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* Synthesize Gather Information IntegrateStrong academic writing most often requires the use ofsources to relay information beyond general knowledgeand to support your own ideas and conclusions. You willlearn to use sources correctly for effective engagementand to avoid plagiarism.
When you synthesize material– between one writer’s * Respond to sourcesopinions and another’s orbetween a writer’s ideas and * Connect sourcesyour own experiences – youdevelop new knowledge and * Develop your owncreate the material that will ideasinform the content of yourown writing. * See pages 410-413 LBBUse the following guidelineswhen synthesizing the ideasof others. *
As you read, be sure to * Take notes about mainassess and organize the ideasinformation in your * Keep accurate recordssources. This will help about how to findyou understand and sources and materialsynthesize the ideas. * Annotate as you read by underlining or highlighting important passages *
Once you have gathered * Summaryinformation and * Paraphrasesynthesized yoursources, it’s time to put * Direct Quotationthem to work!You’ll integrateinformation from yoursources in your ownessays to support yourideas and conclusions.There are three primaryways we do this: *
When you summarize, you When you paraphrase, you CONDENSE another writer’s restate the author’s idea in ideas or arguments into a few your own words keeping roughly sentences written in your OWN the same length. words. * You would summarize an * You would paraphrase a sentence or possibly a entire chapter, essay, or paragraph. You would NOT book. You would NOT paraphrase a chapter, essay, summarize a sentence. or book. *See pages 414-417 in LBB
* Only summarize what’s importantBe very careful with for the reader to know. Remember, the essays you write should besummarizing and focused on YOUR ideas; your sources’ ideas should be used onlyparaphrasing your for support and context.sources. * Be sure to put summaries and paraphrases in YOUR OWN WORDS. Using words or sentence structureYou should use direct that are too close to the original is considered plagiarism.quotation most often. * You must give credit for ALL uses of others’ ideas or words, includingWhen summarizing and when you summarize and paraphrase. We’ll learn how to doparaphrasing, follow this according to MLA guidelines.these tips: *
When you want to use another’s words exactly as they appear, you employ direct quotation. This indicates the exactness to readers. Most often, when using the ideas and research of others in your own writing, you will use direct quotation as support. *See pages 417-424 in LBB
* The language is bold or vivid * Only quote the words * The quotation is difficult to relevant to your point. You paraphrase without losing do not always need to quote meaning entire sentences * The quotation emphasizes * Use brackets to add words or explains the opinion of for clarity or to change an expert capitalization (see 348 and * The quotation reinforces 360 LBB) your own ideas * Use ellipsis marks to omit irrelevant material in the middle or at the end of aSee pages 418- sentence (see 345 LBB)419 in LBB and “Using * ALWAYS provide a citation Quotations” any time you use another Handout on writer’s words or ideas Blackboard
Direct quotations must be * Use commas with signalintegrated into the structure of phrases to indicate a quoteyour OWN sentences. Evidencedrawn from sources should * Ensure punctuation isBACK UP your own conclusions, placed properlynot BE your conclusions. * Format longer quotesThere are some rules andguidelines to learn to help youintegrate quotations:
Readers will have a difficult * Let’s look at an example…time following your points ifdirect quotations do not fitwithin a sentence of your own.When a quote is not integratedinto your own sentence, it iscalled HANGING or STAND-ALONE.To avoid this, use signal phrasesto indicate to readers that adirect quotation is coming.*Avoid Hanging/Stand-Alonequotations in all writing!
“Many teenagers are experiencing anxietyand academic problems due to internetaddiction” (Jones 2).*This quote is HANGING. We don’t know who said it, and theessay writer’s words do not appear in the sentence at all.How can we correct it?
Psychologist Bob Jones notes, “Manyteenagers are experiencing anxiety andacademic problems due to internetaddiction” (2).We add a signal phrase! The beginning section of this sentence,before the direct quotation, indicates to readers that a directquotation is coming. It also tells readers WHO said the words andeven provides some context for the speaker (he’s a psychologist).Signal phrases are the easiest way to ensure ALL direct quotations areintegrated. But we do want to avoid the “He said,” – “She said,”repetition. Check out page 421 of your LBB for a list of signalphrases you can use to integrate your quotes.
When a quotation runs more than four typed lines, you must useblock quote formatting. Maintain regular spacing but start yourquotation on a new line and indent one full inch from the leftmargin. You do NOT need quotation marks with a block quotation,and punctuation precedes the citation.See page 481 in your LB Brief for an example. *
There are several punctuation and formattingrules that apply when using direct quotations.Let’s take a look at the most common ones. *
* Commas and periods should appear INSIDE quotation marks * Example: “There isn’t enough time in the world to learn every grammar rule,” the student said.* Periods appear INSIDE quotation marks * The essay is titled “Learning about Grammar.”* UNLESS the period is following a citation, in which case the period ALWAYS follows the citation * Smith argues, “Grammar is fundamental to effective communication” (24). * NOTE: Periods NEVER appear before AND after a citation. There’s always only ONE period* Sometimes, though, you WILL have two punctuation marks: when your quote contains a question mark (?) or exclamation point (!), you will use that mark and also follow your citation with a period * The student cried, “All this grammar is giving me a headache!” (Jones 3).
*See pages 410-424 in LLB to review the information covered in this Powerpoint*See pages 338-342 in LLB for punctuation rules with quotation marks*See the “MLA Citation and Formatting” Powerpoint for more information on citations*See the using quotations handout for a printable tips list to use while writing*