birthday is celebrated in India asTeachers' Day on 5 September. his academic appointments included the King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science at the University of Calcutta (1921–1932) and Spalding Professor of Eastern Religion and Ethics at University of Oxford (1936–1952).
  4. 4. Since the late medieval age (ca.1000-1500) various schools (Skt: Darshanas) of Indian philosophy are identified as orthodox (Skt: astika) or non-orthodox (Skt: nastika) depending on whether they regard the Veda as an infallible source of knowledge.
  5. 5. There are six schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy and three heterodox schools. The orthodox are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya, Yoga, Purva mimamsa and Vedanta. The Heterodox are Jain, Buddhist and materialist (Cārvāka). However, Vidyāraṇya classifies Indian philosophy into sixteen schools where he includes schools belonging to Saiva and Raseśvara thought with others.
  6. 6. The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalized chiefly between 1000 BC to the early centuries AD. Subsequent centuries produced commentaries and reformulations continuing up to as late as the 20th century by Aurobindo and Prabhupada among others.
  7. 7. Sri Aurobindo (Sri Ôrobindo), (15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950), born Aurobindo Ghose, was an Indian nationalist,philosopher, yogi, guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for independence from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Aurobindo was the first Indian to create a major literary corpus in English.
  8. 8. Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava spiritual teacher (guru) and the Founder-Acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness[1] He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the sense used by sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Europe, India and elsewhere. CNN cites him on their Top-10 list of "wildly
  9. 9. Common themes The Indian thinkers of antiquity (very much like those of the Hellenistic schools) viewed philosophy as a practical necessity that needed to be cultivated in order to understand how life can best be led. It became a custom for Indian writers to explain at the beginning of philosophical works how it serves human ends (puruṣārtha). Recent scholarship has shown that there was a great deal of intercourse between Greek and Indian philosophy during the era of Hellenistic expansion.
  10. 10. Indian philosophy is distinctive in its application of analytical rigour to metaphysical problems and goes into very precise detail about the nature of reality, the structure and function of the human psyche and how the relationship between the two have important implications for human salvation (moksha). Rishis centred philosophy on an assumption that there is a unitary underlying order (rta) in the universe which is all pervasive and omniscient. The efforts by various schools were concentrated on explaining this order and the metaphysical entity at its source (Brahman). The concept of natural law (Dharma) provided a basis for understanding questions of how life on earth should be lived. The sages urged humans to discern this order and to live their lives in accordance with it.
  11. 11. Schools Hindu philosophy Many Hindu intellectual traditions were classified during the medieval period of Brahmanic-Sanskritic scholasticism into a standard list of six orthodox (astika) schools (darshanas), the "Six Philosophies" (ṣad- darśana), all of which accept the testimony of the Vedas. 1. Samkhya, the enumeration school. an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.
  12. 12. 2. Yoga, the school of Patanjali (which provisionally asserts the metaphysics of Samkhya). a school emphasising meditation, contemplation and libe ration. 3. Nyaya, the school of logic. explores sources of knowledge. Nyāya Sūtras 4. Vaisheshika, the atomist school. an empiricist school of atomism
  13. 13. 5. Purva Mimamsa (or simply Mimamsa), the tradition of Vedic exegesis, with emphasis on Vedic ritual, , an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy 6. Vedanta (also called Uttara Mimamsa), the Upanishadic tradition, with emphasis on Vedic philosophy. , the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or the 'Jnan' (knowledge) 'Kanda' (section). Vedanta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period.
  14. 14. These are often coupled into three groups for both historical and conceptual reasons: Nyaya- Vaishesika, Samkhya-Yoga, and Mimamsa- Vedanta. The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub- schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism), also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita(dualism- nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools.
  15. 15. Besides these schools Mādhava Vidyāraṇya also includes the following of the aforementioned theistic philosophies based on the Agamas and Tantras: Pasupata, school of Shaivism by Nakulisa Saiva, the theistic Sankhya school Pratyabhijña, the recognitive school Raseśvara, the mercurial school Pāṇini Darśana, the grammarian school (which clarifies the theory of Sphoṭa)
  16. 16. The systems mentioned here are not the only orthodox systems, they are the chief ones, and there are other orthodox schools. These systems, accept the authority of Vedas and are regarded as "orthodox" (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy; besides these, schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are categorised by Brahmins as unorthodox (nastika) systems. Chief among the latter category are Buddhism, Jainism and Cārvāka.
