On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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The average adult at rest inhales and exhales about one-fourth of a cubic foot of air per minute. That totals something like 388 cubic feet of air in a day.
Along with it comes about 20 billion particles of dirt and other foreign matter (dust).
The nose traps and filters up to 70 percent of these particles that we inhale each day.
Particle Size & Quantity Matters An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor course particle pollution, there is a 6 % increase in the number of days of cough, wheeze, or chest tightness in asthmatic children. An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor fine particle pollution there is a 7 % increase in days of wheezing severe enough to limit speech. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine February 2009
Hand Held Particle Counter Six Channels of Particle Sizes from .3 to 10 Micrometers in diameter
U.S. Public Schools in ‘Air Pollution Danger Zone’
The University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers have found that more than 30 percent of American public schools are within 400 meters, or a quarter mile, of major highways that consistently serve as main truck and traffic routes.
Research has shown that proximity to major highways—and thus environmental pollutants, such as aerosolizing diesel exhaust particles— can leave school-age children more susceptible to respiratory diseases later in life. 08/18/08
Outside Air Pollutant Concerns
The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America's Schools
What might be in the air outside your school?
The air outside 435 other schools — from Maine to California — appears to be even worse, and the threats to the health of students at those locations may be even greater. The 435 schools that ranked worst weren't confined to industrial centers. Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania had the highest numbers, but the worst schools extended from the East Coast to the West, in 170 cities across 34 states, USA TODAY found.
At thousands of locations, the model used by USA TODAY indicated that the air outside schools appeared far more toxic than the air in the neighborhoods where the kids lived. At 16,500 schools, the air outside appeared at least twice as toxic as the air at a typical location in the school district. 01/13/09
Air Tests Reveal Elevated Levels of Toxics Around Schools
Using the government's most up-to-date model for tracking toxic chemicals, USA TODAY spent eight months examining the impact of industrial pollution on the air outside schools across the nation.
The result: a ranking of 127,800 public, private and parochial schools based on the concentrations and health hazards of chemicals likely to be in the air outside.
The potential problems that emerged were widespread, insidious and largely unaddressed
ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Outside Air Contaminants
Particles; 10 Microns and 2.5 Microns
Pollen, Spores, other Allergens
Ozone; STD 62.1-2007 Sect 6.2.1 OA Treatment
Other Gases; Sewer, Boiler Gas, Industrial
Chemical and Biological Threats
IAQ Contaminant Modeling
Target Concentration Limits used in analyzing results
an activated alumina substrate impregnated with sodium permanganate.
By using these media in combination, the removal of all odors is achieved.
Gas Phase Filtration Process
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
Potassium Permanganate Alumina (PIA)
DUAL METHOD APPROACH
NEISD Bond Projects
2003 Bond Additions
The four Elementary School additions of the ’03 Bond used gas-phase air filtration in accordance to the 62.1 IAQ Procedure.
OA flows for the four additions were reduced from 41,856 CFM to 14,375 CFM.
Total OA reduction of 27,480 CFM.
2003 Bond Schools
The two new Middle Schools and one High School were designed to used gas-phase air filtration in classroom HVAC in accordance with the 62.1 IAQ Procedure.
OA flows for each Middle School were reduced by 14,425 Cubic Feet/Minute .
Total VOC levels reduced from 60 ppm in Girls Dance Studio to less than 25 ppm using gas phase filters in the Air Handling Unit for the Studio VOC removal after Construction Activities
Air Quality Health Alerts
AIRNOW Website www.epa.gov /air
Unsealed Penetrations Contaminated air flows through unsealed penetrations for pipe, conduit and duct into the return air conveyance system of HVAC
Classroom Cleanliness Rules
Tips for a Healthy Classroom
Be aware of Asthma and Allergy triggers
Be able to clean room in 20 minutes
Do not use deodorizing sprays and plugins
Do not have fleecy items that harbor mites
Do not keep permanent animals
Report moisture intrusions and spills
Use hand wipes twice a day
Increase in Attendance Student Attendance Rates are up 0.6% from the prior year
Provide healthy & productive indoor environments
Suitable for “most people”
Indoor Environment= “Invisible”
Healthy School Building www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/asthma/index.htm CDC Asthma Friendly School Toolkit www.asbointl.org ASBO International Environmental Resource Center www.purafil.com EnerSave IAQ Analysis www.ashrae.org ASHRAE Std 62.1-2007 and Addenda Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality www.epa.gov/iaq/schools EPA Tools for Schools Toolkit
HEPA Filter Vacuums
Earth Retainer Blocks
Carpet Removal Program Replaced over 30,000 square feet of carpet with new VCT tile over the 2008 summer
Green Cleaning Cleaning Chemicals and Dispensing Systems that do not contain harmful ingredients and vapors
Honors™ School & University Custodial Program by Buckeye
Removal of teachers’ personal items and resource materials reduced the work effort to clear out a room prior to the actual cleaning effort by the custodians
Reviewing the HVAC Control Sequences to assure operations of AC systems is correct and not contributing to high energy bills
The vacuum cleaner must not release dust particles by keeping dirt and dust locked tight in the vacuum and not escaping back into the air where it can be breathed.