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Methods of teaching
 

Methods of teaching

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Methods of teaching

Methods of teaching

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    Methods of teaching Methods of teaching Presentation Transcript

    • The methods of teaching refers to the regular ways or orderly procedure employed by the teacher in guiding pupils, in order to accomplish the objectives of learning situation.
    • All the teachers should have the capacity of using different methods in teaching At least specialize in one method.
    •  1. acquisition of different goals through different methods. cognitive, affective, and skill oriented changes can be acquired. No single method is sufficient to cater all the needs.
    •  In learning, mental and physical activity should take place then only the skill can be developed.
    • Variety of methods adopted in the teaching makes teaching more effective and interesting. How many methods can be used in a class of 45 minutes.
    •  1. it should provide a variety of related experience and activities meant for individuals as well as a group and should be designed to bring about anticipated developmental changes in pupils.
    • 2.It should give scope for the creative expression of the child’s individuality 3.It should be capable to promote interest among the students.
    •  4.It should train the students in the technique of self-study and the method of processing information through personal effort.  5.It should stimulate the desire for further study and exploration.
    •  1. the objective of instruction.  A particular situation can be managed by a particular methodology  2.The nature of the child.  Method should provide learning experience appropriate to the ability, interest, and need of the child.  Developmental stages of life also should be considered
    •  Scientific method.  That is divided into two.  1. inductive method and deductive method What is scientific method. S M is one of the method for discovery learning. Training in this method necessitates the encouragement of innovative demonstrations and laboratory experiments.
    •  Begins with the statement of the problem and students are expected to find the solution for this problem.  For that he or she has to collect the data, then analysis the data  Solve the problem the last step.  This method can be called as a method of solving a problem scientifically.
    •  According to T.M. Risk, Problem Solving may be defined as planned attack upon a difficulty or perplexity for the purpose of finding a satisfactory solution
    •  James Rose defines problem solving as an educational device whereby the teacher and the pupils attempt in a conscious, planned, purposeful manner to arrive at an explanation or solution to some educationally significant difficulty.
    •  Gerald A. Yokam, and R.H. Simpson, has defined problem solving method as a method in which a person uses his ability to solve the problems which confront him, enables a man to exercise control over his activities and his environment.
    •  John Dewey has outlined his method in the following series of five steps.
    •  Problem must be chosen so that the student can partially but not completely understand them in terms of old ideas, and sufficient time must be allowed for the student to grapple with the situation, possibly with appropriate hints to direct his thinking, but allowing him to put the ideas together himself. The student should have an exact idea about the problem and be able to define it in the concise terms.
    •  The student should focus on hypothesizing, the relationship between two or more variables or difference between two treatments. A review of literature would give students more content information; various possible causes of the problem may be listed. These possible causes are hypotheses or “educated guesses”. Next the students are asked to outline a laboratory procedure to test out their proposed solution.
    •  Students are permitted to enter the laboratory to conduct their tests and note down observations. The teacher’s job at this juncture is to ensure that the students work carefully and collect accurate data.
    •  All inferences bearing on the data at hand must be considered tentatively. This phase of problem solving demands an unusual amount of guidance from the teacher. Interpretation of data should be based on paper use of techniques and charts; graphs, tables can be used to record the data.  At this stage, students can become (careful )(less) in their work and it is an opportunity to develop; skills in constructing tables and graphs.
    •  The students are asked to determine if their results substantiate the expected solution. Conclusions drawn on the basis of the data should be accurately reported after proper interpretation. Findings should be reported concisely, and recommendations for further work should be mentioned. The students should be able to make generalizations and apply it to their daily life.
    •  P. Ausubel, David, identified several factors which influence problem solving. Some of these are; 1. Problem solvers focus more on the problem on hand, than other aspects.
    •  2. They are able to relate additional content information with the problem they are working on.
    •  3. Problem solvers, besides being more persistent, possess self confidence  4. They are objective in their approach to problem solving.
    •  Teaching with print  Practical work  Audio teaching  Video teaching  Computer teaching  Teleconferencing  E-mail based teaching  WWW based teaching and learning
    •  The criteria for selection of teaching methods are manifold. However, the most important factors are:  Human factor  Objectives of teaching  Subject area  Time and material factor
    •  The human factors influencing the selection of teaching methods are:  The teacher  The students  The environment from which they come
