Solar Sytem2
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Solar Sytem2

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Identify the inner and outer planets.

Identify the inner and outer planets.
Learn how the planet pluto has been
downgraded to a minor planet.

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Solar Sytem2 Solar Sytem2 Presentation Transcript

  • THE SOLAR SYSTEM By Mrs. JoAnn Kwasnick
  • OBJECTIVES
    • IDENTIFY THE INNER AND OUTER PLANETS.
    • IDENTIFY IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS AND FEATURES OF PLANETS.
    • COMPARE AND CONTRAST VENUS AND EARTH.
    • COMPARE EARTH AND MARS WITH ATTENTION TO LANDSCAPE AND
    • ATMOSPHERE.
  • PLANETS
    • THE INNER
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
    • THE OUTER
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
    View slide
  • NOTE
    • PLUTO- In spite of having a moon (Charon)
    • has been downgraded to a minor
    • planet. It is not considered a
    • direct part of our solar system.
    • The status change of Pluto was
    • determined by the International
    • Astronomical Union.
    View slide
  • THE INNER PLANETS
    • MERCURY,Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner
    • Planets. These planets are relatively close
    • TO THE SUN. ALL ARE SOLID ROCKLIKE BODIES IN
    • CONTRAST TO THE OUTER PLANETS, WHICH ARE
    • MOSTLY GASEOUS.
  • MERCURY
    • Mercury is the second smallest planet in the solar system. Usually,
    • Mercury cannot be viewed because it is too close to the sun. When
    • Mercury can be seen, it is close to the horizon in the early morning or
    • late evening sky. Mercury has a very heavily cratered surface like that
    • of the moon. The terrain is more rugged than that of our moon. Some
    • of the cliffs on Mercury are nearly three kilometers high. Mercury’s
    • density suggests an iron rich core, but its magnetic field is extremely
    • weak. Its atmosphere, which is mostly sodium, is very thin. Because
    • Mercury is a relatively dark object, it does not reflect much of the
    • sunlight falling on it. Its temperatures range from over 450 degrees
    • Celsius by day to about -170 degrees Celsius by night.
  • Venus and earth
    • Venus and Earth are similar to each other in size, mass, and shape. Therefore,
    • it called Earth’s twin. Because it is closer to the sun, Venus receives twice as
    • much sunlight as Earth. Nearly three-fourths of this sunlight as Earth.
    • Nearly three-fourths of this sunlight is reflected into space by the clouds in
    • Venus’ dense atmosphere and only 2 percent reaches the surface. This
    • small amount is trapped by the cloud cover. Temperatures near the surface
    • can reach 400 degrees Celsius, due to the greenhouse effect. The
    • atmosphere of Venus is 97 percent carbon dioxide. Droplets of sulfuric acid
    • give the clouds of Venus a yellow color.
    • Venus appears to go through phases similar to those of our moon. These
    • phases occur due to the orbit of Venus around the sun inside the orbit of Earth.
    • A compete cycle for these phases takes under two years. Venus has a
    • retrograde or opposite rotation from that of most other planets. Rotation is
    • extremely slow, 243 Earth days.
  • earth
    • Earth is the third planet from the sun. It orbits the sun at a mean
    • distance of 150 million km, or one AU (Astronomical unit). Earth
    • rotates on its axis once in about 24 hours. It revolves around
    • around the sun once in about 360 days. Our measurements of
    • time are based on these motions. Within the solar system, Earth
    • days and years are used to describe the motions of other planets.
    • Earth’s atmosphere is unique among the planets in our solar system.
    • Water vapor has been held in place by gravity. Earth’s atmosphere
    • moderates temperature, allowing water to exist as a solid, liquid, or gas.
    • Also, Earth’s atmosphere allows most meteors to burn up before they
    • reach the surface. It protects life from the sun’s intense radiation. In
    • addition, oxygen has been added to the atmosphere over time.
  • MARS
    • Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. It is referred to as the red planet due to the
    • iron oxide in the weathered rocks on its surface. We have known about its polar caps
    • for a long time, but many crustal features have since been discovered by probes.
    • These probes are Mariner 9 (1971-1972) and Viking 1 and 2 (1976) which gave to us
    • Important information about Mars. The Martian terrain consists of ridges and valleys.
    • Rift zones, areas of fractures or cracks in the crust, extend for over four thousand
    • kilometers across Mars. Olympus Mons, though extinct, is the largest known volcano
    • in the solar system. It rises 25 kilometers above the Martian surface. Martian craters
    • are numerous. Ejected material seems to have flowed away from the crater.
