The Need for Clean Air in K-12 Classrooms
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  • Decline from 1st to 4th period due to seasonal flu.
    Significant decline in School A due to lower ventilation rate

Transcript

  • 1. The Importance of IAQ The Need for Clean Air in Classrooms Gerald (Jerry) Lamping Director for IAQ (Retired) Green Classroom Professional USGBC June 25, 2014 Boerne, Texas
  • 2. What is a Green School ? A Green School has Clean Air Green Schools National Network A Green School enhances student health and learning while conserving natural resources and empowering students to develop sustainable behaviors, enabling them to become the stewards of the future. The Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) We want all schools to be: Healthy, Comfortable, Energy Efficient, Material Efficient, Easy to Maintain and Operate, Commissioned, Environmentally Responsive Site, A Building That Teaches, Safe and Secure, Community Resource, Stimulating Architecture, and Adaptable to Changing Needs. The U.S. Green Building Council Green schools are healthier for students and teachers, better for the environment, and cost less to operate and maintain. The Environmental Protection Agency (Tools for Schools) Green schools promote a healthy learning environment to reduce absenteeism, improve test scores and enhance student and staff productivity. U.S. Department of Education's Green Ribbon Schools Green schools can help children build real-world skill sets, cut school costs and provide healthy learning environments.
  • 3. Costs for Student Absences 12% of U.S. School Children are chronically absent and miss 1 out of every 10 school days* * TIME Magazine September 17, 2012 issue One missed student day costs local school district in TX state aid  $32 Average Daily Attendance (ADA) Rates State wide ADA in 2009-2010 95.5% Keller ISD ADA 97.0% Boerne ISD ADA 96.0% North East ISD ADA 96.1%
  • 4. $$$ for Student Absences Central Texas public schools districts missed out on $91 million and Bexar Co. public school districts missed out on $642 million in state daily attendance funding http://missingschoolmatters.org/
  • 5. EPA’s Health Effects Pyramid Classroom air should be at lowest contamination level
  • 6. Effects of airborne toxicants during childrens’ lung development • Exposure to toxicants during lung development has the potential to affect the overall growth and function of the respiratory system in infants and children and can impact the risk for developing adult lung disease. • Exposures during different stages of childhood may result in different adult disease presentations depending on the stage of maturation of the lung. • These “windows of susceptibility” can affect the lungs and airways and result in consequences through the lifetime. Soto-Martinez M and Sly PD, Chronic Respiratory Disease, 2010. Pinkerton KE and Joad JP, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 2006.
  • 7. Health Effects of Unclean Air • Unclean Air can commonly trigger an acute asthma exacerbation that may be severe enough to lead to hospitalization, and in some cases, death. – Most common triggers include tobacco smoke, dust mites, cockroach allergens, pets, and outdoor air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and Ozone. – Illnesses, such as respiratory viruses (influenza, colds and respiratory syncytial virus), sinus infections and allergies may also cause asthma symptoms. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatric Environmental Health, 2012. Kampa M and Castanas E, Environmental Pollution, 2008. See also the “Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma” module in CEHN’s Pediatric Training Resource
  • 8. Other health effects of Unclean Air 1. Aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease*; 2. Decreased lung function*; 3. Increased frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms*; 4. Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections*; 5. Effects on the nervous system¥ ; 6. Cancer¥ ; 7. Premature death ¥ American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatric Environmental Health, 2012. Kampa M and Castanas E, Environmental Pollution, 2008. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/3_90_022.html (Accessed 08/19/2013) *Effects likely to occur in childhood and adulthood ¥ Effects likely to occur in adulthood, but associated with exposures in childhood
  • 9. . Better Classroom Ventilation Means Fewer Absences Association of classroom ventilation with reduced illness absence: Mark Mendell, Ekaterina Eliseeva, Molly Davies, Michael Spears, Agnes Lobscheid, William Fisk, et al Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), Indoor Environment Department of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/sfrb.html Research Shows the Absenteeism Benefits of Clean Air Desired level 1000 ppm > 7.10 l/s/p (15 cfm/p) 1 l/s of Clean Air reduces absences by 1.6% yet most classrooms have unacceptable CO2 levels due to high energy costs.
  • 10. For every 1 l/s per person increase in the Clean Air rate, the proportion of students passing standardized test (i.e., scoring satisfactory or above) is expected to increase by 2.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.8%) for math, 2.7% (0.5–4.9%) for reading. Sources: Dr. Richard Shaughnessy, Indoor Air Program, Uni. of Tulsa Dr. P. Wargocki, International Centre for Indoor Environments, Uni. of Denmark Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB), Indoor Environment Department of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/sfrb.html Research Shows the Test Score Benefits of Clean Air
  • 11. Outside Air Is Not Always Clean NAAQS Contaminants Particle Matter – PM10, – PM2.5 , – UFPM, – Nano-PM Ozone; Hot & Sunny Days Water Vapor in Hot and Humid Climates Other Gases; Sewer, Boiler Gas, Industrial Chemical and Biological Threats; Pranksters Source: ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Source: www.airnow.gov
  • 12. EPA’s Air Quality Index http://airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=aqibasics.aqi (Accessed 08/19/2013)
  • 13. “State of the Air - 2014” Half of U.S. Live with Unclean Air http://www.lung.org/about-us/our-impact/top-stories/state-of-the-air-2014-top-story.html • Nearly half of the people in the United States (147.6 million) live in counties with unhealthy levels of either ozone or particle pollution. • More than 27.8 million people (8.9%) in the United States live in 17 counties with unhealthful levels of all pollutants measured in the report.  • Twenty-two of the 25 most ozone-polluted cities in the 2014 report – including Los Angeles, New York City, and Chicago – had more high ozone days on average when compared to the 2013 report.