  17. 17. Cārvāka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and, is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.
  18. 18. Jain philosophy Jainism came into formal being after Mahavira synthesised philosophies and promulgations of the ancient Sramana philosophy, during the period around 550 BC, in the region that is present day Bihar in northern India. This period marked an ideological renaissance, in which the Vedic dominance was challenged by various groups like Jainism and Buddhism.
  19. 19. A Jain is a follower of Jinas, spiritual 'victors' (Jina is Sanskrit for 'victor'), human beings who have rediscovered the dharma, become fully liberated and taught the spiritual path for the benefit of beings. Jainism is not considered as a part of the Vedic Religion (Hinduism)
  20. 20. Jainism is a religious tradition in which all life is considered to be worthy of respect and Jain teaching emphasises this equality of all life advocating the non-harming of even the smallest creatures. Non-violence( Ahimsa) is the basis of right View, the condition of right Knowledge and the kernel of right Conduct in Jainism.
  21. 21. Buddhist philosophy Buddhist philosophy is a system of beliefs based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, a prince later known as the Buddha, or "awakened one". From its inception, Buddhism has had a strong philosophical component. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu philosophical concepts. The Buddha criticised all concepts of metaphysical being and non-being as misleading views caused by reification, and this critique is inextricable from the founding of Buddhism.
  22. 22. Buddhism shares many philosophical views with other Indian systems, such as belief in karma, a cause-and-effect relationship between all that has been done and all that will be done. Events that occur are held to be the direct result of previous events. A major departure from Hindu and Jain philosophy is the Buddhist rejection of a permanent, self-existent soul (atman) in favour of anatta (non-Self) and anicca (impermanence).
  23. 23. Cārvāka philosophy Cārvāka or Lokāyata was a philosophy of scepticism and materialism, founded in the Mauryan period. They were extremely critical of other schools of philosophy of the time. Cārvāka deemed Vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self- contradiction, and tautology. And in contrast to Buddhists and Jains, they mocked the concept ofliberation, reincarnation and accumulation of merit or demerit through the performance of
  24. 24. They believed that, the viewpoint of relinquishing pleasure to avoid pain was the "reasoning of fools". Cārvāka thought consciousness was an emanation from the body and it ended with the destruction of the body. They used quotes fromBrihadaranyaka Upanishad to support this claim. Cārvāka denied inference as a means of knowledge and held sensory indulgence as the final objective of life.
  25. 25. Modern philosophy Modern Indian philosophy was developed during British occupation(1750–1947). The philosophers in this era gave contemporary meaning to traditional philosophy. Some of them were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Sri Aurobindo, Kireet Joshi, Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, Debiprasad Chattopadhyay, M. N. Roy, Indra Sen, Haridas Chaudhuri, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Ananda Coomaraswamy, Ramana Maharshi, and Sarvepalli
  26. 26. Among contemporary Indian philosophers, Osho and J. Krishnamurti developed their own schools of thought. Pandurang Shastri Athavale, U. G. Krishnamurti and Krishnanandaare other prominent names in contemporary Indian philosophy.
  27. 27. Political philosophy The Arthashastra, attributed to the Mauryan minister Chanakya, is one of the early Indian texts devoted to political philosophy. It is dated to 4th century BCE and discusses ideas of statecraft and economic policy.
  28. 28. The political philosophy most closely associated with India is the one of ahimsa (non-violence) and Satyagraha, popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian struggle for independence. It was influenced by the Indian Dharmic philosophy, particularly the Bhagvata Gita, as well as secular writings of authors such as Leo Tolstoy, Henry David Thoreauand John Ruskin. In turn it influenced the later movements for independence and civil rights, especially those led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and to a lesser extent Nelson Mandela.