    • Mars’ atmosphere includes clouds and fog. Water vapor condenses at night and
    • evaporates when the sun rises. Most of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide, with small
    • amounts of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen are present. Dust storms are common on
    • Mars. They may be local, or they may spread completely around the planet.
  • MARS CONTINUED
    • Mars has two moons. Both are irregular in shape. Phobos is about 25
    • kilometers in diameter. Deimos is about 13 kilometers in diameter. The
    • surfaces of both moons are heavily cratered much like Earth’s moon.
    • Phobos revolves around Mars about three times during a Martian day.
    • Thus, when viewed from Mars, Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east.
    • Phobos is the only solar system moon to do so. Phobos is in an orbit which
    • Is spiraling inward towards Mars. It is expected to impact Mars in about
    • 50 million years.
  • THE OUTER PLANETS
  • THE OUTER PLANETS
    • The first four planets from the sun are rocky
    • Objects whose mean density is about 4.7 g/cm 3 .
    • Between 5 and 30 Au s lies the realm of the giant
    • Gaseous planets. These outer planets are much
    • More massive than the terrestrial planets.
    • The mean densities of the Jovian (outer)
    • Planets are much lower.
  • JUPITER
    • Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth planet from the sun.
    • Jupiter and its 16 moons resemble a miniature solar system. Four of these moons
    • are very large. Io, the moon closest to Jupiter, is mostly solid rock. Io has its own
    • very thin atmosphere of sulfur and sodium as well as a number of erupting volcanoes.
    • Europa is mostly rock with a thick coating of ice. Ganymede , the largest of all the
    • solar system moons, is half rock, and half ice. Callisto’s composition is similar to
    • Ganymede’s. Some of Jupiter’s other moons may captured space objects.
    • Scientists believe that Jupiter is mostly liquid and gaseous hydrogen with some helium,
    • ammonia, methane, and water vapor. The composition of the planets core is
    • unknown.
    • White to reddish-brown cloud bands alternate around Jupiter. Light bands are due
    • to rising columns of gas. Dark bands are descending gas. These alternating bands
    • are generated by heat from Jupiter’s core. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is its most
    • Spectacular feature. Also, lighting has been observed within Jupiter’s clouds.
  • saturn
    • Saturn is another gaseous planet like Jupiter. It is the sixth planet from the
    • sun and also is known as the ringed planet. It is 95 times more massive than
    • Earth. Although it is the second largest planet. Saturn has lowest density.
    • Due to this low density Saturn would float on water. Much data has been
    • gathered about Saturn by the voyager probes. Over one thousand rings
    • have been discovered. Saturn also has 18 or more moons. The largest
    • of Saturn’s moons is Titan, which has a dense atmosphere. Saturn’s
    • atmosphere is about 60 percent hydrogen with more methane and less
    • ammonia than Jupiter’s atmosphere. Saturn has an internal heat source.
    • It radiates almost three times more energy into space than it receives from the
    • sun. Like Jupiter, Saturn appears to rotate faster at its equator than at the
    • poles.
  • uranus
    • Uranus is a large gaseous planet with at least ten dark rings, with ten
    • arc-shaped rings, and 15 moons. Uranus is the seventh planet from
    • the sun and was not discovered until 1781. Its rotational axis is
    • inclined to its orbit by 98 degrees, so its rotation is retrograde.
    • Uranus’ moons have retrograde revolution. Uranus is thought to be
    • made up of hydrogen and methane gas. It is methane that give the
    • planet its blue-green color. Uranus has few storm systems and no
    • cloud bands.
  • neptune
    • Neptune is also a gaseous planet similar in size and composition to
    • Uranus. Discovered in 1846. It is the eighth planet from the sun most
    • of the time. However, Pluto’s orbit crosses inside Neptune’s during
    • a part of its voyage around the sun.
    • Neptune’s atmosphere is similar to that of Uranus. The methane
    • content gives Neptune its distinctive blue-green color just as it does
    • for Uranus. Neptune appears to be surrounded by at least three
    • partial ring arcs less than 20 kilometers wide. Neptune has eight
    • moons. The largest is Triton , which is larger than Pluto.
    • Neptune’s magnetic field is tilted about 55 degrees from its rotational
    • axis and offset from the center by half of Neptune’s radius.
  • Note to students
    • Interested students in
    • astronomy can find a
    • wealth of additional
    • information by contacting
    • astronomy clubs in their
    • local areas.