  • 14. Sources of Exposure Distribution of national total emission estimates by source for specific pollutants, 2010. http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011/graphics/figure02.gif (Accessed 08/19/2013)
  • 15. People Living in NAAQS Non–Attainment Areas http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011/graphics/figure01.gif (Accessed 08/19/2013)
  • 16. Estimated Lifetime Cancer Risks http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata2005/ (Accessed 08/19/2013) The National-Scale Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) assesses ambient levels, inhalation exposures, and health risks associated with 177 toxic air pollutants and diesel particulate. The figure shows the estimated lifetime risk for cancer across the continental US by census using 2005 NATA model estimates. The national average of cancer risk in 2005 was 50 in a million with many urban areas and transportation corridors above the national average.
  • 17. AQI Values Greater than 100 Number of days on which AQI values were greater than 100 during 2002-2010 in selected cities http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011/graphics/figure06.gif
  • 18. One in 10 Children Attend Schools Near Chemical Plants • Nearly 4.6 million children in 10,000 schools are located within a mile of a chemical facility • The Center for Effective Government studied the EPA’s Risk Management Program and said these chemicals can be dangerous to the public if they are spilled, released into the air, or are involved in an explosion. http://tesla.foreffectivegov.org/RMPOne/bin-release/
  • 19. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nata2005/ Estimated Respiratory Hazards The National-Scale Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) assesses ambient levels, inhalation exposures, and health risks associated with 177 toxic air pollutants and diesel particulate. NATA estimates risks from breathing air toxics that are emitted from large and small industrial sources, and from mobile sources such as cars, trucks and construction equipment
  • 20. Who’s in Danger http://comingcleaninc.org/whats-new/whos-in-danger-report More than 134 million Americans live in the danger zones around 3,433 facilities in several common industries that store or use highly hazardous chemicals.
  • 21. USA Today and EPA Project: Assessing Outdoor Air Near Schools The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America's Schools What might be in the air outside your school? • The air outside 435 other schools — from Maine to California — appears to be even worse, and the threats to the health of students at those locations may be even greater. The 435 schools that ranked worst weren't confined to industrial centers. Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania had the highest numbers, but the worst schools extended from the East Coast to the West, in 170 cities across 34 states, USA TODAY found. • At thousands of locations, the model used by USA TODAY indicated that the air outside schools appeared far more toxic than the air in the neighborhoods where the kids lived. At 16,500 schools, the air outside appeared at least twice as toxic as the air at a typical location in the school district. 01/13/09 http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/smokestack/methodology www.epa.gov/schoolair/index.html
  • 22. Outside Air Tests Reveal Elevated Levels of Toxics Around Schools • Using the government's most up-to-date model for tracking toxic chemicals, USA TODAY spent eight months examining the impact of industrial pollution on the air outside schools across the nation. • The result: a ranking of 127,800 public, private and parochial schools based on the concentrations and health hazards of chemicals likely to be in the air outside. • The potential problems that emerged were widespread, insidious and largely unaddressed http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/smokestack/methodology www.epa.gov/schoolair/index.html
  • 23. Schools Near Major HighwaysNear-roadway Health Concerns • Over the last decade, hundreds of studies published on the health of populations living near major roads – Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children – New onset asthma – Cardiovascular disease – Premature mortality – Neurodevelopmental delays – Birth outcomes – Cancer • In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended siting schools and child care facilities away from high-traffic roadways • This year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a new national public health objective for “Healthy People 2020” – Decrease the number of new schools sited within 500 feet of a freeway or other busy traffic corridors Source: Traffic-Related Air Pollution: A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects, Special Report 17 Health Effects Institute Boston, Massachusetts
  • 24. School Locations Near Major Highways U.S. Public Schools in ‘Air Pollution Danger Zone’ • The University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers have found that more than 30 percent of American public schools are within 400 meters, or a quarter mile, of major highways that consistently serve as main truck and traffic routes. • Research has shown that proximity to major highways— and thus environmental pollutants, such as aerosolizing diesel exhaust particles— can leave school-age children more susceptible to respiratory diseases later in life. Proximal exposure of public schools and students to major roadways: a nationwide US survey Alexandra S. Appatova; Patrick H. Ryan; Grace K. LeMasters; Sergey A. Grinshpun: Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management,51:5, 631 — 646, 01 September 2008