    •  The objectives are defined in terms of changes to be effected in knowledge, skills and attitudes. Methods will have to be selected with regard to their ability to impart new knowledge, influence attitudes and develop practical skills
    •  Each subject area has its own specific features. A particular topic could be taught in different ways using different methods by different teachers.
    • Decision on the choice of teaching methods depends on time, financial resources and other factors. Preparation time varies for different teaching methods.
    • Some selected aspects of the relationship between principles of learning and teaching methods are discussed below:
    •  : The motivation to learn is enhanced if the presentation of the teaching material is interesting and emphasis particularly on applied value
    •  : The principle of active involvement implies that the deeper the involvement, the higher the motivation, the more the students retain and the better they are equipped to apply it
    •  : individuals have different capabilities of leaning, having personal styles of study and application. They should be subject to individual control of performance. The overall methods of teaching have to initiate not only ‘work in groups’ but also provide the opportunity for individual reading, thinking and applying knowledge gained. This can be done through
    •  Compulsory individual assignments  Use of teaching aids for individual reading, like audio and video tapes, teaching machines, computer terminals accessible to individual students  The breaking down of projects into modules of assignments for each individual
    •  Voluntary additional work by the more gifted students  Different types of feedback are needed and have to be provided in learning  The principle of transfer requires that education should help the student to transfer what he has learned, to live situations
    •  Zurev has classified the teaching methods into  Oral  Observation  Practical
    •  Oral methods include talks, narration, discussions, lectures and work at a book. Observation methods involve demonstrations of natural objects, charts, models, slides and films. Practical methods involve conducting experiments and doing relevant laboratory work
    • The lecture is one of the oldest and most basic pedagogic tools. Although experience and educational research show the lecture is less effective than activity methods at school level, many teachers find spending at least 30 to 50 per cent of their teaching time in lecturing. The use of lecturing depends on the subject matter, the teaching philosophy of the teacher and the overall learning situation
    •  Carter Good’s dictionary defines lecture method as  An instructional procedure by which the lecturer seeks to create interest, to influence, stimulates, or mould opinion, to promote activity, to impart information, or to develop critical thinking, largely by the use of the verbal message, with a minimum of class participation; illustrations, maps, charts, or other visual aids may be employed to supplement the oral technique.
    •  Wasley, Edgar B. and Wronski, Stanley P. suggested that the lecture method serves four basic purposes  To motivate  To clarify  To review  To expand
    •  Characteristics of good lecture Introduction of a new topic Summarizing a topic Supplementary information Posture
    •  Appearance  Manner  Gesture  Voice  Vocabulary  Use of audio – visual aids and blackboard  Time
    •  The lecture method is the most way of getting a large amount of information across to a large class. A teacher can convey the information in minimum time, thus enabling the syllabus to be covered the syllabus to be covered within stipulated time. It is economical in terms of both money and time
    • The lecture is useful in imparting factual information in efficient manner to convey facts to students who have difficulty reading their texts
    • The lecture helps to channelize the thinking of students in a given direction
    •  Some abstract topics in science are best taught by the lecture method. The teacher, through taching style and presentation can give her message to the learner.
    •  The method is apt to be misused. The ‘pouring in’ of information is psychologically unsound unless it can be done in a meaningful way  Science is best learnt by doing. There is no provision for activities in this method as the students are passive
    •  The rate of imparting information by the teacher may seem too fast for the students who are restless by nature, preoccupied with their own immediate problems and often handicapped by limitations of vocabulary and background of experience.
    •  A poorly planned, poorly delivered lecture fails to motivate the students  The lecture method is not very successful in imparting attitudes and skills, as it does not touch the effective and psychomotor faculties of the learner
    •  As student interaction is minimum, social attitudes and values may not be fostered  The lecture method cannot cater to individual grasping capacities of the students
    •  Purpose of Demonstrations  Demonstration methods may be used in science teaching in a number of ways. They are suitable for the following purposes  Demonstration purposes at the start of a lesson or a unit
    • Showing method and technique Applying a concept Solving problems Reviewing ideas
    •  An effective demonstration requires methodical planning by the teacher. The important points to be noted are as follows
    •  The need and relevance of the demonstration  The objectives of the demonstration  Mastery of subject matter  Lesson notes including a list of principles to be explained and the questions to be asked in class  Through rehearsal of experiments before the class  Proper arrangement of apparatus on the demonstration table