  29. 29. Influence In appreciation of complexity of the Indian philosophy, T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys". Arthur Schopenhauer used Indian philosophy to improve upon Kantian thought. In the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation, Schopenhauer writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him“. The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by
  30. 30. India is the birthplace of two religions Hinduism and Buddhism
  31. 31. Hinduism Hinduism, also known by the name Sanatana- Dharma, is the dominant religion of the Indian subcontinent, which consists of many diverse traditions.It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs.
  32. 32. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world, and many practitioners refer to Hinduism as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way" beyond human origins. It prescribes the "eternal" duties all Hindus have to follow, regardless of class, caste, or sect, such as honesty, purity, and self-restraint.
  33. 33. Buddhism Buddhism is a nontheistic religion that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha, meaning "the awakened one"
  34. 34. According to Buddhist tradition, the Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. He is recognized by Buddhists as an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end their sufferingthrough the elimination of ignorance and craving by way of understanding and the seeing of dependent origination, with the ultimate goal of attainment of the sublime state of nirvana.
  35. 35. Two major branches of Buddhism are generally recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle"). Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar etc.). Mahayana is found throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan etc.) and includes the traditions of Pure Land, Zen, Nichiren Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, Shingon, and Tiantai (Tendai). In some classifications, Vajrayana—practiced mainly in Tibet and Mongolia, and adjacent parts of China and Russia—is recognized as a third branch, while others classify it as a part of Mahayana.
  36. 36. While Buddhism is practiced primarily in Asia, both major branches are now found throughout the world. Estimates of Buddhists worldwide vary significantly depending on the way Buddhist adherence is defined. Estimates range from 350 million to 1.6 billion, with 350–550 million the most widely accepted figure. Buddhism is also recognized as one of the fastest growing religions in the world.
  37. 37. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. The foundations of Buddhist tradition and practice are the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma(the teachings), and the Sangha (the community). Taking "refuge in the triple gem" has traditionally been a declaration and commitment to being on the Buddhist path, and in general distinguishes a Buddhist from a non- Buddhist.
  38. 38. Other practices may include following ethical precepts; support of the monastic community; renouncing conventional living and becoming a monastic; the development of mindfulnessand practice of meditation; cultivation of higher wisdom and discernment; study of scriptures; devotional practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas.
  39. 39. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Siddhartha Gautama Founder Buddhism Hinduism
  40. 40. Buddhism vs. Hinduism The Buddha is NOT a God Buddhism Relationship with God Hinduism Atman=the individual soul Brahman=the Supreme Creator
  41. 41. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Ending Human Sorrow and Suffering Nirvana Moksha- Enlightenment Goal of Life Buddhism Hinduism
  42. 42. Buddhism vs. Hinduism None The Vedas and Upanishads Sacred Texts Buddhism Hinduism
  43. 43. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Detachment from worldly life and rejection of desire (the chief cause of suffering) Attitude Toward the Material World Buddhism Hinduism
  44. 44. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Compassion, nonviolence towards all living things Attitude Toward Nonviolence Buddhism Hinduism
  45. 45. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Karma The Cycle of Rebirth Reincarnation Buddhism Hinduism
  46. 46. Buddhism vs. Hinduism Rejects the Caste System-all human beings can reach Nirvana as a result of their behavior in this life Division of human beings into strict social castes based on karma from previous life Caste System Buddhism Hinduism
  47. 47. Chinese Philosophy and Education The majority of traditional Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States eras, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments. Although much of Chinese philosophy begins in the Warring States period, elements of Chinese philosophy have existed for several thousand years;
  48. 48. some can be found in the Yi Jing (the Book of Changes), an ancient compendium of divination, which dates back to at least 672 BCE. It was during the Warring States era that the major philosophies of China, Confucianism,Mohism, Legalism, and Daoism, arose, along with philosophies that later fell into obscurity, like Agriculturalism, Chinese Naturalism, and the Logicians
  49. 49. Confucianism
  50. 50. Confucianism is an ethical and philosophical system, on occasion described as a religion, developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (孔夫子 Kǒng Fūzǐ, or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE). Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmologicaleleme nts in the Han Dynasty. Following the official abandonment of Legalism in China,
  51. 51. after the Qin Dynasty, Confucianism became the official state ideology of the Han. Nonetheless, from the Han period onwards, most Chinese emperors have used a mix of Legalism and Confucianism as their ruling doctrine. The disintegration of the Han in the second century CE opened the way for thesoteriological doctrines of Buddhism and Taoism to dominate intellectual life at that time.