  • 25. School Locations Near Major Highways One recent research study revealed a significant 24% increase in the risk of experiencing multiple emergency department contacts for asthma for every log-unit of traffic exposure. Another study found pronounced deficits in attained lung function at age 18 years were recorded for those living within 500 m of a freeway Use of a total traffic count metric to investigate the impact of roadways on asthma severity: a case-control study Cook et al. Environmental Health 2011, 10:52 http://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/52 Yifang Zhu, William C Hinds, Seongheon Kim, Si Shen, Constantinos Sioutas, Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway with heavy-duty diesel traffic Atmospheric Environment, Volume 36, Issue 27, September 2002, Pages 4323-4335 http://www.epa.gov/ncer/reports/r827352C006fr.pdfEffect of exposure to traffic on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age: a cohort study W James Gauderman et al http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PII S0140-6736(07)60037-3/abstract
  • 26. Breathing effects ones health and ability to learn In one day…. take 20,000 breaths = 35 pounds = 3,400 gallons = 450 cubic feet
  • 27. Breathe in 20 billion particles • Consists of • dust and combustion particles, • volatile organic compounds, • irritants and toxins, • allergens and asthmagens, and • microbial life • The nose traps and filters up to 70 % of these particles. • Particles are too small to be trapped by the nose enter the airway. Over the course of the day…
  • 28. Air particulate exposure and air pollutants exert adverse effects directly on the lungs and heart causing • respiratory conditions, • asthma symptoms, • acute bronchitis, • cardiovascular conditions, • blood pressure increases • atherosclerosis. Calderón-Garcidueñas Effects of Inhalation of Airborne Contaminants Recent research studies suggest that inhaled ultrafine particles may be capable of entering the brain in children which then effects their ability to learn
  • 29. The 3 P’s of Indoor Air Quality PEOPLE PATHWAYS POLLUTANTS
  • 30. Pathway from built environment to health effects (adapted from Mitchell CS, Hodgson MJ, unpublished data). Source: F. Wu, D. Jacobs, et al, Improving Indoor Environmental Quality for Public Health: Impediments and Policy Recommendations, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115 June 2007 Pathways
  • 31. Society of Indoor Air Quality: Protect Against Outdoor Pollutants William W Nazaroff, Ph.D. of UC Berkeley states that the two pollutant classes of greatest health significance coming into the indoor air from the outdoor air are fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone. There are mature air filtering and air cleaning technologies available for removing both pollutant classes from air streams. Indoor Air 2013 vol. 23 William J. Fisk of LBNL concludes that ‘the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air’. Indoor Air 2013 Vol. 23 Charles J. Weschler, Ph.D. of EOSHI notes that a substantial proportion (25–60%) of daily ozone intake occurs indoors and that activated carbon or chemically impregnated filters could be used to control ozone in mechanically ventilated buildings. Environ. Health Perspectives Vol. 114 2006
  • 32. 3 Ways to Provide Clean Air into Classrooms • Natural Ventilation Injection and Dilution • Mechanical Ventilation Injection and Dilution • Filtration and Air Cleaning Re-circulation
  • 33. ASHRAE Standard for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, 62.1 Since 1973, Standard 62 has been the primary Clean Air and Ventilation document: 1) reduce indoor contaminant sources 2) prescribe minimum outdoor airflow rates for listed occupancy categories. 3) The standard allows three alternative ventilation approaches. Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) Natural Ventilation Procedure (NVP)
  • 34. • Fan energy is required to force outside air into the school building • Fan energy is required to exhaust air from the school building, • Thermal energy is required to cool, heat and dehumidify outside to indoor comfort conditions • Energy Cost is about $1.50/Cubic Feet/Minute Source: J. Dieckmann, et al, “Air Purification to Reduce Outside Air”, ASHRAE Journal April, 2009, pps 68-70 Ventilation with Outside Air Energy Penalty
  • 35. Filtration and Air Cleaning for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Filtration and Air Cleaning (FAC) Comments BY H.E. BARNEY BURROUGHS, PRESIDENTIAL MEMBER/FELLOW ASHRAE, “The focus on the indoor environment and related human health effects include Respirable Particulates, VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and “Toxic” Mold.” “FAC is a mature 70+ year old technology from the prior century, but the technology has unique and established advantages and has proven potential to offer as the HVAC industry faces the challenges of the second decade of the 21st century.”
  • 36. ASHRAE Journal ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  • 37. ASHRAE President 2013-14 ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013 WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, PH.D., P.E Presidential theme, Shaping the Next, focuses on creating positive change for our world, ourselves, and our work by setting goals, making realistic plans to achieve them, and having the commitment to follow them.