    •  A successful demonstration will have the following characteristics:  Visibility – The demonstration should be visible to all and the set up should be at a good height. Students should be seated either in gallery type classrooms or to be allowed to come near  The apparatus used for demonstration should be larger in size
    •  A blackboard behind the demonstration table will facilitate summarizing the related principles and key concepts  The lighting and ventilation should be adequate and allowances must be made for glare, etc.  Rehearsal is necessary prior to a demonstration so that the teacher becomes well versed in handling the apparatus
    •  The pace of the demonstration should be accurate, neither too fast nor too slow. This helps students to follow the demonstration carefully  Apparatus should be arranged in proper order so that the teacher does not flounder. For instance, a right handed teacher may prefer to keep the used apparatus on the right hand side
    •  The teacher should make allowances for seasonal variations, power cuts etc. while planning her experiments  For recording the data the students should be given sufficient time
    •  The teacher should enliven her demonstration by asking suitable reflective type questions  Emphasis should be given to the major points in the demonstration, so that students are aware of the objectives of the demonstration
    •  The demonstration method has several advantages that make it very useful in teaching all subjects.  Demonstrations allow the teacher to guide thinking and channelize learning in desired direction
    •  The apparatus is expensive  The experiment involves some risk  The experiments involves some risk
    •  The experiments involve some difficult and complex operation  Several experiments have to be performed sequentially
    •  Demonstrations help in economizing resources. Some equipment or items are too expensive for general use. For instance, due to high cost factor many high school physics laboratories may have only one spectrometer. Thus, demonstrating the experiment to the whole class becomes an economical exercise
    •  Demonstrations enable the teacher to conduct activities that may be too dangerous for students to carry out themselves like some chemical reactions in the laboratory produce toxic fumes. High voltage apparatus may be needed in some experiments. Under such circumstances, it would be wiser for the teacher to use demonstration techniques
    •  Demonstration is one of the best techniques to get student participation. Students can take the readings under the watchful eyes of the teacher, observe physical changes
    •  Demonstrations save teacher’s time and effort. A teacher will undoubtedly find it easier to prepare materials for one experiment than for 40 experiments. It is easier to perform one experiment than to supervise 40
    •  Demonstrations can sometimes be one of the best means to illustrate and verify facts  Demonstrations can promote relevant and useful discussion in the classroom, giving opportunity to question and to review
    •  All students may not be able to see the details and results of a demonstration. Visibility is a major problem for a teacher
    •  Not all students get a chance to participate in the demonstration. Students thus have little opportunity to become familiar with science apparatus, especially in large classes
    •  Sometimes the pace of the demonstrations may be so fast the students may have trouble in understanding what is going on
    •  Laboratory method  Most laboratory approaches can be classified in to one of the following  Verification and deduction  Induction  Science process oriented  Technical skills oriented  Exploratory
    •  Heuristic is derived from the Greek word “HEURISKIN” meaning discovery. This method was advocated by Professor Armstrong who felt that by placing a student in the position of a discoverer he would learn much more than being merely told about things. 
    •  W.M. Ryburn says – “This method as the name implies is a method by which the pupil discovers things for himself. The pupil is put in the position of a pioneer and finds his way along the path of knowledge as did those first discovered the facts, principles and laws which are known to all”
    •  It is a plan of action.  A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted into school  This is learning by doing or learning by living.
    •  Providing a problem  purposing  Planning  Executing  Evaluating  recording
    •  Here both theory and practical go hand in hand.
    •  Here the teacher motivates the student by narration of stories, situation related to the subjects etc.,
    •  Supervised study should promote self- learning, which motivates students to think through many aspects of a study assignment.  Extra class, double period plan, divided period plan, library period plan, extra period plan etc.,
    •  The grammar- translation method.  It is also known as classical method.  The behavior of the language is explained in terms of rules which is further illustrated.  Rule is memorized. The student are required to memories the rules of grammar and translate passages from mother tongue into English and vice-versa.
    •  It is natural method- or mothers method.  It is based on the philosophy “fluency in reading and facility in writing follow fluency in speech”
    •  The use of mother tongue is allowed but strictly controlled and limited to concept translation procedure of this method.  It is built on a life situation, fluency in language is achieved in each situation.
    •  Two considerations are there.  English should be studied from utilitarian point of view  It should be studied as a means of international understanding.
    •  Story telling  Probing method  Questioning method  Socratic method  Upanisadic method  Practical method.
    •  Individualization of instruction  Personalized system of instruction  Programmed instruction  Computer assisted instruction