  52. 52. Taoism
  53. 53. Taoism, or Daoism, is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimatelyineffable "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.
  54. 54. While Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the tenets of the School of Yin Yang, the Tao Te Ching, a compact and ambiguous book containing teachings attributed to Laozi (Chinese: 老子; pinyin: Lǎozǐ; Wade– Giles: Lao Tzu), is widely considered its keystone work. Together with the writings of Zhuangzi, these two texts build the philosophical foundation of Taoism. This philosophical Taoism, individualistic by nature, is not institutionalized..
  55. 55. Institutionalized forms, however, evolved over time in the shape of a number of different schools. Taoist schools traditionally feature reverence for Laozi, immortals or ancestors, along with a variety of divination and exorcism rituals, and practices for achieving ecstasy, longevity or immortality.
  56. 56. Taoist propriety and ethics may vary depending on the particular school, but in general tends to emphasize wu-wei (action through non- action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, a nd the Three Treasures: compassion, moderation, and humility.
  57. 57. Confucianism Taoism Place of origin China China Concept of Deity Most believe in One God. Most believe in numerous deities. Place of worship Temple. Temple, shrine.
  58. 58. Confucianism Taoism Scriptures Analects of Confucius and Mencius; I Ching; Doctrine of Mean, etc. Tao Te Ching; I Ching Practices Visit to temples to pay homage to Ti'en(God or Heaven), Confucius, and ancestors; To practice ('Jing zuo, ') Visit to shrines, to pay homage to Taoist deities; Tai Chi, etc.
  59. 59. Confucianism Taoism Life after death To be worshipped as ancestors. Taoists believe that the soul survives after death and has the ability to travel through space.
  60. 60. Confucianism Taoism Time of origin Approx. 550 B.C.E.(Before Common Era) Approx. 550 B.C.E (before common Era) Goal of religion To have a structured society. To be one with nature. Founder Kong Qiu (Confucius) Lao Tzu
  61. 61. Confucianism Taoism Socially inferior to men. generally equal, spoken of highly in the tao te ching (oldest taoist text) but varies among schools. Principle Confucianism all about the brotherhood of humanity. Taoists believe that life is good. Taoism lays emphasis on the body.
  62. 62. Confucianism Taoism Holy days/Official Holidays Chinese New Year, Teacher Day, Ancestor Day. Chinese New Year, 3 Day Festival of the Dead, Ancestor Day. Concept of God One God. Numerous deities. Human Nature Humans should respect those who are superior to them. Humans should just follow the Tao(or 'the Way').
  63. 63. Confucianism Taoism Belief of God One God. Ancestors also worshipped, though. Most follow numerous deities. Original Language(s) Mandarin or Cantonese Old Chinese Goal of Philosophy Social Harmony. To gain balance in life.
  64. 64. Confucianism Taoism Confucianism is both a religion and a philosophy of China, and of Asia as a whole. It stresses human conduct over belief in God. Taoism is both a religion and a philosophy of China, and of Asia as a whole. It stresses humanity's relationship with nature. View of the Buddha Buddha is followed by many Confucianists. Buddha is followed by many Taoists.
  65. 65. Confucianism Taoism Virtue(s) in which religion is based upon Respect. Contemplation Original Languages Mandarin or Cantonese Mandarin or Cantonese. Views on the afterlife To be worshipped by one's descendants and their families. The soul lives on.
  66. 66. Confucianism Taoism Views on other religion Sees no contraction in following more than one religion. Sees no contradiction in following more than one religion. Holy days Chinese New Year, Teacher Day, Ancestor Day. Chinese New Year, Three Day Festival of the Dead, Lantern Festival View of other Oriental religions Usually follows other Oriental religions, especially Taoism. Usually follows other Oriental religions, especially Confucianism.
  67. 67. Sources: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia SlideShare, Internet website
  68. 68. END…