  • 38. Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality Fundamentals “the most important aspect of what I consider to be our fundamental obligation to strive to provide indoor environments that are safe, healthy, productive, and comfortable while conserving resources and the environment.” WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, PH.D., P.E ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  • 39. Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality Goal “Perhaps most importantly, a critical shift in thinking from a goal of indoor environments that are acceptable to the occupants to that are truly healthy and productive.” WILLIAM P. BAHNFLETH, PH.D., P.E ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  • 40. Shaping the Next Indoor Air Quality, Future DENNIS STANKE - staff applications engineer at Trane - Ingersoll Rand “In the future, architects and designers may specify better air-cleaning devices to remove both indoor and outdoor source contaminants.” ASHRAE Journal, vol. 55, no. 8, August 2013
  • 41. Air Quality and Current Clean Air Standards Air Quality Standards are applied •Outdoor Air, EPA NAAQS at www.airnow.gov •Air Plane Cabins, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 161-2007, Air Quality within Commercial Aircraft •Computer and electronics facilities, ISO 14644 Parts 1 and 2 •Nuclear facilities, No. NS-G-2.2 Operational Limits and Conditions and Operating Procedures for NPPs •Pharmaceutical facilities ISO 8573-1:2010 Compressed Air Contaminants and Purity Classes •Commercial/Instructional facilities CO2 level 700 ppm above BG
  • 42. Current USA Filtration Practice ASHRAE 62.1-2013 MERV 8 before coil USGBC LEED V4 MERV 11 Normal MERV 13 Enhanced CHPS Core Criterion MERV 11 Normal MERV 13 Enhanced Only one level of particle filtration and no level of gas phase filtration for all HVAC systems
  • 43. European Union Filtration Law 3 Levels of Outside Air Quality - 4 Levels of Indoor Air Quality Gas Phase Filters required in polluted areas for Clean Indoor air http://www.freedom2choose.info/docs/EC_Standard_For_Ventilation.pdf
  • 44. Air Filters for Particle Matter
  • 45. The 3 I’s of Clean Air that can affect health and attendance 1. Invisible Particles Aerosols Levels in the classroom Airborne particles have the potential to cause allergic reactions, skin irritation, coughing, sneezing, respiratory difficulties and circulatory system problems. 2. Irritant Gases Ventilation Practices for the classroom Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde, body odors, and biological contaminants are causes for occupant discomfort and poor health outcomes. 3. Infectious Microbes Cold/Flu Virus Transmission Paths in the classroom Bacterial and Viral respiratory tract infections, particularly of rhinoviruses, are associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Invisible particles + Irritants + Infections = Inflammation process
  • 46. Sources of the 3 I’s • Outside Air for Ventilation • Toxic Gases • Airborne Microbes • EPA NAAQS Pollutants • Occupants • Acetone • Ammonia • Hydrogen Sulfide • Infectious Microbes • Building Materials & Processes • Formaldehyde • Total Volatile Organic Compounds • Asbestos and Lead • Infiltration from open penetrations • Atmosphere Dust • Combustion Gases • Airborne Microbes • Animal borne Microbes
  • 47. Clean Air Must have Low Levels of Invisible Particles Invisible particles
  • 48. Invisible Particle Size Relationships
  • 49. • Animal dander • Household dust • Insect parts • Pollen • Pesticides • Combustion by-products • Microbes • Common Reservoirs: – Carpets, pillows, couches, stuffed animals Invisible Particles In Dust
  • 50. Invisible Particle Health Effects Source: Pope and Dockery, 2006 http://www.noaca.org/pmhealtheffects.pdf
  • 51. Health Effects Of Sub Micron Sized Particulate Matter (PM) • Pulmonary inflammation initiating a systemic response; • Translocation of UFPM into the blood circulation, leading to interaction with endothelium and white blood cells; • Distribution to extra pulmonary organs (e.g., liver, heart) thereby inducing vascular effects and cardiac events; • Translocation of UFPM along sensory neuronal pathways to the CNS causing inflammation, and activation of irritant receptors in the conducting airways affecting input to the automonic nervous system. Source: Assessment of Ambient UFP Health Effects:Linking Sources to Exposure and Responses in Extrapulmonary Organs : 2010 Grant EPA R827354, Günter Oberdörster et al, University of Rochester; EPA PM Research Center
  • 52. Research Finds That Particle Size & Quantity Matters • An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor course particle pollution, there is a 6 % increase in the number of days of cough, wheeze, or chest tightness in asthmatic children. • An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor fine particle pollution, there is a 7 % increase in days of wheezing severe enough to limit speech. Source: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine February 2009
  • 53. A decrease of 10 micrograms per cubic meter of fine particle air pollution results in an – increase in life expectancy of 0.7 years – in a 10% decrease in the risk of premature death Sources: Harvard School of Public Health, Jan. 2009 American Lung Association, Highlight of recent Research on Particulate Air Pollution: Effects of Long Term Exposure, www.lungusa.org Oct. 2008 Research Shows The Effects of Fine Particles
  • 54. Typical San Antonio Day AQI 30 10 µg/m3 Air Quality Health Alert Day in San Antonio AQI 108 40 µg/m3 Outside Air in San Antonio
  • 55. EPA PM Standard For long-term effects of fine PM (PM2.5 ), EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) recommended the primary health standard be tightened from a current annual average of 15 µg/m3 to somewhere in the range of 11–13 µg/m3 . The EPA’s new standard 12 µg/m3 annual mean With an annual standard of 12 µg/m3 , the EPA estimates the annual health benefits are $2.3–5.9 billion, with costs of $69 million. About 30% of the U.S. population lives in the 191 counties or parts of counties designated as “nonattainment” for the current annual PM2.5 standard. Weinhold B 2012. EPA Proposes Tighter Particulate Air Pollution Standards. Environ Health Perspect 120:a348-a349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.120-a348a http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.120-a348a#r3 http://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/SickOfSoot.pdf
