Iaq Concerns At Schools
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Information on Indoor Air Quality Concerns in schools and classrooms

Information on Indoor Air Quality Concerns in schools and classrooms

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  • 1. The 3 I’s of Classroom IEQ Gerald Lamping Director for IAQ
  • 2. What factors affect the classroom environmental conditions The three causes for poor classroom environmental quality
  • 3. The 3 I’s of IEQ that can affect attendance
    • Invisible Particles
    • Aerosols Levels in the classroom
    • Airborne particles have the potential to cause allergic reactions, skin irritation, coughing, sneezing, respiratory difficulties and circulatory system problems .
    • Irritant Gases
    • Ventilation Rates in the classroom
    • Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), formaldehyde, body odors, and biological contaminants are causes for occupant discomfort and poor health outcomes.
    • Infectious Microbes
    • Cold/Flu virus transmission in the classroom
    • Bacterial and Viral respiratory tract infections, particularly of rhinoviruses, are associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations in both children and adults.
      • Invisible particles + Irritants + Infections = Inflammation process
  • 4. Sources of the I’s Infiltration dust and gases enter from open penetrations
  • 5. Which is the culprit ??? Invisible Particles Irritants Infection Tobacco smoke Gases Colds / sinusitis Pollen Perfumes Flu Molds lotions, hair spray, aerosol Poor hygiene Combustion Exhaust Ozone practices Fibers Animals Dander Chemicals in and out of the classroom markers paints, science supplies Cockroaches Strong Odors Snacks attract pests air fresheners, off gassing Dusts Dust Mite Carpet, stuffed animals, Pillows, curtains, air vents chalk, cushions, ‘fluffy’ stuff
  • 6. Invisible Particles
    • Tobacco Smoke
    • Animal dander
    • Household dust
    • Insect parts
    • Pollen
    • Molds
    • Combustion by-products
    • Common Reservoirs:
      • Carpets, pillows, couches, stuffed animals
  • 7. Invisible Particles
    • Tobacco smoke
    • Pollen
    • Molds (Ceiling tile, wet carpet, plants,)
    • Combustion Exhaust (buses, cars)
    • Fibers (clothes, Cardboard, Carpets)
    • Animals Dander (in and out of the classroom)
    • Cockroaches (Snacks attract pests, dry floor drains)
    • Dusts
    • Dust Mites
  • 8.  
  • 9. Breathes of Air
    • The average adult at rest inhales and exhales about one-fourth of a cubic foot of air per minute. That totals something like 388 cubic feet of air in a day.
    • Along with it comes about 20 billion particles of dirt and other foreign matter (dust).
    • The nose traps and filters up to 70 percent of these particles that we inhale each day.
  • 10. Particle Size & Quantity Matters An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor course particle pollution, there is a 6 % increase in the number of days of cough, wheeze, or chest tightness in asthmatic children. An increase in 10 micrograms per cubic meter of indoor fine particle pollution there is a 7 % increase in days of wheezing severe enough to limit speech. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine February 2009
  • 11. Hand Held Particle Counter Six Channels of Particle Sizes from .3 to 10 Micrometers in diameter
  • 12. Cleaning Classroom with HEPA type vacuum cleaners Elementary School Classroom 332 4107 15828 77752 119679 157328 3135056 1328 9271 17793 362471 25047 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 0.1 1 10 Particle Size, Micrometers
  • 13. Classroom Cleanliness
  • 14. Portable IAQ Monitoring Cart
    • Paul Marchant, M.S., R.S.
    • Washington State
    • Department of Health
    • School Environmental Health & Safety - Indoor Air Quality Program
    • P.O. Box 47825
    • Olympia, Washington 98504-7825
    • (360) 236-3363
    • [email_address]
    • http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/ts/iaq
  • 15. Portable IAQ Monitoring Cart
    • IAQ Sampling Parameters
    • Carbon Dioxide
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Particulates (6 particle sizes) 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10 (units in micrometers)
    • Temperature
    • Relative Humidity
  • 16. Effects of Fine Particles
    • A decrease of
    • 10 micrograms per cubic meter
    • of
    • fine particle outdoor air pollution results in an
    • increase in life expectancy for area residents of
    • 0.7 years
    • Harvard School of Public Health, January 2009
  • 17. Classroom Ventilation Requirements
    • ASHRAE Standard 62.1
      • Ventilation Rate Procedure
      • IAQ Procedure
      • Outside air source location
      • Re-entrainment of gases
      • Water vapor content
  • 18. Outside Air Pollutant Concerns
    • U.S. Public Schools in ‘Air Pollution Danger Zone’
    • The University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers have found that more than 30 percent of American public schools are within 400 meters, or a quarter mile, of major highways that consistently serve as main truck and traffic routes.
    • Research has shown that proximity to major highways—and thus environmental pollutants, such as aerosolizing diesel exhaust particles— can leave school-age children more susceptible to respiratory diseases later in life. 08/18/08
  • 19. Outside Air Pollutant Concerns
    • The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America's Schools
    • What might be in the air outside your school?
    • The air outside 435 other schools — from Maine to California — appears to be even worse, and the threats to the health of students at those locations may be even greater. The 435 schools that ranked worst weren't confined to industrial centers. Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania had the highest numbers, but the worst schools extended from the East Coast to the West, in 170 cities across 34 states, USA TODAY found.
