Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Click here for a video playlist on Economic Sectors /GDP

Economic Sectors
...
How can industrial activity be classified?
There are many different types of industry. We can classify
industry into three...
Classification of industry

Source: Boardworks Educational Software
What is a quaternary industry?

There are also quaternary industries.
These industries incorporate a high
degree of resear...
The quaternary sector
Within the tertiary sector is the quaternary sector.
This has emerged in recent years and describes
...
Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Economic Sectors
Economic Sectors contribution to SA economy
How do global ...
Economics sectors contribution to the economy
The total contribution made by the Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary sectors t...
Analysis of South Africa’s GDP
Tertiary activities (67%)
SA’s banking and financial industry is world class
SA has become ...
Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Economic Sectors
Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy
Contributi...
Number of people employed in the various sectors
The % of people employed in the Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary sectors o...
How do global employment patterns vary?
The balance of jobs between the three categories in a particular
area or country i...
Interpreting graphs
Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Economic Sectors
Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy
How do glo...
How can industry be described as a system?
Think of industry as a cake-making process!
For a company to be profitable, the...
Industrial system for a clothing factory

Source: Boardworks Educational Software
Examination question

Study the photograph.
What type of industrial activity is taking place here?
Describe the links betw...
Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Economic Sectors
Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy
How do glo...
Links between different industries
Learning objectives

Structure of SA’s Economy
Economic Sectors
Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy
How do glo...
How do industries choose their location?
Deciding where to
locate an industry
requires weighing
up a large number
of facto...
Factors influencing location of industry

Source: Boardworks Educational Software
Location of different industries
Examination question
Study the diagram showing factors that are important for the
location of a manufacturing industry.
En...
Industry anagrams
Industry classification
1

2 Oil drilling

Study the photographs.
Categorize these industries under the
following headings...
Which sector?

Source: Boardworks Educational Software
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Structure of SA economy

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Grade 12 Economic Geography. SA curriculum. Structure of SA Economy.

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Structure of SA economy

  1. 1. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Click here for a video playlist on Economic Sectors /GDP Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy Contribution of employment to the SA economy How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  2. 2. How can industrial activity be classified? There are many different types of industry. We can classify industry into three main categories: Primary Secondary These industries extract raw materials directly from the earth or sea. These industries process and manufacture products from raw materials. Source: Boardworks Educational Software Tertiary These industries provide a service.
  3. 3. Classification of industry Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  4. 4. What is a quaternary industry? There are also quaternary industries. These industries incorporate a high degree of research and technology in their processes and employ highly qualified people. Biotechnology and computer programming are examples of quaternary industries. Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  5. 5. The quaternary sector Within the tertiary sector is the quaternary sector. This has emerged in recent years and describes businesses which provide information services, including: ICT services Consultancy Research and development Scientific research Financial planning How many different examples of quaternary sector businesses can you think of as a class?
  6. 6. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to SA economy How do global employment patterns vary? How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  7. 7. Economics sectors contribution to the economy The total contribution made by the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors to the South African economy in 2012: Economic Sector Primary Contribution to GDP (%) 11.8 Sub-sectors Agriculture Mining Secondary 21 Manufacturing Utilities (water, electricity) Construction Tertiary 67.2 Trade, retail and wholesale Transport and comms Finance and real estate Government services Personal services Contribution to sector (%) 2.4 9.4 17 72 23 14.2 8.4 21.6 16 6.9 100% The total annual contribution made by all these sectors to the economy is referred to as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
  8. 8. Analysis of South Africa’s GDP Tertiary activities (67%) SA’s banking and financial industry is world class SA has become an important location of call centres. Primary Activities (12%) Mining (9.4%) The mining and minerals sector remains a vital part of the economy. SA is the leading producer of platinum, vanadium, ferrochromium, uranium, lead and copper. The gold mining industry is in decline as production costs hit the marginal mines and as several mines reach the end of their production lives. Agriculture (2.4%) Secondary Activities 21% Manufacturing (13.8%) The metal and engineering industries dominate the manufacturing sector. SA also produces a range of quality manufactured goods clothing, furniture canned goods and tyres. The automotive industry is showing growth and domestic production is expected to increase with the new automotive production and development programme.. SA has the most modern and diverse agricultural sector in Africa. The country is a top producer of GM (genetically modified) crops, which has resulted in a reduction in the use of harmful insecticides. SA is the eighth largest producer of wine in the world. 2012 Statistics
  9. 9. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy Contribution of employment to SA economy? How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  10. 10. Number of people employed in the various sectors The % of people employed in the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors of the South African economy in 2012: Economic Sector Primary Contribution to GDP (%) 11.8 Sub-sectors Agriculture Mining Secondary 21 Manufacturing Utilities (water, electricity) Construction Tertiary 67.2 Trade, retail and wholesale Transport and comms Finance and real estate Government services Personal services Contribution to sector (%) 4.7 2.5 12.3 0.6 7.9 22.7 5.9 12.9 21.5 9.3 100% The total annual contribution made by all these sectors to the economy is referred to as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
  11. 11. How do global employment patterns vary? The balance of jobs between the three categories in a particular area or country is called the employment structure. Country South Africa Brazil Cameroon France India Italy Japan UK USA Primary (%) Secondary (%) 7.1 23 79 4 60 5 5 1 2 21,7 24 13 24 17 32 25 25 24 Tertiary (%) 71.2 53 17 72 23 63 70 74 74 A major reason for some changes in employment structure is mechanization – the use of machines to do jobs rather than people.
  12. 12. Interpreting graphs
  13. 13. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy How do global employment patterns vary? How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  14. 14. How can industry be described as a system? Think of industry as a cake-making process! For a company to be profitable, the value of the outputs must be greater than the cost of the inputs. PROCESSES INPUTS These can be These are the physical, human and activities that are economic inputs. involved. Source: Boardworks Educational Software OUTPUTS These are the finished products and any waste.
  15. 15. Industrial system for a clothing factory Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  16. 16. Examination question Study the photograph. What type of industrial activity is taking place here? Describe the links between secondary and tertiary industries. Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  17. 17. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy How do global employment patterns vary? How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  18. 18. Links between different industries
  19. 19. Learning objectives Structure of SA’s Economy Economic Sectors Economic Sectors contribution to the SA economy How do global employment patterns vary? How can industry be described as a system? What links exist between different industries? What factors influence the location of industry?
  20. 20. How do industries choose their location? Deciding where to locate an industry requires weighing up a large number of factors. The owner will want to locate at a site that will give the greatest profit.
  21. 21. Factors influencing location of industry Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  22. 22. Location of different industries
  23. 23. Examination question Study the diagram showing factors that are important for the location of a manufacturing industry. Energy Components Capital Transport Finished products What is manufacturing industry? Complete the missing boxes for inputs and outputs. What are ‘components’? Source: Boardworks Educational Software
  24. 24. Industry anagrams
  25. 25. Industry classification 1 2 Oil drilling Study the photographs. Categorize these industries under the following headings: primary, secondary and tertiary. Are any of these industries quaternary? 4 3 NAPP Pharmaceuticals Research 6 7 5
  26. 26. Which sector? Source: Boardworks Educational Software

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