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Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning “sacrfice by fire”
Holocaust began in 1933 when Hitler came to power in Germany and ended in 1945 when the Nazis were defeated be the Allied Power
The Allied Powers were the US, British Empire, France, and Russia
Kristallnacht“Night of Broken Glass”
During the night of November 9-10, 1938, Nazis attacked Jews in Austria and Germany in what has been named “Kristallnacht”
This night of violence included the pillaging and burning of synagogues, breaking the windows of Jewish-owned business, the looting of these stores, and many Jews were physically attacked
Approximately thirty thousand Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.
The Nazis began ordering Jews to wear a yellow Star of David on their clothing so that Jews could be easily recognized and targeted
Towards the beginning of World War II, Nazis began ordering all Jews to live within certain, very specific, areas of big cities, called ghettos.
Jews were forced out of their homes and moved into smaller apartments, often shared with other families.
A few of the major ghettos were located in the cities of Bialystok, Kovno, Lodz, Minsk, Rigam, Vilna, and Warsaw
Warsaw was the largest ghetto with a population of 445,000 by March 1941
In most of the ghettos, Nazis ordered the Jews to establish a Judernat (a Jewish council)
To administer Nazi demands and to regulate the internal life of the ghetto
Nazis would then order deportations from the ghettos
A thousand people per day were loaded up in trains and sent to either a concentration camp or a death camp
To get them to cooperate, the Nazis told the Jews they were being transported to another place for labor
Nazi Germany established about 20,000 camps to imprison its millions of victims
The extermination camps were designed for efficient mass murder
The first extermination camp, opened in December 1941.
Jews and Roma were gassed in mobile gas vans there
The Nazis constructed gas chambers to increase killing efficiency and to make the process more impersonal for the perpetrators
The Birkenau extermination camp had four gas chambers
During the height of deportations to the camp, up to 6,000 Jews were gassed there each day
Millions of people were imprisoned and abused in the various types of Nazi camps
Under SS management, the Germans and their collaborators murdered more than three million Jews in the extermination camps alone.
Only a small fraction of those imprisoned in Nazi camps survived.
The Allied Powers forced the Nazis to surrender on May 8, 1945
In the after math of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons (DP) camps
The last DP camp closed in 1957. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews emigrated to the United States and other nations.
When the Jews went back to their homes, they were found taken by other people or damaged by the Nazis.
It is estimated that eleven million people were killed during the Holocaust; six million of these were Jews
The Nazis killed approximately two-thirds of all Jews living in Europe
An estimated 1.1 million children were murdered in the Holocaust
Works Cited Works Cited "WORLD WAR II,." 2010. History.com. 25 Feb 2010, 08:37 http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=226140. “Allied Powers World War II.” 2 April 2008. New World Encyclopedia. Available at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Allied_Powers_(World_War_II) Rosenberg, Jennifer. Holocaust Facts. 2010. Available at http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/a/holocaustfacts.htm. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.May 4, 2009. Available at www.ushmm.org Holocaust. Available at http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01870/index.html http://www.remember.org/image/378.gif