Ch. 6present


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Ch. 6present

  1. 1. PhagocytosisHodgkin’s Lymphoma Sarcoidosis Jori Lambert
  2. 2.  The human body has many mechanisms within the immune system to protect itself from external and internal pathogens. However, when something goes wrong with these mechanisms, the results can be devastating to the cells, tissues, and organs of the lymphatic and immune systems.
  3. 3.  Nonspecific innate response to any pathogen that reaches the connective tissue beneath skin and mucosae. Cytoplasmic extensions reach out to engulf foreign matter. Used by macrophages, which are the “large eaters”.
  4. 4.  Phagocytes must correctly identify and bind to the pathogen’s membrane. Pathogen is then pulled inside and fuses with a vesicle containing strong acidic enzymes-lysosome. The enzymes break it down into harmless debris for the body to sweep up.
  5. 5.  If a pathogen resists digestion by lysosyme, helper T cells assist the phagocyte by activating stronger enzymes The release of free radicals like nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide or protein-digesting enzymes occur in the respiratory burst.
  6. 6.  Lymphatic system cancer Abnormal cell growth that can spread to other systems Mutation happens in B cells called Reed- Sternberg cells, they proliferate and group together in the lymphatic system. Impaired immune response in body results in increased susceptibility to infection
  7. 7. Microscopic view of PET scan showing affected regionsmutated B cell
  8. 8.  Often associated with previous Epstein-Barr virus infection-mononucleosis Immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients Family history of lymphoma, particularly in siblings.
  9. 9.  Swelling in principal lymph node locations i.e. axillary, inguinal and cervical regions. Similar to symptoms of flu: lethargy or fatigue, fever and chills, night sweats, chest pain, coughing, loss Enlarged lymph nodes in of appetite. cervical region. Noticeable, unexplained weight loss.
  10. 10.  Stage 1: One cancerous node or organ. Stage 2: Two cancerous nodes or small affected region. Stage 3: Nodes in regions above and below diaphragm are cancerous, or tissue near spleen is affected. Stage 4: Several organs or tissues are cancerous and had spread to bones, lungs, and other parts of body. NOTE: Stage 1&2 diagnosis has 80% remission rate for 5 years. Stage 3&4 diagnosis has less than 60% remission rate over same period of time.
  11. 11.  Physical examination, Blood tests, CT, MRI, X- ray, biopsy of swollen node, and bone marrow aspiration. Treatment typically is a two-step process. Chemotherapy is typically used first and then radiation therapy. Stem cell transplant can be used if the cancer returns or resists initial treatment.
  12. 12.  Inflammation resulting in abnormal tissue clumps, granulomas, in body. Often found in lymph nodes, lungs, liver, eyes, and skin. Unknown origin, but may be genetic, environmental sensitivity, or hyper immune response to an infection.
  13. 13.  Higher incidence in African American population. If blood relative has it, increases your chances by five times. Mostly begins between ages of 20 and 40.
  14. 14.  Most cases have chest symptoms such as chest pain, dry cough, and shortness of breath. Eye lesions Wide array of presentation elsewhere. Overall fatigue, fever, joint pain, rash, headaches, vision loss, burning in eyes, and nose Rash, skin plaques bleed.
  15. 15.  Physical exam, chest x-ray or CT often finds enlarged organs such as liver or spleen, and enlarged lymph glands. Biopsy of abnormal growth
  16. 16.  Primary therapy is corticosteroid, but length of treatment depends on severity of disease. Immunosuppresants can be used to calm an overactive immune system. Most affected see improvement, but others may develop tissue damage especially in lungs and heart that can cause death.
  17. 17.  Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research s.htm?gclid=CMbJ_tmo1LICFY1DMgodK0QACQ Mayo Clinic: disease/DS00186 National Cancer Institute (National Institute of Health) US National Library of Medicine: 140/ tml
  18. 18.  ges/phagocytosis.html tm