  • 56. Schools Located Near Major Highway (Keck School of Med.) Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School By Rob McConnell, et al •Results indicate that children exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution at school and home are at increased risk of developing asthma. •Almost 10% of public schools in California are located within 150 m of roadways with >25,000 vehicles daily. •Students in urban areas in eastern U.S. cities are even more likely … to attend schools near major highways. •And one in three US public schools is within about 1,300 feet, or a quarter mile, from a major highway. • Environmental Health Perspectives • volume 118 | number 7 | July 2010
  • 57. Schools Located Near Major Highway (UPTECH) Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions & Children's Health (UPTECH) •Queensland University of Technology (QUT) •International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) •University of Cincinnati, USA •University of Cassino, Cassino, Italy •National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, NZ The project seeks to determine the effect of the exposure to airborne nano and ultrafine (UF) particles emitted from motor vehicles on the health of children in schools. http://www.ilaqh.qut.edu.au/Misc/UPTECH%20Home.htm
  • 58. Schools Located Near Major Highway (UPTECH) Preliminary findings from AU, IT and NZ • Concentrations at urban schools scale are higher due to traffic. • Building lowers the particle concentration experienced by children in the schools. • A 30% indoor spatial variation in concentration at schools facing a trafficked street • Indoor PN concentrations were strongly influenced by outdoor levels and were significantly higher during rush-hours (up to 41%) http://www.ilaqh.qut.edu.au/Misc/UPTECH%20Home.htm
  • 59. Improve Air Filtration Install PM Filters with ASHRAE Rating of MERV 8 to MERV 13 or employ Polarized Media Devices Reduce Classroom Clutter and Furnishings Airborne Particle Counts Actual Air Particle Reduction Methods
  • 60. Portable Hand Held Particle Counter Needed to Measure PM Levels in Classrooms Six Channels of Particle Sizes from .3 to 10 Micrometers in diameter
  • 61. http://www.rimbach.com/cgi-bin/Article/IHN/Number.idc?Number=118 Cleanrooms are required for manufacturing of electronics, drugs, food and beverage plants Need a Clean Air Room Standard for Classrooms at Class 6 Computers Medicines Classrooms Outside Air Data Centers Entry Rooms ISO 14644-1 Medical Devices Semiconductors Meat Processing Clean Air Room PM Standard
  • 62. Actual Experience in Removing Invisible Particles From Classrooms Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost- effective by Pawel Wargocki and David P. Wyon, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132312002727 ASHRAE Research Project RP 1257
  • 63. Actual Experience in Removing Invisible Particles From Classrooms Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective by Pawel Wargocki and David P. Wyon, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132312002727 Particle SizeOutside Air Injection Rate Particles Per cm3 Without air filter operation With air filter operation ASHRAE Research Project RP 1257
  • 64. Particles In Classrooms 2,895 13,735 2,118 181 7,396 5,127 663 169,339 167 670 3,367 6,512 187,836 9,779 203,028 260,521 120,352 1,663,402 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Particle Size, Micromenter Part./CuFt Ten fold decease in Fine Particles after Air Cleaning in Room After Air Cleaning Before Air Cleaning Actual Experience in Removing Invisible Particles From Classrooms
  • 65. Fine Particle Levels after Construction Activities Visual Airborne Fine Particle Contamination in Main Entrance Hallway after Completion of Construction and at the Opening of the School
  • 66. Portable Air Filtration Device Portable Air Filter/Scrubber removed fine particles from over 3 million particles per cubic foot to less than 1 million particles per cubic foot and cleaned the indoor hallway air to an acceptable level
  • 67. Actual Experience Shows Benefits of Air Cleaning to remove Invisible Particles from Classrooms • Teachers report less problems with sore and scratchy throats, runny eyes, and loss of voice during the school day • Students report less symptoms of respiratory illness and asthmatic experience less breathing problems requiring use of reliever medication http://www.neisd.net/athletics/PE/documents/DetectingAerosolsPPP.pdf
  • 68. Actual Experience Shows Benefits of Clean Air Program in Schools “In North East ISD of nearly 70,000 schoolchildren, there were an extraordinary 9,000 trips to school nurses during the first six weeks of classes before the environmental intervention program began. The next year, school nurse visits dropped like a rock to half as many during the same period” Diane Rhodes, Asthma Educator Allergy & Asthma Today vol 9 no 3, 2011 Comparison of Inhalers/Nebulizers 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Aug/sept Inhalers 2006-2007 Inhalers 2007-2008 Nebulizers 2006-2007 Nebulizers 2007-2008 Results of student Inhaler /Nebulizer Usage after initiating ‘Tips for a Healthy Classroom’ and ‘Asthma Trigger Education’ began being communicated to staff. Data comes from the time period of first six weeks of school which is when ‘most problematic’ allergy seasons are dormant. from North East ISD Department of Environmental Health “A significant increase in hospital admissions for asthma (20% to 300%) was associated with school return after each break. The strongest associations were observed following summer vacation and for children age 5 to 11 years.” by Shao Lin, Rena Jones, Xiu Liu, Syni-An Hwang, Impact of the Return to School on Childhood Asthma Burden in New York State International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol 17, No 1 (2011)
  • 69. Clean Air Must Have Low Levels of Irritant Gases Irritant Gases
  • 70. VOC Sources
  • 71. Sources of Irritant Gases http://www.ehs.utoronto.ca/resources/HSGuide/Scent.htm http://www.yorku.ca/dohs/doc/GuidelinesNotices/ScentedProducts/scentedproduct.pdf CLEAN AIR ROOMS Allergy Friendly Rooms Scented Products Use RulesMany chemicals contained in scented products are known to be respiratory irritants. Even at very low concentration levels, they can trigger a wide range of adverse, and sometimes severe, physical responses in individuals with respiratory sensitivities. For example, affected individuals can experience asthmatic reactions, such as difficulty breathing, excessive coughing, irritated eyes and nose, etc. Other responses could include migraine headaches, itchy, sore skin, tingling body parts, rashes, severe headaches, nausea, dizziness and shortness of breath. When exposure is indoors, the impact is magnified.