    • At thousands of locations, the model used by USA TODAY indicated that the air outside schools appeared far more toxic than the air in the neighborhoods where the kids lived. At 16,500 schools, the air outside appeared at least twice as toxic as the air at a typical location in the school district. 01/13/09
  • 20. Air Tests Reveal Elevated Levels of Toxics Around Schools
    • Using the government's most up-to-date model for tracking toxic chemicals, USA TODAY spent eight months examining the impact of industrial pollution on the air outside schools across the nation.
    • The result: a ranking of 127,800 public, private and parochial schools based on the concentrations and health hazards of chemicals likely to be in the air outside.
    • The potential problems that emerged were widespread, insidious and largely unaddressed
  • 21. ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Outside Air Contaminants
    • Particles; 10 Microns and 2.5 Microns
    • Pollen, Spores, other Allergens
    • Ozone; STD 62.1-2007 Sect 6.2.1 OA Treatment
    • Water Vapor
    • Other Gases; Sewer, Boiler Gas, Industrial
    • Chemical and Biological Threats
  • 22. IAQ Contaminant Modeling
    • Target Concentration Limits used in analyzing results
    [0.03] [1.2] [0.030] [0.7] [3] [0.098] 0.1 phenol 1.5 methyl alcohol 0.042 hydrogen sulfide 0.5 ammonia 7 acetone 1.0 TVOC 0.12 formaldehyde Concentration mg/m 3 [ppm] Contaminant (continued) Concentration mg/m 3 [ppm] Contaminant [0.03] 0.079 sulfur dioxide [0.08] 0.16 ozone [0.053] 0.10 nitrogen dioxide [9] 10 carbon monoxide
  • 23. Gas Phase Filtration Media
    • Media is a combination of activated carbon, and
    • an activated alumina substrate impregnated with sodium permanganate.
    • By using these media in combination, the removal of all odors is achieved.
  • 24. Gas Phase Filtration Process
    • CHEMISORPTION
    • ADSORPTION
      • Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
      • Potassium Permanganate Alumina (PIA)
    • DUAL METHOD APPROACH
      • NEISD Bond Projects
  • 25. 2003 Bond Additions
    • The four Elementary School additions of the ’03 Bond used gas-phase air filtration in accordance to the 62.1 IAQ Procedure.
    • OA flows for the four additions were reduced from 41,856 CFM to 14,375 CFM.
    • Total OA reduction of 27,480 CFM.
  • 26. 2003 Bond Schools
    • The two new Middle Schools and one High School were designed to used gas-phase air filtration in classroom HVAC in accordance with the 62.1 IAQ Procedure.
    • OA flows for each Middle School were reduced by 14,425 Cubic Feet/Minute .
  • 27. Total VOC levels reduced from 60 ppm in Girls Dance Studio to less than 25 ppm using gas phase filters in the Air Handling Unit for the Studio VOC removal after Construction Activities
  • 28. Air Quality Health Alerts
  • 29.
    • Ozone pollution
    • Particle Pollution
    AIRNOW Website www.epa.gov /air
  • 30. Ozone Pollution
  • 31. Unsealed Penetrations Contaminated air flows through unsealed penetrations for pipe, conduit and duct into the return air conveyance system of HVAC
  • 32. Classroom Cleanliness Rules
    • Tips for a Healthy Classroom
    • Be aware of Asthma and Allergy triggers
    • Be able to clean room in 20 minutes
    • Do not use deodorizing sprays and plugins
    • Do not have fleecy items that harbor mites
    • Do not keep permanent animals
    • Report moisture intrusions and spills
    • Use hand wipes twice a day
    • Additional tips
  • 33. Increase in Attendance Student Attendance Rates are up 0.6% from the prior year
  • 34. The Goal
    • Provide healthy & productive indoor environments
    • Suitable for “most people”
    • Indoor Environment= “Invisible”
    • Cost efficient
    • Energy efficient
    • Durable
  • 35. Healthy School Building www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/asthma/index.htm CDC Asthma Friendly School Toolkit www.asbointl.org ASBO International Environmental Resource Center www.purafil.com EnerSave IAQ Analysis www.ashrae.org ASHRAE Std 62.1-2007 and Addenda Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality www.epa.gov/iaq/schools EPA Tools for Schools Toolkit
  • 36. Maintenance Actions
    • Carpet Removal
    • Green Cleaning
    • Custodial Training
    • Cleaning Efficiency
    • EMC Commissioning
    • HEPA Filter Vacuums
    • Drying Equipment
    • Earth Retainer Blocks
  • 37. Carpet Removal Program Replaced over 30,000 square feet of carpet with new VCT tile over the 2008 summer
  • 38. Green Cleaning Cleaning Chemicals and Dispensing Systems that do not contain harmful ingredients and vapors
  • 39. Custodial Training
    • Honors™ School & University Custodial Program by Buckeye
  • 40. Cleaning Efficiency
    • Removal of teachers’ personal items and resource materials reduced the work effort to clear out a room prior to the actual cleaning effort by the custodians
  • 41. EMCS Commissioning
    • Reviewing the HVAC Control Sequences to assure operations of AC systems is correct and not contributing to high energy bills
  • 42. HEPA Vacuums
    • The vacuum cleaner must not release dust particles by keeping dirt and dust locked tight in the vacuum and not escaping back into the air where it can be breathed.
  • 43. Drying Equipment Rug Fans Dehumidifiers Humidity Meters Moisture Meters
  • 44. Earth Retainer Block Repair Damaged Earth Retainer Blocks around perimeter of building allow storm water and animals to get access under the building