The human body has many mechanisms within the immune system to protect itself from external and internal pathogens. However, when something goes wrong with these mechanisms, the results can be devastating to the cells, tissues, and organs of the lymphatic and immune systems.
Nonspecific innate response to any pathogen that reaches the connective tissue beneath skin and mucosae. Cytoplasmic extensions reach out to engulf foreign matter. Used by macrophages, which are the “large eaters”.
Phagocytes must correctly identify and bind to the pathogen’s membrane. Pathogen is then pulled inside and fuses with a vesicle containing strong acidic enzymes-lysosome. The enzymes break it down into harmless debris for the body to sweep up.
If a pathogen resists digestion by lysosyme, helper T cells assist the phagocyte by activating stronger enzymes The release of free radicals like nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide or protein-digesting enzymes occur in the respiratory burst.
Lymphatic system cancer Abnormal cell growth that can spread to other systems Mutation happens in B cells called Reed- Sternberg cells, they proliferate and group together in the lymphatic system. Impaired immune response in body results in increased susceptibility to infection
Microscopic view of PET scan showing affected regionsmutated B cell
Often associated with previous Epstein-Barr virus infection-mononucleosis Immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients Family history of lymphoma, particularly in siblings.
Swelling in principal lymph node locations i.e. axillary, inguinal and cervical regions. Similar to symptoms of flu: lethargy or fatigue, fever and chills, night sweats, chest pain, coughing, loss Enlarged lymph nodes in of appetite. cervical region. Noticeable, unexplained weight loss.
Stage 1: One cancerous node or organ. Stage 2: Two cancerous nodes or small affected region. Stage 3: Nodes in regions above and below diaphragm are cancerous, or tissue near spleen is affected. Stage 4: Several organs or tissues are cancerous and had spread to bones, lungs, and other parts of body. NOTE: Stage 1&2 diagnosis has 80% remission rate for 5 years. Stage 3&4 diagnosis has less than 60% remission rate over same period of time.
Physical examination, Blood tests, CT, MRI, X- ray, biopsy of swollen node, and bone marrow aspiration. Treatment typically is a two-step process. Chemotherapy is typically used first and then radiation therapy. Stem cell transplant can be used if the cancer returns or resists initial treatment.
Inflammation resulting in abnormal tissue clumps, granulomas, in body. Often found in lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, and skin. Unknown origin, but may be genetic, environmental sensitivity, or hyper immune response to an infection.
Higher incidence in African American population. If blood relative has it, increases your chances by five times. Mostly begins between ages of 20 and 40.
Most cases have chest symptoms such as chest pain, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Eye lesions Wide array of presentation elsewhere. Overall fatigue, fever, joint pain, rash, headaches, vision loss, burning in eyes, and nose Rash, skin plaques bleed.
Physical exam, chest x-ray or CT often finds enlarged organs such as liver or spleen, and enlarged lymph glands. Biopsy of abnormal growth
Primary therapy is corticosteroid, but length of treatment depends on severity of disease. Immunosuppresants can be used to calm an overactive immune system. Most affected see improvement, but others may develop tissue damage especially in lungs and heart that can cause death.
Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research http://www.stopsarcoidosis.org/sarcoidosis/diseasefact s.htm?gclid=CMbJ_tmo1LICFY1DMgodK0QACQ Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hodgkins- disease/DS00186 National Cancer Institute (National Institute of Health) http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/hodgkin US National Library of Medicine: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001 140/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hodgkindisease.h tml