  • 72. Sources of Irritant Gases Entrainment of Irritant Gases Sewer vent gases and boiler combustion vent gases are entrained with the outside air with the intake hoods are located too close on the roof
  • 73. Infiltration From Open Building Penetrations Infiltration From Unsealed Penetrations are a Source of Outside Air Contaminants after Construction Contaminated air flows through unsealed penetrations for pipe, conduit and duct into the return air conveyance system of HVAC
  • 74. Research Shows the Health Effects of Unclean Air with Irritant Gases The research study data available suggests that • indicators of inflammation, • rates of communicable respiratory infections, • frequency of asthma symptoms and • rates of short-term sick leave increase with higher levels of unclean air in the building environments studied “Ventilation rates and health: multidisciplinary review of the scientific literature” by J. Sundell, H. Levin, W. W. Nazaroff, W. S. Cain, W. J. Fisk, D. T. Grimsrud, F. Gyntelberg, Y. Li, A. K. Persily, A. C. Pickering, J. M. Samet, J. D. Spengler, S. T. Taylor, C. J. Weschler 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S, INDOOR AIR
  • 75. School A and School B Used Std 62.1’s Ventilation Procedure and CO2 Demand Controlled Ventilation for OA Damper Operations Used Std 62.1’s IAQ Procedure and two stage Particulate and Gas Phase Filtration with constant OA flow Case Study: School A had higher levels of unclean air than School B due to lower air flow (CFM)
  • 76. Actual Experience Shows Health Benefits of Clean Air in Schools The 93 asthmatic students at School A were requesting their PRN inhaler at 2 to 3 times more than the 102 asthmatic students at School B 3 8 13 12 28 10 16 23 20 11 60 30 43 21 71 21 94 43 47 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 Total PRN per Month Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May Month Since Opened PRN Inhaler Use since School Opening School A School B School A had low air flow rates
  • 77. Actual Experience Shows Test Score Benefits of Clean Air in Schools School B had higher percentages (up to 4% higher) of students passing reading, writing and mathematics sections. School B had 11% and 16% more students than School A obtaining the Commended Level on the reading and mathematics tests (students correctly answered 90% or better of the TAKS questions). 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 PercentMet StandardR e a d in g /E L A W ritin g M a th e m a tic s S c ie n c e C o m m . R e a d in g C o m m . M a th . Subject Area 2011 TAKS Tests Results School B School A School A had low air flow rates
  • 78. VolatileVolatile Organic CompoundsOrganic Compounds (VOC) in Perspective(VOC) in Perspective • Volatile Organic Compounds = VOCsVolatile Organic Compounds = VOCs = Odors & Irritants &Toxicity= Odors & Irritants &Toxicity – Many sources include microbial life formsMany sources include microbial life forms • Too small to remove through regular filtrationToo small to remove through regular filtration – Many under 0.001 micronMany under 0.001 micron – Removed by adsorption with carbon or otherRemoved by adsorption with carbon or other adsorbent material in gas phase filtersadsorbent material in gas phase filters – Removed by capture with ultra fine particles inRemoved by capture with ultra fine particles in ppolarized media filtration devicesolarized media filtration devices – Measurable with portable handheld devicesMeasurable with portable handheld devices Portable Hand Held Meter Needed to Measure VOC Levels in Classrooms
  • 79. Asthma Risk and VOC Level Source: Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children, K Rumchev , J Spickett, M Bulsara, M Phillips, and S Stick http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1747137/?tool=pubmed For every 10 unit increase in the concentration of toluene and benzene (µg/m3 ) the risk of having asthma increased by almost two and three times, respectively.
  • 80. Source: http://www.ewg.org/files/2009/10/school-cleaners/EWGschoolcleaningsupplies.pdf Research Shows the Benefits of Removing VOC’s Ten fold decease in Total VOCs after Green Cleaning in Room
  • 81. • North East ISD reported a savings of 30% in Custodial costs and a reduction of 25% in Sick Days among Custodial and Maintenance team • Lockport Township High School, in Lockport, Ill., reported a 3% increase in the average daily attendance after the first year of implementing an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management plan). Actual Experience Shows Benefits of Removing VOC’s http://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/programs/gcs/success.php http://www.cleaningforhealthyschools.org/documents/FAQs.pdf http://media.cefpi.org/southern/EPA_GreenCleaning.pdf
  • 82. Benefits of Applying ASHRAE’s 62.1 IAQ Procedure and Filtration and Air Cleaning The IAQ Procedure in ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 may be used to determine outdoor air ventilation rates. The IAQ Procedure requires the building and its ventilation system to be designed to achieve both objective and subjective criteria. – Identify contaminants of concern; – Determine acceptable contaminant concentrations; – Specify the perceived indoor air quality criteria; – Apply an acceptable design approach to achieve the performance criteria.
  • 83. • Media is a combination of activated carbon, and an activated alumina substrate impregnated with sodium permanganate. • By using these media in combination, the removal of most irritant gases is achieved. Filtration and Air Cleaning with Gas Phase Filtration Media Air Cleaning in Practice – School Sustainability and Commercial Building Field Study Results http://www.purafil.com/PDFs/Technical%20Papers/Commercial/Air%20Cleaning%20in%20Practice%20(IAQA%202009).pdf
  • 84. -+ Grounded screens +7,000 vdc applied to center screen7,000 vdc applied to center screen Polarized media fibersPolarized media fibers + + + + + + + + + + + + + + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + _ + -++ _ - + _ -+ Passive fiberPassive fiber Loading CharacteristicsLoading Characteristics Polarized fiberPolarized fiber Electrostatic attraction & AgglomerationElectrostatic attraction & Agglomeration Ability to collect particles < 0.3 MicronsAbility to collect particles < 0.3 Microns Filtration and Air Cleaning with Polarized Media Filtration DevicesPolarized Media Filtration Devices
  • 85. Filtration and Air Cleaning with a Living Green Wall as a Biofilter http://www.suzukipublicschool.ca/building-features.html http://www.hpbmagazine.org/case-studies/educational/dr--david-suzuki-public-school-windsor-ontario-canada Living Walls break down airborne VOCs, through the process of bio-filtration. In controlled laboratory studies, a system removed up to 90% of VOCs in a single pass. http://www.naturaire.com/function
  • 86. Table 1 Model the Classrooms using CONTAM airflow and contaminant transport analysis software
  • 87. • Contaminants Considered in IAQP Modeling – Building • Formaldehyde • TVOC – Occupants • acetone • ammonia • hydrogen sulfide • methyl alcohol • phenol – Outdoor Air • carbon monoxide • nitrogen dioxide • ozone • sulfur dioxide Air Contaminants of Concern
  • 88. IAQP Contaminant Modeling Contaminant Concentration mg/m3 [ppm] formaldehyde 0.12 [0.098] TVOC 1.0 acetone 7 [3] ammonia 0.5 [0.7] hydrogen sulfide 0.042 [0.030] methyl alcohol 1.5 [1.2] phenol 0.1 [0.03] • Target Concentration Limits used in analyzing results (continued) Contaminant Concentration mg/m3 [ppm] carbon monoxide 10 [9] nitrogen dioxide 0.10 [0.053] ozone 0.16 [0.08] sulfur dioxide 0.079 [0.03]
  • 89. Table 2 Calculate your airflow rates for each ASHRAE 62.1 Procedure
  • 90. Table 3 Calculate the % of the Limit for each Contaminant of Concern
  • 91. IAQP Contaminant Modeling • Example of Results – Minimum Supply – All contaminants were less than target limits % of Target Limit @ Min Supply 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% C6H5OH HCHO NH3 NO2 classroom corridor Chemical Formulas C6H5OH: phenol HCHO: formaldehyde NH3: ammonia NO2: nitrogen dioxide
  • 92. IAQP Contaminant Modeling • Example of Results – Maximum Supply – All contaminants were less than target limits % of Target Limit @ Max Supply 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% C6H5OH HCHO NH3 NO2 classroom corridor Chemical Formulas C6H5OH: phenol HCHO: formaldehyde NH3: ammonia NO2: nitrogen dioxide
  • 93. Table 4 Calculate the energy savings by reducing the OA flow
  • 94. Source Control for Irritant Gases Source: http://transparency.perkinswill.com/Main Healthy Environments: A Compilation of Substances Linked to Asthma Perkins+Will prepared this report on behalf of the National Institutes of Health, Office of Research Facilities, Division of Environmental Protection August 8, 2012.
  • 95. Clean Air Must Have Low Levels of Infectious Microbes Infectious Microbes
  • 96. Clean Air has Many Beneficial Microbes • Human Microbiome Project – 1000 species of bacteria on human skin • Home Land Security Project – 1800 types of airborne microbes in Austin and San Antonio ambient air Source: Julia Segre, et al National Institutes of Health May 29, 2009 Source: Gary Anderson, et al, Berkley National Laboratory National Academy of Sciences December 19, 2006
  • 97. Microbiome of Humans and Buildings microbiome is the totality of microbes, their genetic elements (genomes), and environmental interactions in a particular environment. The term "microbiome" was coined by Joshua Lederberg, who argued that microorganisms inhabiting the human body should be included as part of the human genome, because of their influence on human physiology. The human body contains over 10 times more microbial cells than human cells, although the entire microbiome only weighs about 200 grams (7.1 oz). Microbiomes are being characterized in many other environments as well, including soil, seawater/freshwater systems and buildings. Information:http://www.yourwildlife.org/the-wild-life-of-our-bodies/
  • 98. Microbiome of Humans One person sheds each hour 2,400,000 skin cells (Motionless, up to 500,000 particles per minute. When active, this level can reach up to 45,000,000 particles per minute.) And 35,000,000 bacterial cells “An important public health consequence…is that through direct inhalation of resuspended or shed organisms there is a potential for current or previous occupants of a room to contribute substantially to inhalation exposure to bioaerosols” Hospodsky D, Qian J, Nazaroff WW, Yamamoto N, Bibby K, et al. (2012) Human Occupancy as a Source of Indoor Airborne Bacteria. PLoS ONE 7(4): April 18, 2012
  • 99. Infectious Microbes Viruses, bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and other microbial parasites can invade the human body – 100 Trillion Bacteria cells on/in human body – 100 Bacteria species pathogenic to humans – 33% Humans carry M. tuberculosis – 50% Humans carry H. pylori – 50% Humans carry S. AureusSource: B. Brett Finlay The Art of Bacterial Warfare, Scientific American February, 2010 pps 56-63 http://www.ploscollections.org/article/browseIssue .action?issue=info:doi/10.1371/issue.pcol.v01.i13
  • 100. Engineering Controls to Reduce Infectious Microbe Transmission. Strategies for Classrooms Dilution Ventilation Personalized ventilation Source capture Central system filtration Local filtration/cleaning The ASHRAE Position Document on Airborne Infectious Diseases January 2012 by the Society’s Airborne Infectious Diseases Position Document Committee. http://www.ashrae.org/about-ashrae/position-documents Add Shed and Resuspended Particles
  • 101. Built Environment Microbiome Project The BioBE Center is based at the University of Oregon and led by Jessica Green (Director) Brendan Bohannann G.Z. (Charlie) Brown http://biology.uoregon.edu/biobe/
  • 102. Jessica Green on Building Microbes http://www.ted.com/talks/jessica_green_are_we_filtering_the_wrong_microbes.html http://biology.uoregon.edu/people/green/Science-2012-Humphries.pdf Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment Microbiome. http://www.nature.com/ismej/ journal/v6/n8/pdf/ismej2011
  • 103. Tracking Flu Activity Peak of Seasonal Flu Year 2010-2011 is shown in pink and peaked at 10 % of visits due to Influenza like illness (ILI) in mid February Source: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/influenza/surveillance/2011/
  • 104. Actual Experience with Seasonal Flu ADA Rates for each 6 Week Periods of 10-11 98.1 97.3 97.1 95.5 97.5 97.8 97.2 97.9 96.9 96.5 95.6 97.0 96.9 96.8 97.5 96.6 96.1 94.7 96.5 96.7 96.4 94.5 95 95.5 96 96.5 97 97.5 98 98.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Six Week Period Attendance,% School A School B District Average Total School A had low air flow rates* 4th 6 Weeks are during Jan and Feb and has about a 2% drop in ADA from other 6 Week Periods Seasonal Flu period *Li Y, et al., Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment: a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor Air 2007;17:2-18.
  • 105. Air Filtration Can Reduce the Risk of Flu Infection at Lower Cost Source: Parham Azimi and Brent Stephens, Ph.D., the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago http://built-envi.com/ Costs for Dilution at Different Climates Costs for Filtration at Different Levels
  • 106. Manage the 3 I’s to Provide Clean Air in Green and Healthy Schools Employ Filtration and Air Cleaning (FAC) Technology to Lower the Classroom Levels of the 3 I’s Use EN 13799 Standard to select level of filtration based on location of the building and IAQ desired for the occupants Use Modern IEQ Instrumentation to verify Classroom Clean Air Conditions Place Occupancy Limits on Rooms based on Design Specifications Include IEQ Expertise on Design and Construction Teams Monitor Health Clinic Visits to detect any Unforeseen Conditions
  • 107. Latest Estimates on Better IEQ Benefits • Fisk and Brunner IEQ in Office Study * The estimated benefits of the IEQ scenarios analyzed are substantial in magnitude. The combined potential annual economic benefit of a set of non-overlapping IEQ scenarios is approximately $20 billion. • Trasande and Liu Environmental Illness in Children Costs Study** Poor childhood health caused by environmental factors costs the United States $76.6 Billion in 2008 *See the October 2011 issue of Indoor Air from the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate – ISIAQ. **See the May 2011 issue of Health Affairs
  • 108. EPA References for Improved Academic Performance, Student Health, and Teacher Retention Sources: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/student_performance/index.html Test scores uniformly increase as building conditions improve. Test scores can increase by 3 percent to 17 percent. 
  • 109. EPA Guidelines for School Siting and Environmental Health Programs EPA’s voluntary School Siting Guidelines encourage consideration of environmental factors in local school siting decision-making processes. http://www.epa.gov/schools/siting/ EPA’s voluntary State K-12 School Environmental Health Program Guidelines provide a framework for improving the health and well-being of students by creating and sustaining healthy, safe, and productive school environments. http://www.epa.gov/schools/ehguidelines/down loads/ehguidelines-draft.pdf
  • 110. Center for Green Schools USGBC http://www.centerforgreenschools.org/docs/USGBC%20Mayors%20Summit%20Report_FINAL.pdf • The report provides a comprehensive review of the benefits of green schools; • a summary of local, state and federal policy solutions; • leadership profiles of green school advocates; and • case studies from both large cities and small communities. • these resources serve as a roadmap on the journey to green schools. Local Leaders in Sustainability: Special Report from Sundance, A National Action Plan for Greening America's Schools The Impact of School Buildings on Student Health and Performance The report is an accessible account of current research connecting school buildings with student health and performance and includes a summary of research needed and how individual groups (teachers and students, design professionals, government agencies, etc.) can help in the effort to draw connections between where students learn and their well being. http://centerforgreenschools.org/studies.aspx
  • 111. Additional References on Impacts of Indoor Environments on Human Performance and Productivity Source: and http://www.iaqscience.lbl.gov/ Impacts of Building Ventilation on Health and Performance Indoor Dampness, Biological Contaminants and Health Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Health Impacts of Indoor Environments on Human Performance and Productivity Benefits of Improving Indoor Environmental Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank (IAQ-SFRB) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • 112. ASHRAE IAQ Guide (Free) www.ashrae.org/FreeIAQGuidance American Institute of Architects, U.S. Green Building Council, Builders and Owners Management Association International, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors of North America, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  • 113. High Performance & Healthy Classroom with Clean Air from the 1950’s
  • 114. Unhealthy Classroom without Clean Air in the 2000’s
  • 115. Classroom of the Future and Quality of the Indoor Air ? http://www.carpediemaz.com/learning-centers/
  • 116. We Learn Here and Where We Learn Matters http://vimeo.com/46229583